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THE AMERICAN 
DICTIONARY OF DATES 

458-1920 



INCLUDING ALSO 

AB BUPPLKUENTS TO THE UAIN WORK 

Tht Period of DiBCDTSr; trom Ihs Noregmtu to Colnmbai. 4GB to 1403 

Ths Psrlod of ColonliftUon, 1492 to IflOT 

Tba Period of Eniliih Betllemant, IdOT to 1620 

The DecUraHoD of IndepBndence, vilb ■ Complete SlEMch ot the Uih oI 

Each of the Ei(ty-Bii Sicnera 

OompraheDilTa 100-woid Blocnpbleat Skgtchea of *11 t)ie PrMldeota 

Th* lUUflcfttloa of the ConBtltatioa hj the Thirteen Original BUtea and the 

Orifin a ■ "- - "' - * 



OOUPILED BY 

CHARLES RIPLEY DAMON 



IN THREE VOLUMES 
VOLUME ONE 



BOSTON 
RICHARD G. BADGER 

THE OOBHAH PRESS 



COPT&lbBTy 1921, BY BlOHARD G. BADGES 



All Bights Beaerved 



m 



Made in the United States of America 



The Gorham Press, Boston, U. S. A. 







::U 






3v, 






PUBLISHER'S PREFACE 

The American Dictionary of Dates stands alone as the most compre- 
hensive and valuable reference work on American history. It contains 
all the events bearing in any way on the development of our nation from 
the year 458 to 1920, arranged in chronological order. 

The advantage of such an arrangement can be seen readily; for 
it is constantly desirable to know not only the date of any one specific 
incident, but also to know those events immediately preceding and fol- 
lowing it. 

By reference to any year, one may see all the facts of a certain 
period which have affected the destiny of the nation. Again, by refer- 
ence to the index, one has before him all the history of a given event or 
movement. For, in order that the reader may determine quickly the date 
of any of the facts listed, a complete subject index is included. 

For further reference, the work contains the complete text of the 
Declaration of Independence with complete sketches of the lives of all 
the fifty-six signers; comprehensive biographical sketches of all our 
presidents ; as well as the ratifications of the Constitution by the thirteen 
original states and the origin and statehood of all the states of our pres- 
ent union, including the development of the territories. 

Besides the supplementary periods from 458 to 1620, the work is a 
day-by-day history of three hundred years, from colonial dependence to 
independent government, and of the United States of America from the 
tdgning of the Constitution to the ratification of the Allied peace treaty. 

Events appearing under more than one date denote variations found 
in historical data. Events listed under dates and again without definite 
dates indicate uncertainty among better authorities, while no authentic 
dates could be found for the events listed together at the end of each 
year. It is hoped that no errors will appear in this edition to mar the 
general usefulness of the work. 



s 



CONTENTS TO VOLUME ONE 



PAGI 

PEBIOD OP DISCOVEBY 9 

4581492 

PEBIOD OP COLONIZATION , . • . . 12 

1492-1607 

PEBIOD OP ENGLISH SETTLEMENT 19 

1607-1620 

DAY BY DAY HISTOBY 21 

1620-1880 



AMERICAN DICTIONARY OP DATES 



PEBIOD OP DISCOVERY 

PERIOD OF COLONIZATION 

PERIOD OF ENGLISH SETTLEMENT 

DAT BY DAY HISTORY FROM 1620 TO 1880 



PERIOD OP DISCOVERT PROM NORSEMEN TO COLUMBUS, 

458-1492 

458 
Buddhist said to have Tisited Fa Sang, supposed to have been America. 

499 
Chinese Annals referred to diseoveriesy presumably America. 

861 

Noddoda, a Norse sea rover discovered Iceland and named it Snowland. 

875 
Norsemen made their first settlement in Iceland. 

876 
A Western Land reported sighted by Gsombroin. 

983 
Land discovered by Eric the Bed, and named Greenland. 



Eric makes his second voyage from Iceland to Greenland. 

Driven south by storms, Bjami, in an attempt to sail from Iceland for Greenland, 
makes liuid at Gape Cod or Nantucket, off the Massachusetts coast, also at New 
Foundland, thence returning home to Greenland. 

1000 
Leif, son of Eric the Bed, voyages in search of land reported seen by BjamL 

1001 

Leif, voyages, touching the Labrador coast, stops near Boston, Massachusetts, and 
sailing farther south remains for the winter. Loading his vessel with timber, re- 
turns to Greenland, in the following spring. He called the land Vinland from its 
great quantity of grapes found. 

1002 

Thorwald, Leif's brother, visits Vinland, and winters near Mount Hope Bay, 
Bhode Island. 

1008 

Thorwald sent a party of his men to explore the coast, conceded by historians per- 
haps as far as Cape May, to the south. 

1004 

Thorwald, explores the New England coast eastward, and is said to have been 
killed in a fight or skirmish with the natives or Indians, near Boston, Massachu- 
setts. 

1006 

Thorwald 's companions after his death returned to Greenland. 

9 



1007 10 1435 

1007 

Thorfinn, Karlsefui, sailed with ships and emigrants, including women, from 
Greenland to establish a colony in Vinland, (America). Landing in Bhode Island, 
he remained in Yinland for about three years, where he had a son, Snorre. 

1121 

An Iceland manuscript mentions a bishop in Yinland. 

1125 
The Norsemen continue their occasional visits to Yinland. 

1135 
Icelandic manuscripts show other voyages to Yinland about this time. 

1U7 
Norsemen again mentioned as visiting Yinland. 

1170 

The Prince of North Wales, (Madoc), tradition has it, sailed westward, and reports 
the discovery of a "pleasant country/' and according to tradition it is further 
asserted that he returned with many ships to this western country but is never 
heard of again. 

1348 

Eskimos appear in Greenland. 

1367-73 
Map of the Atlantic by Pizigani, appeared. 

1394 

With a number of ships Niccolo Zeno, a Yenetian navigator, is accredited as 
having visited Greeland and presumably Yinland. 

1400 
About this time all communication with Greenland ceases. 

1404 
The Canary Islands settled by Jean de Bethencourt. 

1419 

Two captains of Prince Henry of Portugal were driven by a storm to an un- 
inhabited island which they named Port Santo or Holy Port, now the Madeira 
Islands. 

1418-20 

Portuguese discover the Madeira Islands. 

1427 

The "Clandins Clavus," map of Greenland, gives the earliest delineation of any 
part of America. 

1436 

Columbus bom about this time. (The date of his birth is uncertain.) 

Mar. 9, 1451 Americus Yespucci, bom Florence, Italy, died at Se^e, Spain, 

Feb. 22, 1512. 



1477 11 1492 

1477 
Iceland Tiidted by Golambat. 

TravelB of Marco Polo, first printed. 

1484 

Colambna departs to visit Portugal seeking the aid of John n but is deterred near 
the port of Palos de Maynico in Andalusia, said to have been visited by Columbus 
about this time. 

1486-86 

Columbus visits Ferdinand and Isabella at Cordova, in Spain. 

1487-91 

Columbus views referred to a junto of ecclesiastics who declared them impractical 

Journeys to lay his projects before Charles VHI of France. 

Columbus sails from Spain for France to lay his projects before Charles VlU of 
France. 

1492 

April 17, Understanding reached and arrangements made between Ferdinand and 

Isabella with Columbus. 

August 3, Columbus sails from Palos, in Andalusia, on his first voyage with three 

vessels supplied by the Spanish sovereigns, the "Santa Maria," with Columbus 

in command, the ''Pinta,'' under Martin Aionso Pinzon, and the ''Nina," under 

Vincente Tenez Pinzon, (brother of Martin). The combined crews consisted of 

one hundred and four men. 

BepUrnhn (^ Columbus leaves the Canary Islands. 

October 7, Columbus changes his course from due west to southwest, infiuenced 

it is said by Pinzon; the original course had it been ma in tained would have taken 

Columbus to the mainland, striking the coast of Florida. 

October 12, Land was discovered by a sailor on the "Nina," Bidrigo de Triana 

by name, at 2 A. M., on Friday. 

Columbus lands on one of the Bahama, (Guanahani), and takes possession in the 

name of Ferdinand and Isabella, of Castile, and in their honor names it San 

Salvador. 

October 28, Columbus discovers Cuba. 

December 6^ Columbus discovered Hispaniola, (now Haiti), and buUds a fort, La 

Navidad. 



PERIOD OF COLONIZATION, 1492-1607 

1493 

January 4^ Oolnmbus abandoned the ''Santa Maria." and sails for Spain in the 
*'Nina." 

BCarch 15, Colnmbns reaches Palos. 

April, Columbus is received with distinguished honor by the Spanish Court at 
Barcelona. 

BCay 3-4, Pope Alexander YI. issues his Bull of demarcation between Spain and 
Portugal. 

Columbus issues a letter to Ferdinand and Isabella, describing his voyage. First 
set forth printed in Latin. 

Septamber 25, Columbus sails on his second voyage of discovery from Cadiz. 
Dacembor, Columbus's fleet on his second trip of discovery, consisted of seven- 
teen vessels and 1,500 men, together with animals and material for colonization. 
He discovered the Caribbee Islands, Dominica, Nov. 3. Guadaloupe, Nov. 4, An- 
tigua, Nov. 10. December finding his previous settlement destroyed and the colony 
dispersed. Founds Isabella, in Hispaniola, the first Christian city in the New 
World. 

1494 

BCay 3, Columbus discovers Jamaica. 

June 13, Columbus discovers Evangelista, (now the Isle of Pines). War with the 

natives of Hispaniola. 

1495-6 

Columbus visits various islands and explores their coasts. 

1496 

June 11, Columbus returns to Spain to meet preferred charges and reaches Cadiz. 
June 84, John Cabot with his sons, under patent from Henry VU of England, dis- 
covers Labrador on the North East Coast. 

1497 
June 84, The North American Continent is discovered by John Cabot. 

1498 

July 31, Columbus discovers Trinidad, Margarita and Contigua. 

August 1, Columbus lands on terra firma without knowledge of its being a new 

continent, and names it Isla Santa. 

1499 

BCay 30, Columbus sails with six ships on his third voyage. 
June^ Alonzo de Ojeda discovers coast along the northern shores of the con- 
tinent and names the country Venezuela. Americus Vespucci accompanies him on 
this voyage. 

1500 

January 20, Brazil discovered by Vincent Yanez Pinzon. 

Jan. 26, Pinzon discovers the Amazon Biver, Brazil, South America. 

May 3, The Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvarez de Cabral lands in Brazil. 

May, Cabral takes possession of Brazil for the King of PortugaL 

12 



1500, Hay 13 Sept 25^ 1513 



Labrador discovered by Gasper Cortereal^ in the service of Portugal, and sails 
along the shores of North America, but his only exploit was carrying natives to 
Portugal as slaves. 

Jnly, Spain appointed Francisco de Boladilla, Governor of Hispaniola. 
December 17, Columbus arrested on his voyage to Spain by Boladilla, at Hispan- 
iola» but is received with honor at the Court and charges dismissed without in- 
quiry. 
Las Casas's publishes the first map to show America. 

1501 
BCay, Americus Vespucci sails on his second voyage. 

1502^ 
The South American coast explored by Americus Vespucci. 

1502 

BCaj 9, Columbus starts on his fourth voyage of discovery with «f our vessels and 

about one hundred and fifty men, from Cadiz. 

Juna IS, Martinique, in the West Indies, discovered by Columbus. 

July, Columbus discovers various islands on the coast of Honduras, and explores 

the Isthmus coast. 

1504 

Septamber 12, Columbus takes final leave of the New World, and voyages for 

Spain. 

Ncrembeir 26, Isabella, Queen of Spain, dies. 

1506 

BCay 20, Christopher Columbus dies at Valladolid, Spain. 

The southern coast of Yucatan, visited by Juan Diaz de Solis, and Vincenti 

Yanez. 

1507 

Martin Waldseemueller's map of the New World appeared, in which he proposed 
the name of America to the region discovered by Columbus and Cabot. 

1500 

Ponce de Leon made Governor of Porto Bico. Afterwards appointed Governor 

of the country. 

First English publication mentioning America appeared. 

1510 
Vaseo de Nunez Balboa starts on his first exploration. 
Francisco Pizarro reaches Darien. 

San Sebastian, the first colony in South America founded by Alonzo de OJeda. 
This was the first attempt to take possession of the mainland in America. 

1511 
Don Diego Velasquez subjugates Cuba and founds Havana. 

1513 

BCarch 27, Juan Ponce de Leon, sailing from Porto Bico, in search of the fountain 

of youth, discovers Florida. 

April 2, Juan Ponce de Leon lands near St. Augustine, Florida, plants a cross, 

and takes possession in the name of the Spanish monarch. 

Spaniards at Darien hear of the Empire of the Incas. 

Sepptamber 25, The Isthmus of Darien crossed by Vasco de Nunez Balboa, and 

the Pacific Ocean discovered and taken possession of in the name of the King 

of Spain, calling it the "South Sea." 



1516^ January 14 Aug. 29, 1581-83 

--^^-^^^^— ^ — — 

1616 

January, La Plata Biver diflcovered by Juan Diaz de Solis. 
Las Casas made ''Universal Protector of the Indians." , 

1617 

Spaniards under Francis Hernandez dez Cordova land in Florida, but are driven 

off by the natives and return to Cuba. 

Febroazy 8, Velasquez sails from Havana Cuba. 

Mexico discovered by Francisco Fernandez de Cordova. 

Execution at Darien of Explorer Yasco Nunez Balboa, beheaded at Alea. 

De Cordova exploring expedition lands at Cape Catoche. Sails from Cuba to 

complete the discoveries of De Solis of Yucatan. 

1518 

Juan de Grijalva penetrates Yneatan, and names it New Spain; he also visits 

Panuco and Mexico. He was the first discoverer of Mexico and he settled in 

Nicaragua. 

February 18, Hernando Cortes, sailing from Cuba, starts and conquers Mexico. 

July 10, Cortez submits his first letter to Charles Y, of Spain, on the conquest of 

Mexico. 

Panama founded by Pedro Arias Davila. 

1520 

June 80, Montezuma, Emperor of the Mexicans, assassinated by last emperor of 

the Aztecs. 

October Sl-Kovember 27, Ferdinando Magellan, Portuguese navigator, passes into 

the South Sea, which he called the Pacific Ocean, discovering the Straits which 

now bear his name. 

Magellan discovered the Philippine Islands where he was killed by the natives. 

1521 

Ponce de Leon returned to Porto Bico, and obtained title and privileges of Adelan- 

tado of Florida. 

Cortea accomplishes the conquest of Mexico. 

1624 

April, Giovanni de Yarrazzano, a Florentine, under commission of Francis I, of 
France, with one caravel, the "Dauphin," enters the Bay of New York, and 
Newport, B. L, coasted northerly to 50th degree N. latitude. 

1527 
January 21, Juan de Grijalvo killed by the natives in Nicaragua. 

1628 

.April 8, Pamfilo de Narvaez lands at Tampa Bay, Florida, with forces com- 
missioned to conquer and govern the mainland from the river of Palms near 
Tampico to Cape Florida. He and his followers all perished by starvation and 
other fatalities; but one Spaniard who survived the expedition, returned to his 
native land. 

1681-88 

Peru entered and government destroyed by Pizarro. 

August 29, Inca ruler of Peru treacnously murdered by Pizarro. 



1534-1535 15 1543 

1584-35 

The Gulf of 8t. Lawrence entered and present site of Montreal, Canada, visited 
hj Jacqnee Cartier. 

154042 

Francis de la Bonqne, lord of Bobertval, unsaccessfnl in his attempt to settle in 

Canada. 

Expedition equipped by Cortes and California discovered by Hernando de Gri- 

jalva. 

1585-50 

Antonio de Mendoza appointed viceroy of Mexico, being the first to receive the 
distinction in the New World. 

1538 

BCay 25^ Fernando de Soto sails from Cuba, lands at Tampa Bay which he calls 
Espiritu Santo, with a large force of men and horses, passes north through 
Florida, erects a large wooden cross near what is now the northern boundary. 
December, Fernando De Soto expedition enters the present state of Mississippi, 
near the junction of the Tombigbee and Black Warrior Bivers, crosses the Pearl, 
in Lake County, and is said to nave reached the Chicasaw L[idian village. 

1540 
Cortes returns to Spain. 

July, Francis Vasquez de Coronado, with a force of Spaniards and Indians, makes 
an expedition from Mexico to the Pueblo Indian villages near Santa Fe, which 
he conquers, and explores the surrounding region into Arizona. 
Francisco d'Alar^on, sails to the head of the Gulf of California and dispatches 
boats up the Colorado Biver. (May.) 

Explorations eastward from Peru, down the Amazon, a voyage of several months, 
reaching the ocean made by Francis Orellana. (August.) 

1541 

Fabniary, Indians attack and bum Chickasaw, Mississippi, which De Soto had 
fortified and occupied as winter quarters. 

April, De Soto reaches the Mississippi, which he crosses, presumably in the vi- 
cinity of Helena, in boats built for the purpose. 

Fernando De Soto ascends the west bank of tne Mississippi Biver as far as the 
present site of New Madrid, Missouri. 

June 26, Death of Francisco Pizarro at Lima, Peru. Bom Estremadura, Spain, 
1471. 

Septembeir, Francis Vasquez de Coronado, with a force of Spaniards and Indians, 
set out from Culiacan, on the southeast shores of the Gulf of California, in search 
of Quivira. He is said to have travelled northerly to the head-waters of the 
river Gila, thence crossed the mountains to the head-waters of the Bio del Norte, 
following them to their sources, then journeying northeasterly, penetrated the 
province of Quivisha, (Kansas), and also to have visited Colorado regions during 
this expedition. 

Arkansas, presumably visited about this time by De Soto, during his expedi- 
tions. 
Chile invaded and conquered by Don Pedro de Valdivia. 

1542 
Kovembor 14^ Juan Cabrillo reaches as far north at Cape Mendoeino. 

1543 

De Soto's followers ascended the west banks of the Mississippi Biver, opposite 
the lower portion of the now state of Kentucky. 



1547, Dea 2 16 1567 

1547 

Deoflmber 2, Cortes dies near Seville, Spain; bom at Estremadina, Spain, in 1485. 
Las Casas returns to Spain. 

1559 

Angnst 14, Don Tristan de Luna, with a large force of soldiers, anchors in Santa 
Maria Bay, Florida, (probably Pensacola), establishes a camp from whi^h he 
makes explorations. 

1560 

Tristan de Luna, with a band of Spaniards, spent the summer in searching for 
gold in what is now Habersham, Georgia. The expedition was unsuccessful and 
returned to Mexico. 

1562 

BCay, Jean Bibault, leader of the Huguenots anchored off the mouth of Satilla, 
Georgia, discovered the Altamaha Biver, Ossabaw Sound and the Savannah 
Biver. 

Expedition fitted out by Admiral Coligny, under Captain Bibault, on the way 
north along the coast of Florida, erects at the entrance of the St. Johns Biver a 
monument of stone, bearing the arms of France and builds Fort Charles. Makes 
settlement which he names Port Boyal. The party, threatened with starvation, 
returns to France. 

1564 

Jnne^ Second expedition sent out by Coligny, anchored in St. Andrews Sound, 

Georgia. 

June 22, Ben6 de Lavdonnidre, with a number of vessels sent from France by 

Coligny, settles near a point now known as St. John's Bluff, Florida.. 

1566 

August 15^ Sir John Hawkins, with a fleet of vessels, anchored at Lavdonnidre 's 

settlement and seeinpr the inhabitants in great need offered to take them back 

to France. Lavdonnidre refused, but purchased a vessel from Hawkins, who set 

sail. 

St. Augustine, Florida, established and settled by the Spanish. 

Aug. iS, Bibault, from Dieppe, with a fleet of seven vessels and a company of 

men with families, together numbering about 500, landed at St. Johns Biver, 

Florida. 

Aug. 28^ Don Pedro Menendez de Avilla arrives at St. Augustine, Florida, with 

an expedition from Spain. 

September 8, Don Pedro Menendez de Avilla discovered at the mouth of the St. 

Johns Biver, in Florida, four large French vessels anchored; being fired upon by 

the Spanish the French put to sea and the Spanish land at St. Augustine, taking 

possession of the country in the name of the King of Spain. 

Sept. 19, Menendez de Avilla, with a force of men attacks and massacres the 

settlers of Lavdonnidre, Florida, at Fort Caroline, few of the French escaping, 

the fort being renamed Fort Mateo. 

Sept. 10, Bibault sails to surprise the Spanish, but is driven ashore by a tempest 

near Mosquito Inlet, Florida, and followed up by the Spanish, all were massacred 

who rejected the Catholic faith. 

Lavdonnidre, with a number of the fugitives and survivors of the massacre at 

Fort Caroline, sails for France. 

1567 

Menendez de Avilla, having established forts and block-houses at St. Augustine, 
Florida, San Mateo, Avista, Guall, St. Helena, Tequesta, Cardos, Tocobayo, and 
Coava, Florida, sails for Spain. 



1568, May 3 17 BCay 14^ 1602 

1568 

A catechism in the Indian language compiled by Baez, being a missionary on 
Quale, (Amelia) Island, Florida. 

May 3, Dominci de Oourgues lands near the mouth of St. Marys Biver, at Fer- 
nandina, Florida, with a force of men, befriended by Indians hostile to the 
Spanish, and seeking revenge for the French, he surprises the Spanish, destroys 
Fort San Mateo, and sails back to France. 

1572 

Menendez returns to Florida for a few years and then leaves the government 
to his successor and returns to Spain. 

1578 

July, Sir Francis Drake, English explorer, lands about thirty miles northwest of 
San Francisco, California, and calls the country New Albion. 
Spaniards again enter and establish a military post where Tucson now stands 
in Arizona. 

1561 

Augiut, Augustine Rodriguez, a Franciscan friar of San Bartolome, Mexico, with 
associates and soldiers ascend the Bio Grande, near Albuqiierque, New Mexico, 
thence returning to Mexico. 

1562-3 

Don Antino Espijo, with a relief party, ascends the Bio Grande, and finding that 
the missionaries located among the Pueblo Indians in 1581 had been kiUed, he 
returns to San Bartolome, New Mexico, by way of the Pecos Biver. 

1585 
John Davis, an English navigator, discovers the straits that now bear hia name. 

1586 

May 6, Spanish fort at St. Augustine, Florida, destroyed by a force landed by Sir 
Francis Drake. 

1592 
Davis discovers the Falkland Islands. 

1503 

A number of brothers of the order of St. Francis are sent to Florida to continue 
the mission on the Island of Guale. 

1598 

Missionaries are massacred on the Island of Guale, Florida, in consequence of a 
conspiracy by the son of Guale. 

Don Juan de Onate, a wealthy citizen of Zacatecas, under authority of Don Luis 
de Valasco, viceroy of New Spain, settles with a colony in the valley of the 
Chama Biver, just above its junction with the Bio Grande. 

1600 
Jesuit missionaries on the Santa Cruz Biver, Arizona. 

1602 

Hay 14, Captain Gosnold, sailing from Falmouth, England, after a paasaffe of 
about forty-nine days, discovers land in latitude 43 degrees 30 minutes N., off 
the Massachusetts coast. 



1602» BCay 15 18 April 10, 1606 

BCay 15, Captain Gosnold discovers a head-land which from the great number 
of codfish caught in the vicinity was named Cape Cod. This is the f&st spot upon 
which the first English discoverers set foot upon Massachusetts soiL 
The Bays of San Diego and Monterey, said to have been visited by the Spanish 
voyager, Sebastian Yiscains. 

1608 

Martin Pring, in the "Speedwell," a vessel of 60 tons, and William Browne, in 
the ''Discoverer," a vessel of 26 tons, made discoveries along the New England 
coast. 

Jtme 7» The "Speedwell" and the "Discoverer" entered Penobscot Bay and 
the mouth of the river, presumably the Saco. 

November 8, Henry lY., of France, grants to Pierre de Gast de Monts all the 
territory between lat. 40 deg. and 46 min. N., portion of the territory now in- 
cluded in Maine, appointed him governor of the country which was named 
Acadia. 

1604 

John Eliot, the Apostle of the Indians in North America. Bom in Nasing, Coan> 
ty of Essex, England, died May 20, 1690. 

De Monts erects a fort on the St. Croix Island, and spends the winter there. 
May, De Monts, accompanied with Champlain and others, visits his patent, and 
discovers Passamaquoddy Bay and the Schoodie or St. Croix Biver. 

1606 

Captain George Weymouth, in the "Archangel," explores the coast of Massa- 
chusetts and Maine, also the Penobscot and fennebec Bivers, and after peaceful 
intercourse with the Indians, seizes and carries away five of their number. (May 
12.) 

Captain Weymouth anchors at Monhegan Island, May 17, and at St. Georges 
Island May 10. 

BCay, De Monts, enters Penobscot Bay, takes jpossession in the name of the 
etc., later visits Casco Bay, Saco Biver and Cape Cod. 
Santa F6 founded under the title of Le Ciudal Beal de la Santa F6, San Francisco, 
New Mexico. 

1606 

April 10, Colonies of Virginia and Plymouth incorporated with a grant of land 
between 34 and 45 deg., including islands within mOes of the coast and the Plym- 
outh colony was given permission to begin a plantation anywhere above lat. 
38 degrees. 



PERIOD OP ENGLISH SETTLEMENT 

1607 

Jamestown, Virginia, settled bj the English. 

Jnly^Angiist^ Captain John Smith leaves Jamestown, Virginia, to explore the 

Chesapeake Bay, and discovers the month of the Susqnehanni^ Northeast, Elk 

and Sassafras Bivers at its head. 

Aog. 11, Lord Popham, Chief Justice of England, sent out ships and immigrants 

under George Popham, and Baleigh Gilbert, who landed at Stage Island, Maine. 

The Gilbert party, finding Stage Island small, embarked and established a 

colony and ''Popham Fort," on the west bank of the Sagadahoc Biver. 

Edward M. Winmeld, President of the Council of the colony of Virginia. 

John Batcliffe, President of the council of the colony of Virginia. 

1608 

Captain John Smith, President of th^ council of the colony of Virginia. 
The colony on the Sagadahoc Biver, Maine, discouraged by the death of Qeorge 
Popham, and the burning of their store-house, broke up and returned to England 
in the spring. 

1609 

Apitt 4, "Half Moon,'' a vessel of 80 tons, leaves Amsterdam, with Henry Hud- 
son, an Englishman commander. 

May 23, Maryland included in the second Virginia charter, which included land 
from Point Comfort, along the coast north for about 200 miles and south for the 
same distance, from sea to sea, (Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean). 
July, Samuel de Champlain, coming from the north with a party of Hurons, dis- 
covers Lake Champlain. 

July 80, Champlain defeats the Iroquois near Ticonderoga, hence dates the en- 
mity between tne French and Iroquois. Fire-arms first seen by the Indians. 
Angust 28, The Delaware Biver discovered by Henry Hudson. 
Septsmber 11, The ''Half Moon," with Henry Hudson, enters New York Bay. 
SeptL 19^ The "Half Moon'' anchors just below the present site of Albany, on 
the Hudson Biver. 

Sept. 22; Henrv Hudson dispatches a boat to explore the Hudson Biver above the 
present site of Albany, N. T. 

October 4, Henry Hudson sails out through the Narrows of the Hudson Biver. 
Biard and Masse, French Jesuits, with several families settle on Mount Desert 
Island, Maine. 

1610 

Qeorge Percy, President of the council of the colony of Virginia. 

Lord Delaware, Governor of Virginia, enters the bay called by his name. 

Population of Virginia colony estimated as 200 people. 

1611 

Lord Delaware and Sir Thomas Dale, Colonial Governors of Virginia. 
Hendrick Christiaensen and Adriaen Block sailed from Amsterdam on vessels, 
the '< Fortune" and the "Tiger," to Manhattan Island. 

19 



1613, March 20 iei9 

1618 

March, A number of French colonists land on Mount Desert Island, Maine, and 
found a settlement which they called St. Saviour. (They were soon expelled b^ 
the English, from Virginia, under Captain Argal, as trespassers on English terri- 
tory.) 
"Tiger," vessel, accidentally burned at Manhattan, New York. 

16U 

April, Captain John Smith arrives at Monhegan, from England, explores the 

coast from Penobscot to Cape Cod, making a map to wluch Prince Charles 

assigned the name of New England. 

Captain John Smith visits the shores of New Hampshire, sails along the New 

England coast and explores the harbor of Piscataqua. 

Block builds the vessel "Onrust," (Bestless), at Manhattan, which was launched 

near the Battery, New York. 

In the ' ' Onrust, ' * Block passes Hell Gate, and coasts along as far as Nahant Bay. 

October, States General of Holland names the country about Manhattan, "New 

Netherlands," and grants its trade, by charter to Amsterdam merchants. 

Christaensen builds Fort Nassau, on Castle Island, New York. 

New York City settled by the Dutch. 

Adriaen Block, Dutch navigator, explores the Connecticut Biver as far as Hartford. 

1616 

A trading post fortified at the mouth of the Tanasentha, (Normans Hills) Creek, 

near Albany, New York, by Jacob Eelkins, and first formal treaty between the 

Indians and the Dutch. 

September 1, Champlain, with ten Frenchmen, joins a party of Hurons, and allies, 

moving against the Iroquois Indians. 

October 10-16, Iroquois and Champlain attack the castle at Onondaga Lake, near 

Liverpool, Onondaga County, New York, and are repulsed. 

Christiaensen kiUed by the Indiana. 

1615-18 

War, famine and pestilence depopulate the Indians' territory in Maine during 
these years. 

1616 

George Yeardley, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

Captain John Smith publishes his Description of New England, to invite perma- 
nent settlements there. 

1617 
Paul ArgaU, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

1618 

January 1, New Netherland charter expires, not renewed by the States General. 

1619 

Sir George Yeardley, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

The King of England sent from England to Virginia over 100 convicts from 

prisons to be sold as servants to the planters, a s^em pursued for many years. 



FROM THE LANDING OP THE PILGRIMS TO THE PRESENT 

DAY 

1620 

June 28, The Earl of Southampton elected treasurer of the London Company, in 

Virginia. . , , . -r^ , •. i. 

July 22, The "Speedwell," a vessel of sixty tons, is purchased m England by 
the Pilgrim Fathers, who left Delft Haven, Holland, for Southampton, England. 
August 21, The Pilgrims sail from Southampton, England, in the "Speedwell," 
but on account of the unseawori;hiness of the little vessel for the long voyage 
across the wintry seas, the voyage is abandoned and the company return to 

port. 

September S, The "Mayflower," with one hundred and one of their original 
number, who came from Leyden, embark from Plymouth Harbor, England. To 
this little band of honored passengers we today pay homage as the "Pilgrim 
.Fathers." 

Kovember S, The Plymouth Company receives a new patent to land between 
40° and 48**, and in length by the same breadth throughout the mainland from 
sea to sea. 

Nov. 11, The "Mayflower," after a stormy passage, comes to anchor in Cape 
Cod Bay, now Provincetown Harbor. Many of their company go ashore, and 
here, it is said, was signed that historical document, "The 'Mayflower' Com- 
pact." Here also was bom, aboard the "Mayflower," Peregrin White, the first 
white child of English descent in New England, who in later years settled in 
Marshfield. 

The Mayflower Compact. 

In the name of God, Amen, We whose names are underwritten the loyal subjects 
of our dread sovereign. Lord King James, by the grace of Ood, of Great Britain, 
France and Ireland, King defender of the faith, etc., having undertaken, for the 
glory of God, and advancement of the christian faith, and honor of our Eling 
and Country, a voyage to plant the first Colony in the Northern part of Vir- 
ginia, do, by these presents solemnly and mutually, in the presence of God, and 
one of another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civiU body 
politick, for our better ordering and preservation and furtherance of the 
ends aforesaid: and by virtue hereof to enact, constitute, and frame such 
just and equal laws, ordinances, acts, constitutions, and offices, from time to time, 
as shall be thought most meete and convenient for the general good of the 
Colonies, unto which we promise all' due submission and obedience. In witness 
whereof we have hereunder subscribed our names at Cape Codd, the 11th of 
November, 1620 — in the year of the reigne of our sovereign Lord, King James, 
of England, France, and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland, the fifty-fourth, 
.Anno Domini, 1620. 
Signen of the Mayflower Compact 

John Carver John Holand (Howland) Francis Eaton 

William Bradford Stephens Hopkins James Chilton 

Edward Winslow Edward Tilley John Crackston 

Isaac AUerton John Tilley Degory Priest 

Miles Standish William Brewster Thomas Williams 

John Alden Francis Cook John Billington 

Samuel Fuller Thomas Bogers Moses Fletcher 

Christopher Martim Thomas Tinker John Goodman 

William Mullins John Bidgdale Gilbert Winslow 

William White Edward Fuller Edward Margerson 

Bichard Warren John Turner Peter Brown 

21 



1620, Nov. 11 22 Nov. U, 1681 



Bichard Britteridge Bicbard Gardiner Edward Doty 

George SoiUe John AUerton Edward Leister 

Bichard Clarke Thomas English 

December 16, The " Mayflower" weighs anchor and sails from Cape Cod. 
Dec 16, The "Mayflower" anchors in Plymouth Harbor, Mass. 
Dec. 21, The permanent landing place of the "Mayflower's" passengers was at 
Plymouth, Massachusetts, and tradition has it that Mary Chilton and Johli Aiden 
were the first to step upon that historic spot, Plymouth Bock, a legend to be 
handed down through the ases. Plymouth will be known as the place of the 
first permanent English setUement in New England, as on this date the Pil- 

Srim passengers leave the ship and take up their abode on shore, 
ichard Britteridge dies at Plymouth on this date. He is later the first of the 
Pilgrim numbers to succumb after their arrival at their permanent abode in the 
new world. 
Dec. 2i, Pilgrims begin to erect storehouses at Plymouth. 

John Carver first Governor of Plymouth Colony. 
Population of Plymouth at this time is only ninety-nine. 
Population of the Virginia Colony is about twenty-four hundred. 
The Jamestown, Virginia Colony, shipped about 40,000 pounds of tobacco to 
England this year, and this is about the epoch of the introduction in the English- 
American Colony of Virginia of negro slavery, twenty negroes having arrived 
as the first lot during the previous year. 

With the settlement of New England, the Congregational Church, founded by 
the Pilgrims, is established by the Puritans at Plymouth, Massachusetts. 
Total population of the English Colonies in America at the close of this year 
is about 2,499 people. 

1621 

January 9» The inhabitants of Plymouth Colony begin the erection of separate 
houses. 

Jan. 14, Fire among the store-houses of the Colony nearly destroying them. 
Jan. 29, Mrs. Bose Standish, wife of Miles Btandish, dies. 
Febroary 17, Miles Standish made Captain and given military authority. 
Feb. 21, William White, one of the Pilgrim number, dies. 

March 16, The first Indian to visit the Colony at Plymouth is Samoset, saying, 
' ' Welcome, Englishmen. ' ' 

Mar. 22, The sachem of the Wampanoags, Massasoit, with a band of his war- 
riors, visits the Puritan Colony. 

Mar. 22, Treaty between the Colony at Plymouth and Massasoit, which is ob- 
served faithfully for over fifty-five years. 

Mar. 23^ John Carver confirmed unanimously as governor of the Colony for the 
new civil year. 

April 1, To date, for the last four months past, foHy-four deaths have occurred 
in the colony. 

Apr. 6, The "Mayflower" starts on her return trip to England. 
Apr. 6, Governor John Carver, of the colony, dies. 

BCay IJ^ William White's widow married to Edward Winslow, the first recorded 
marriage in Plymouth Colony. 

June 18, Edward Dotey and Edward Leister fight the first duel in New England 
with sword and dagger. 

September, First Thanksgiving in the colony observed. 

The Becords show that seven dwellings and four other buildings made up the 
settlement of Plymouth at this time. 

October, Captain Miles Standish explores the country about Massachusetts Bay, 
with a party of nine colonists and three Indians. 

November 11, The "Fortune," a vessel of fifty-five tons, arrives at Plymouth 
from England, bringing thirty-six passengers, viz.: 

John Adams Edward Bumpasse John Cannon 

William Bassite John Brewster William Conor 

William Beals Clement Briggs Bobert Cushman 



leSl, Nor. U 



23 



June 11, 1828 



Stephen Deaa 
Philip De La Nojef 
Thomas Flavell 
WiUiam Ford 
Bobert Hieklee 
William HoltPB 
Bennett Morgan 
Thomas Morton 



O. Nieholis 
William Palmer 
William Pitt 
Thomas Prinee 
M. Simonson 
Hugos States 
James Stewart 



William Tench 
John Winslow 
WiUiam Wright 
(The balance of the thirty- 
six being members of the 
families of the above 
named.) 



Nor. 19^ Governor William Bradford issues the first Thanksgiving Proclamation 
to the Pilgrim Fathers. 

Decombor 3, The ''Fortune." laden with skins and lumber valued at over $2,400, 
sails on her return trip to England, being the first remittance from New Plymouth 
to Old Plymouth, England, by the Colony. 

Many acres of Indian com, quantities of beans and peas and six acres of barley 
planted during the spring of this year by the Pilgrims. Crops, however, having 
been a failure in the Plymouth Colony, the little Pilgrim band depleted in num- 
bers from the hardships was brought to the verge of starvation. Much sickness 
had prevaUed and death had cut their numbers, yet none wished to return to 
England. 

William Bradford, Governor, and Isaac AUerton, Deputy-Governor, of Plymouth 
Colony. 

Sir Franeis Wyatt, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

John Alden marries Priscilla MuUins (The Puritan Maiden), daughter of William 
Mullins, a "Mayflower'' Pilgrim. 



Pobraary, The town of Plymouth, Massachusetts, surrounded by a palisade and 
a stockade built. 

BCarch 88, Indian Massacre in Virginia. / 

May 8St William Baflin, navigator and explorer, killed. 

Jnly, Two ships, the ''Charity" and "Swan," with about sixty passengers, arrive 
and attempt a settlement at a place called Wessagusset (now Weymouth), on 
Massachusetts Bay, during the year. The colony (the following year), being 
unable to support itself, breaks up after nearly involving the Plymouth Colony 
in a war witn the Indians. 

August 10» Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason, members of the Plymouth 
Council, obtain a joint grant of the Province of Laconia (New Hampshire) com- 
prising all tho land between the Merrimac Biver, the Great Lakes, and river of 
Canada, 
▲og. 19, New Hampshire granted to Gorges and Mason. 

Canonicusy saekom of the Narragansetts, sends by way of defiance a bundle of 
arrows tied in a rattlesnake skin to Governor Bradford of Plymouth, who imme- 
diately sends back the skin stuffed with powder and balls. This intimidates the 
tribe and the Colony for the time averts trouble when threatening. 
The Plymouth Colonists plant sixty acres of com this year, yet much suffering 
prevails at Plymouth, Massachusetts from lack of food during the following 
winter. 

Some of the Pilgrims remove from Plymouth this year and settle on the. south 
side of Boston Harbor, Massachusetts. 
Permanent settlement made at Monhegan, Maine. 



Great distroM at Plymouth, Massachusetts, during the spring for the lack of 
food. 

June 11» A new company of immigrants arrive at Plymouth, Massachusetts, in the 
two small ships, the "Anne" and the "Little James," viz.: 



1623, June 11 



24 



1625 



John Faunee 
Anthony Annabal 
Edward Bangs 
Robert Bartlett 
Fear Brewster 
Mary Bucket 
Edward Burcher 
Thomas Clarke 
Christopher Conant 
Christian Penn 
Bobert Battliffe 
Nicholas Snow 
Alice Sonthworth 



C. Cuthbertson 
Anthony Dix 
M. Faunee 
Goodwife Flavell 
Edmund Flood 
Bridget Fuller 
Timothy Hatherly 
WiUiam Heard 
Mary Hicker 
Joshua Pratt 
Francis Spragne 
Barbara Standish 
Thomas Tilden 



Edward Holman 
John Jenney 
Bobert Long 
Experience Mitchell 
George Morton 
Thomas Morton 
Ellen Newton 
John Oldham 
Francis Palmer 
James Band 
Stephen Tracy 
Balph Wallen 



Augaat, Two ships, the "Anne" and the "Little James," the latter of forty- 
four tons, haying been built for the colony, remain at Plymouth. 
September, Captain Gorges, son of Sir Ferdinando, Mr. MorreU, an Episcopal 
Minister, with others arrive and select a site at Wessagusset for settlement. 

William Blackstone removes from Plymouth to Shawmut, Mass. 

Abundant harvest at Plymouth, eliminating the threatened danger of starvation 

of the Pilgrim inhabitants of the Plymouth Colony. 

New Hampshire settled at Dover and Portsmouth. 

Gorges and Mason establish a settlement at the mouth of the Piscataqua in New 

Hampshire, calling the place Little Harbor, and another settlement farther up 

the river. 

Permanent settlement made at Saco, Maine. 

Colony founded and permanent settlement made at Albany, New York. 

New Jersey settled by the Dutch. 

1624 

Mardi 24^ The ship, "Charity," brings a supply of clothing and a boll and three 
heifers, first neat cattle imported into New England. 

A company of Pilgrims settle at Cape Ann, Massachusetts. 
William Bradford again Governor of Plymouth Colony. 
John Lyford and John Oldham expelled from the colony. 

Gorges procures a patent from the Plymouth Council for twenty-four thousand 
acres of land on each side of the Agamenticus (York) Biver, Maine, and plants 
a colony. 

Population of Plymouth Colony is 180 and number of dwelling houses thirty- 
two. A substantial fort^ a vessel of forty-four tons, many small boats, large 
tracts of land under cultivation, enclosures for cattle, etc., mark the progress of 
four years. 

Captain Bobert Gorges returns to England early in the spring. 
A few settlers of the families who came from Weymouth, England, remain at 
Wessagusset, Mass., and the name is changed to Weymouth. 
Settlement commenced at Cape Ann, Mass., with the intention of connecting the 
settlement with the fishing interests. 

Cornelius J. May, Governor of New York, under the Dutch. 
Peter Minuit, Cfovemor of New Netherlands, N. J. 
Dissolution ox the Virginia London Company. 

1625 

Captain WoUaston with a pA^ty of about thirty others commence a settlement 
at a place they called Mount WoUaston (now Quincy), Massachusetts. 
Bristol, Maine, settled by the French. 

Peter Minuit and William Verhulst, Governors of the New York Colony. 
Contrabands of War, a term supposed to have been used or employed in the 
treaty of Southampton, between England and Spain about this time. 
Charles I recognized King of the English colonies in America. 
Boger Conant chosen Governor of the Cape Ann settlement. 



1626^ May 4 25 AprQ 30, 1629 

1626 
May 4^ Peter Minait, Dutch (Governor of the New York colony. 

Main settled by the English. 

Sir George Teardly, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

The New Plymouth colony erects a trading house at Penobscot, the first English 
establishment of the kind in these sections. 

Abraham Bhurte commissioned by Giles Elbridge and Robert Aldsworth to pur- 
chase Monhegan Island, which is added to the Penaquid Plantation, over which 
Bhurte acts as agent and chief magistrate for thirty years. 
Thomas Morton, on the departure of Wollaston, takes charge and changes the 
name to Merry Mount (Massachusetts). 

Bobert Conant removes from the settlement at Gape Ann, Mass., to Naumkega 
(now Salem.) 

1627 

Plymouth Colony establishes an outpost on Buzzards Bay, Mass., and friendly 
commerce begins with the Dutch at New Amsterdam. 
Fran(iis West, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

Lord Baltimore purchases a part of Newfoundland with the intention of coloniza- 
tion. 

Claiborne given authority by Virginia to explore t|ie Chesapeake Bay and its 
vicinity. 

1628 

January, Partnership of Merchants and Colonists being unprofitable and the com- 
munity system failing, eiffht colonists of Plymouth buy of the London partners 
their interests for $9,000 in nine annual installments. The community system is 
abandoned, a division of movable property made, and twenty acres of land near 
the town is assigned in fee to each colonist. 

Mardi 4, Charter granted to the Massachusetts Bay Colony by Charles L of 
England. 

Mar. 19, Beverend John White, a Puritan minister of Dorchester, England, with 
others, obtains a patent, conveying to them a section of New England between 
the Merrimac Biver on the north and the Charles Biver on the south, and every 
part thereof in Massachusetts Bay, and in length between the described breadth, 
from the Atlantic Ocean to the South Sea. 

May 30, John Endicott appointed Governor of the new colony "until themselves 
should come over." 

June 20, John Endicott, with wife and children and about fifty others, embarks 
in the ship "Abigail'' from Enj^land for Massachusetts. 

June^ Plymouth people admonish Thomas Morton, of "Merry Mount," and 
finally they send Captain Miles Standish "with some aid." Morton's followers 
are disarmed and dispersed without bloodshed. He is conducted to Plymouth 
and from there sent to England. 

The "Petition of Bights and Liberties." 
Patent granted Governor Winthrop by the Plymouth Council. 
Salem, Massachusetts, permanently settled under Governor John Endicott. 
The Earl of Sterling granted land by the Council of New England. The terri- 
tory included a part of Long Island opposite the Connecticut coast. 
The Beform Dutch Church established in New Amsterdam, N. Y. 

1629 

April 30, John Endicott, Governor of Massachusetts. (By the Boyal Charter, 
which passed the seals March 4, 1628-9, Matthew Craddock was appointed the 
first Governor and Thomas Goffe, Deputy-Governor, both of whom had held the 
aame office before the charter was granted. On the 13th of the following May, the 
same persons were re-elected under the charter, but they never came to New 
England. On the 20th of October, 1629, John Winthrop was chosen Governor 
and John Humphrey, Deputy-Governor. On the 30th of April, John Endicott 
was chosen in London to be Governor of the plantations in New England and 
held the office until the arrival of Governor Winthrop in 1630.) 



t^m, Mmj M Oct 80^ 1680 

Maj, SeTeiml Teasels le&Te Englaiid for Balem, Mass., bringing food, arms, tools, 
and 140 cattle. This seeond eompanj nnmbers siztj women, twenty-six children, 
and 300 men among whom is the Beverend Francis Higginson. 
Juno 2i, Balph Richards and William Spragae, with others, commence a settle- 
ment at Mishamems (no# Gharlestown), Massachnsetts. 

August 20p John Winthrop chosen Oovemor and Thomas Dudley, Lieutenant- 
Governor of the Massachusetts Oolony. 

Aug., Transfer of the gOTemment of the Massachusetts Colonies from London to 
New Sngland. 

Aug., Ohurch established at Salem, Massachusetts. 

November 7, Mason, havinff agreed with Qorffes to make the Piscataqua the 
divisional line, takes from the Plymouth Council a patent of that portion lying 
between that river and the Merrimac and calls it New Hampshire. 

John Endicott, Acting Oovemor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 
Charlestown, Massachusetts, founded. 
Charter received by the Massachusetts Bay Company. 
New Hampshire settlements continue. 

John and Samuel Brown, two members of the Massachusetts Bay Company, sent 
back to England by Oovemor Bndicott as opposers of the church and advocators 
of Episcopacy. 

John Winthrop, Oovemor, and Thomas Dudley, Deputy-Governor, of Massachu- 
setts. (Thomas Ctoffe, the first Deputy-Governor, never came to New Enj^and; 
John Humphrey was elected but did not serve.) 
John Potts and John Harvey, Colonial Governors of Virginia. 

leso 

ICardi 17, Boston, Mass.. founded. First house built by Oovemor Winthrop. 
April % Ctovemor Wintnrop, with Isaac Johnson and his wife, Lady Arabella 
Johnson, ^ughter of the Earl of Lincoln, sail in the "Arabella'' from England 
for Massachusetts. 

Jvia is; Vessel with Oovemor Winthrop and party arrives at Salem, Massachu- 
setts. 

July 86^ Samuel Ckidyn, a director of the Dutch West India Company, purchases 
for the Dutch a tract of land ^om the natives at the mouth of the Delaware 
Biver. 

July, First church in Boston, Mass., third in order of time in the colony, at Charles- 
town, Massachusetts. 

Anguat 2&-8ept. 14, An expedition against the Pequods and Indians on Block 
Island is sent from Massachusetts by Governor Endicott, exasperating but not 
wholly subduing the Indians. 

Aug. SO, Lady Ambella Johnson dies at Salem, Massachusetts. 
September 80» Isaac Johnson dies at Salem, Massachusetts. 
October 19^ First General Court meets at Boston, Massachusetts. 
Oct 20, John Winthrop, Oovemor of Massachusetts colony. 

Seventeen ships arrive in Massachusetts Bay and at Plymouth during the year 
bringing about 1,500 immigrants to the colonies. 
Watertown, Mass., settled^ Sir Bichard Saltonstall. 
Boxbury, Mass., settled by William Pynchon. 

Newtown, Mass. (now Cambridge), settled by Dudley, Bradstreet, and others. 
Dorchester, Lynn and Boston, Mass., settled. 

Eight patents granted by the Plymouth Council, covering the Piscataqua to the 
Penobscot, Mauie, except the territory of Sagadahoc, below the Damariscotta. 
Among these were the Kennebec "Lygonia" or plough patent, with settlements 
on Casco Bay, the ''Waldo patent'' and "Pemaquid." 
Connecticut granted to the Sari of Warwick for colonization. 
Maine settlements continue. 

Estimated population of Maine 400. New Hampshire 600, Massachusetts 1,300, 
New York 600, Conneetieut 600, and of Virginia 3,000— a total estimated popu- 
lation of aU the colonies about 6,700 inhabitants. 



lesi, Pe1>. 5 V Ma fl^ 1682 

1681 

Febnuury 5^ A general tut appoiBied for Feb. 8. Bliip ''L/ob" arrives laden 

with proviflions and bringa twentj-siz paeeengere, attongthem Boger Williame. 

ICardi 19, The Earl of Wanriek, President of the Fhrmontli eoanelL grants 

to Lords Say and Seal, with others, territory in New England west from the 

Narragansett Biver one hundred miles on the eoasty thence in breadth and lati* 

tnde to the Pacific Ocean. 

ICardi, Small settlement made at the Horn-kill (now Lewis, Delaware), just 

within the entrance of the Delaware Biver bj David Patessea de Tries, and 

called Swanendale. 

Kay 16^ Boyal license giv^n by King Charles to William Claiborne, one of the 

council and secretary of state of the Virf^inia Colony, to trade in all seas and 

lands in these parts of the English possessions in America for which there is not 

already a patent granted, with power to direct and govern all English subjects 

under his command in his voyages and discoveries. 

May 18, The second general court makes the Massachusetts colony a theocracy 

which lasts for half -century. 

Kovember 2; Beverend John Eliot, distinguished later as the "Apostle of the 

Indians," arrives at Massachusetts Bay and becomes first teacher of the church 

at Bozbury, Massachusetts. 

December-January, 1630^1, Famine in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

Boger Williams appointed assistant to Mr. Skelton in the ministry at Salem, 

Mass., but, asserting his views of religious toleration, the independence of cofi- 

science, the civil magistrates, and the separation of church and state, he is 

obliged to withdraw to the Plymouth colony early in 1631. 

Sachem Wahquimacut, from the Connecticut Biver, visits Plymouth and Bostou, 

Massachusetts, inviting the colonial governors to send settlers to the rivet. 

Champlain's histoiy of New France first appears. 

The Company of Laconia, New Hampshire divides their interests and Masoa 

procures for himself a charter of Portsmoutn. 

18S8 

April 15, Sir George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, obtains ftfm King Charles the 

promise of a grant of land, now Maryland, but dies before charter is executed 

and given. 

May 30, William Stoughton, Governor of Massachusetts Colony in 1694, bom. 

June 20, Cecilus Calvert, Baron of Baltimore, in the Kiuffdom of Ireland, son of 

Lord Baltimore, receives from King Charles a grant of land covering territofy 

hitherto unsettled, having for its southern boundary the Pototiae from its 

source to its mouth, the ocean on the east and Delaware Bay north, thence from 

the 40th parallel to the meridian of the fountain of the Potomae. 

Jnna 20, Maryland granted to Lord Baltimore; 

June^ A French vessel visits the New Plymouth trading-house at Penobscot, 

Maine, and carries off booty of great value. The EagUsh abaadofi it to the Fteneh 

within three years. 

July 4^ Boston, Massachusetts, made the capital of the Colony. 

October 25, Governor Winthrop, of Massachusetts, visits Plymouth. 

December 5, Colony at the mouth of the Delaware Biver destroyed by ladiaas 

and the settlers killed. 

* 

Governor Bradford, of the Plymouth colony resigns and Edward Winslow is 

chosen Governor. 

Fort begun at Boston, Massachusetts, on Com-hill. 

A vessel of thirty tons buiH at Mystic called ''BlessiBgi of the Bay.'' 

Sir William Berkeley, commissioner of Canada. 

Crew of Indian traders turn pirates under Dizey Bull, attack the fort at Pena- 

quid and menace and plunder the coast until the next summer vrhea they are 

beaten off. 

The Boman Catholic Church in the Colonies is first established at Baltimore, 

yaryland. 



1633, Jan. 1 28 Aug. Z, 1634 

1633 

January 1, Edward Winslow, Governor of Pljinouth Colony. 
Ajnril, W. Van Twiller, Dutch Governor of New Netherlands. 
July 3, Virginians objecting to the grant to Lord Baltimore, the King refers their 
petition to the privy council, who declares "That the Lord Baltimore should be 
left to his patent and the other parties to the course of law." 
September, John Oldham, from Dorchester, Mass., visits Connecticut relative 
to settlements. 

October, William Holmes, of Plymouth, prepares the frame of a house with a 
board covering and embarks with it on a vessel, sails to the Connecticut Biver, 
passes a small Dutch fort, "The House of Good Hope," at Hartford, lands on 
the west bank, and erects the first English house in what is now Windsor, Con- 
necticut. 

Towns of Portsmouth and Northam in New Hampshire laid out. 

A number of families from England settle on Dover Neck, New Hampshire, and 

build a fortified church. 

Salary of the Governor of Massachusetts Bay fixed at 150 pounds per annum. 

The ship "Griffin" arrives with 200 passengers, some of tnem eminent men, as 

John Haynes, afterwards Governor of Massachusetts, John Cotton, and Samuel 

Stone. 

Smallpox destroys many of the Indians in MassachusettSw 

Ipswich, Massachusetts, settled. 

Scituate, Massachusetts, settled. 

Boger Williams returns to Salem, Mass., from Plymouth Colony. 

The English establish a trading house at Machias, Maine, but it is seized the 

next year by the French under Claud de la Tour, the commander at Port Boyal. 

Portland, Maine, established. 

Hartford, Connecticut, founded. 

Connecticut settled at Windsor and Wethersfield. 

1634 

January, John Endicott cuts from the flag the red cross as being a "relic of 
antichrist and a Popish symbol" at Salem, Massachusetts. 

February 24, Colony, which was sent out by Lord Baltimore from Cowes in the 
Isle of Wight, England, under his brother Leonard Calvert, to settle in Mary- 
land, arrives off Point Comfort, Virginia. 

BCarch 27, John Calvert, at Point Comfort, Va., has an interview with Claiborne, 
in which he intimates that certain settlements of the latter on the Isle of Kent 
in Chesapeake Bay will be considered as part of the Maryland plantation. After 
the governor has explored the Potomac as far as Piscataway Creek, he returns 
to St. Georges Biver, and, sailing up to the Indian town of Yoamaco, makes a 
treaty with the tribe and sends for the colonists, who arrive and take peaceful 
possession, naming the place St. Marys. 

April 10, News received in Boston, Massachusetts of the creation of a colonial 
commission, the recall of the Massachusetts charter, and appointment of a gov- 
ernor-general over the colonies by the English government. 
May 14, Thomas Dudley, Governor of Massachusetts. 
Thomas Prince, Governor of Plymouth Colony. 
Bobert Ludlow, Deputy-Governor of the Massachusetts Colony. 
Anne Hutchinson, of Alford, England, with her husband, William, arrives in 
the ** Griffin." 

Bichard Bellingham arrives in Boston, Massachusetts. 

August 2, Beverend Samuel Skelton dies at Salem, Mass. He was the first minister 
to die in New England. 

The Dutch at New Netherlands, with a small force, make a feeble attempt to 
rout the settlers. 

Beverend Thomas Hooker, of Newtown (now Cambridge, Mass.), advocates a 
new settlement on the Connecticut Biver. 



163i, Aug. 2 29 Dec. 1635 

Bepresentative govemmezit established against the opposition of the elergy in 
the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

William Blackstone removes from Shawmnt to a place a few miles out of Provi- 
dence, Bhode Island, on the river which now bears his name. 
Boston Common, Boston, Mass., set apart for public use. 
Maryland settled by the Catholics under Lord Baltimore. 

1635 

February 7, Swanendall property at the month of the Delaware Biver transferred 
by the owners to the directors of the Dutch West India Company. 
Feb. 10, First appointment of selectmen at Charlestown, Massachusetts. 
Feb. 26, First legislative assembly at St. Mary's, Maryland. 
March 3, William Bradford, Governor of Plymouth Colony. 

Mar., The General Court orders the fortifications repaired and appoints a mili- 
tary commission with extraordinary powers to guard the rights and liberties of 
Massachusetts. 

April 25, The Plymouth Council surrenders its charter and Sir Ferdinando Gorges 
is appointed Governor over the whole of New England. 

Apr., Boger Williams advocates the inviolable freedom of faith. He appears 
before the magistrates to defend it. 

Apr. or May, Claiborne threatens the colony at St. Mary's. He grants a war- 
rant to Warren, who attacks the place under Thomas Cornwallis in the Poco* 
moke or Wicomoco Biver. The attack results in a victory for the colony and 
death of Warren in Maryland. 

Biay 6, Freemen selected by deputies from the towns before the meeting of the 
court, choose John Haynes as Governor of Massachusetts. This is the first in- 
stance of "caucus" on record. 

August 14, Beverend John Avery drowned ^hile on his way to Marblehead from 
Newbury, Mass. * 

October 3, John Winthrop, the younger, Hugh Peters, and Henry Vane arrive at 
Boston, Massachusetts. 

Oct. 15, A company of New Englanders leave Boston and travel through the 
wilderness to the Connecticut Biver. 

Oct., Boger Williams is sentenced to depart from the jurisdiction of the colony 
within six weeks. Owing, however, to the clamor of a staunch minority, he is 
permitted to remain until Spring. 

November 9^ Colonists from Massachusetts under John Winthrop, son of Governor 
Winthrop, fortify the mouth of the Connecticut Biver, calling it Fort Say- 
Brook. 

Not., The Company of New Englanders reach the Connecticut Biver about the 
middle of this month. 

Nov., A Dutch vessel appears off the mouth of the Connecticut Biver, but is not 
allowed to land. 

December 25, Champlain dies in Quebec, Canada. 

Dec, Captain Underbill is sent to apprehend Boger Williams, as he still continues 
' * to preach, ' ' and carry him aboard a ship bound for England, but finds him gone. 

Bicliard Bellingham, Deputy-Governor of Massachusetts. 
Great suffering at Windsor, Connecticut, during the winter. 
Concord, Massachusetts, first settled. 
Bichard Dummer founds Newbury, Massachusetts. 
Hartford, Connecticut, established. 

The Maryland Colony export a cargo of Indian com to England. 
John West, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

M'd'Aulney de Charnisy, from the Acadian country, takes possession of the 
trading house at Biguyduce (Penobscot), Maine, for iSrance. 
Claiborne's Bebellion in Virginia and Maryland. 
Saybrook, Connecticut, founded. 

Elders of the church decide that if a governor-general were sent over from 
England, he ought not to be accepted. 

Endicott reprimanded by the court for mutilating the colors at Salem, Massachu- 
setts. 



1636, Doc SO WUf 17, li87 

Mason *s estate, after a few speeific bequests, coes to a graadsom Bobsrt Tnfton, 
who takes the surname of Mason in assuring tne managemeat ox Mason's grants 
in New Hampshire. 



BCardi 1, Edward Winslow, Ctovemor of Pljmouth eoloaj. 

Mar. 28, Gorges organizes the first government and opens the first court within 
the present bounds of the state of Maine. 

April 22, Gorges, empowered by the Plirmouth Couneil, sends over his son, William, 
as Governor of the territory between Piseataqua and Sagadahoe, Maine^ and ealls 
it New Somersetshire. 

Apr. 2S, First court in Connecticut held at Newtown (now Hartford). 
June, Beverend Thomas Hooker and friends remove from Newtown (now Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts), to Connecticut and found Hartford. 
June, A large number of Colonist emigrants from Cambridge^ MassaehusettSi 
joumev through the wilderness to colonize on the Connectleut Biver. 
July, John Oldham killed by the Indians near Block Island. 
Ju^, Providence, Bhode Island, settled bv Boger Williams. 
July, A company of Colonists from Cambridge, Massachusetts, reAeh the Con- 
necticut Biver for settlement. 

War with the Pequod Indians who at this time occupy eastern Ctonectieut and 
rule part of Long Island. 

October, The General Court of Massachusetts agrees to give 400 pounds towards 
a school or coUege. 

December, Boger Williams baffles the Pequod Indians by an alliance with the 
Narragansett Indians, thus leaving the Pequods single-handed against the Eng- 
lish. Williams visits Miantonomoh, the sachem of the Narragansetts, near New- 
port, while the Pequod Ambassadors are there in counciL 

Henry Vane, Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

John Winthrop, Deputy-Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

Edward Winslow, Governor of Plymouth Colony. 

John Harvey, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

The Fort at Baybrook at the mouth of the Connecticut Biver, beleagned by the 

Pequods during the winter and about thirty colonists Of Connecticut killed by 

them during tMs time. 

Boger Williams, of Bhode Island, prevents a league between the Pequods and 

Narragansetts. 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, organized, the General Court of 

Massachusetts having made an appropriation to found and endow a college. 

Expedition sent under command of John Endieott to punish the Indians of Block 

Island for the murder of John Oldham. 

A law of the colony prohibits the erecting of a dweOing-bouse more than a 

half mile from the meeting house. 

Beligious controversy with Mrs. Anne Hutchinson begins. 

George Burdet, a elergjrman from Yarmouth, Englanc^ succeeds Wiggin as Gov- 

emor of the Dover Plantations in New Hampshire. 

1687 

Febmary 21, Court at Newtown (Hartford), appfies to Massachusetts for aid 

and assistance against the Pequods. 

The name of Newtown is changed to Hartford, Watertown to Wethersfidd, and 

Dorchester to Windsor in Connecticut by the court. 

March 17, William Bradford, Governor of Plymouth Colony. 

Mar. 1, The court at Hartford, Connecticut, bent on offensive war against the 

Pequods, call for men from Hartford, Windsor, and Wethersfield. 

April, Wethersfield, Connecticut, attacked by the Pequods and several persons 

kiUed. ' 

May 16, The Mohegans (Indians) join with the inhabitants of (Connecticut at 

Baybrook, in an effort to subdue the Pequods. 

May 17, John Winthrop, Governor of Massachusetts. 



1637, May 19 31 Sept 14, 1638 

May 19^ Captain John Mason, of Windior, Connecticut, commands the expedition 
and sails from Fort Sa^brook for Narragansett Bay to surprise the Pequods' fort. 
At the latter place he is joined by a tribe of Narragansett warriors. 
May 26, Captain Mason, of Connecticut, with men and friendly Indians approaches 
the Pequod fort for attack and completely destroys it together with about six 
hundred Indians. Captain Mason's loss is only two killed and abouT thirty 
wounded. 

JTune 26, The Court of Connecticut calls for additional men for the war against 
the Pequod Indians. 

July 13, The Pequod Indians attempt to escape from Connecticut into the wilder- 
ness. Captain Stoughton, with a Massachusetts company, pursues them along 
the Long Island Sound. The Pequods take shelter with Sassacus, their sachem, 
in the swamps near Fairfield, and are compelled after a severe fight to surrender. 
A few, with their sachem, escape and flee to the Mohawks, who treacherously 
murder them. The prisoners are sold into slaverer or incorporated with other 
tribes, until not a warrior, squaw, or a child remains. 

July 26, The ''Hector" lands at Boston, Massachusetts, bringing the Beverend 
John Davenport, Theophilus Eaton, and Edward Hopkins. Mr. Eaton and others 
explore the lands and harbors of Connecticut, and finally settle at Quinipiack 
(now New Haven) in the autumn. 
August 3, Governor Henry Vane returns to England. 
October, Pequod Indian War ends by the total adnihilation of the tribe. 
KoTember 2, Beverend John Wheelwright, brother of Mrs. Anne Hutchinson, dis- 
franchised and banished for supporting her. 

Mrs. Anne Hutchinson, under sentence of banishment, is committed to one Jo- 
seph Welde, of Boxbury, Massachusetts, for safe keeping until the court shall 
dispose of her. 

December 6^ Andres, later English Provisional Qovemor of the American colo- 
nies, born. 

Dec. 30, The Governor commissions Evelyn as eommander of the Isle of Kent, 
now subject to Maryland rule. 

Thomas Doddley, Deputy Governor of Massachusetts. 

The Beverend John Wheelwright, a supporter of Mrs. Anne Hutchinson, journeys 

to New Hampshire and founds Exeter. 

The Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Boston, Massachusetts, founded. 

Leonard CiJvert, Governor of Maryland under the Baltimore Proprietary. 

1638 

January 19, The supporters of Anne Hutchinson in Boston, Massachusetts, are 
disarmed. 

Jan. 25, The Assembly of Maryland, including representatives of the Isle of Kent, 
meets to consider the enactment of laws offered by the lord proprietor. These 
were rejected and others framed, which in turn were vetoed by Lord Baltimore 
when sent to England. 

March 29, Peter Minuit procures from the tve chiefs of the Minquas territory 
on the west side of the Delaware river from Bombay-Hook to the Biver Schuyl- 
kill with western boundary unspecified. 

ICar., The first permanent settlement of Europeans in Delaware was by the 
Swedes and located at Christiana within the present limits of Wilmington. There 
a fort was erected and the territory named "New Sweden." 
April 4^ The claims of Claiborne, by reference from the King and proclamation in 
Virginia, to the Isle of Kent and Palmers Island in Maryland are rejected in 
favor of Lord Baltimore. 

Apr., Beverend John Davenport and others sail from Boston and settle at Quini- 
piack, Connecticut. 

May 6^ William Kieft, director general of the New Netherlands, protests against 
the Swedish settlement on claim of prior possession by the Dutch. 
June 1, Great earthquakes. 

Jtme 6, Thomas Prince, Governor of Plymouth colony. 
Sept. 14, Beverend Johji Harvard dies at Charlestown, Massachusetts. 



1638, Sept U 32 Oct 25, 163Q 

September 14, John Harvard, a graduate of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, Eng- 
land, bequeaths his library and half of his estate, amounting to 700 pounds,* for 
a college. 

November 24, Colonists purchase land in and about New Haven from the Indians. 
Three thousand immigrants arrive from England during the year. 
War between Apalacnes Indians and the Spanish. The Indians are conquered 
and a great number set to work on the fortifications of St. Augustine, Florida. 
Lord Baltimore finally gives assent to the right of the Assembly to originate laws 
in Maryland. 

Harvard College founded at Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
William Keift, Dutch Colonial Governor of New York. 
Peter Minuit, Swedish Governor of Delaware. 
William Coddington, Governor of Portsmouth, Bhode Island. 
Hampton, New Hampshire, considered as belonging to the colony of Massachu- 
setts, founded. 

Burdet succeeded by Captain John Underhill as Governor of the New Hampshire 
plantations. 

February, The ''Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company" organized as the 
"Military Company of Boston, Massachusetts." 

Marcb, Mrs. Anne Hutchinson is excommunicated and sent out of the jurisdiction. 
She retires to Narragansett Bay, where her husband has gone. 

1639 

January 14, The "Fundamental Orders of Connecticut." These orders were 
adopted by a popular convention of the towns of Windsor, Hartford, and Wethers- 
field, and formed, according to historians, the first written constitution in the 
modern sense of the term, being a permanent limitation on governmental powers, 
and certainly the first American Constitution of Government to embody the 
democratic idea of the rights of men, destined to come a free and independent 
people, by and for the consent of the governed. 

JaiL 14, All free planters meet at Hartford, Connecticut, to attend the conven- 
tion called for the purpose of framing a constitution for civil government. 
March 13, College at Cambridge (then Newtown), Massacfausetto, is named Har- 
vard, after its founder. 

Mar. 19, Assembly meets at St. Mary's, Maryland, and enacts laws for the gov- 
ernment of the province. 

Mar., Printing press established at Cambridge, Massachusetts, by Stephen Daye. 
April 6, Gorges obtains from Charles I. a provincial charter to land between 
Piscataqua and Sagadahoc, and the Kennebec rivers extending many miles north 
and south, which was incorporated and named "The Province and County of 
Maine. ' ' 

Apr. 30^ William Hutchinson, Governoi' of Portsmouth, Bhode Island. 
Apr., First constitution of Connecticut adopted at Hartford and general election 
held. John Haynes chosen Governor. 

May 28, Orders executed by the Governor and council of Maryland to equip an 
expedition against the Indians of the eastern shores and the Susquehannocks. 
June 3, William Bradford, Governor of the Plymouth Colony. 
August 22, Thomas Purchase first settled at Pejepscot on the Androscoggin, as- 
signs to Governor Winthrop of Massachusetts all the tract of Pejepscot, Maine, 
on both sides of the river towards the sea. 

October 25, General election held at Quinipiack (now New Haven). Theophilns 
Eaton chosen Governor. 

Newport, Bhode Island founded and William Coddington chosen Ck)vernor of the 

colony. 

Bepresentative government established in Maryland. 

A movement to form a Union of the New England colonies fails. 

Benjamin Church, soldier, bom in Duxbury, Massachusetts. (He was renowned as 

an Indian fighter with the Narragansetts in 1675 and is said to have killed King 

Philip in 1676. Church died in January, 1718.) 

The people of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, form a provisional government. 



1639, Oct 25 33 June 2, 1641 

County government established. Being originally the territory of a court or earl, 

Virginia had eighteen counties originally called shires. 

An Almanac calculated for New England, published by William Pierce, the first 

American publication to appear. 

The Baptist Church begins its existence in Providence, Bhode Island, through 

Boger Williams. 

Mi&ord and Guilford in Connecticut purchased from the Indians and settled. 

(Laws founded upon and administered according to the scriptures.) 

Settlement made at Saybrook, Connecticut, by George Fenwick. 

Sir Francis Wyatt, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

1640 

January 3, Nicholas Harvey commissioned to invade the territory of the Maqnan- 
tequant Indians. 

March 10, Thomas Gorges, Deputy-Governor of the province of Maine. 
April 11, Peter Minuit having been drowned in a storm at sea off the West In- 
dies, Lieutenant Peter HoUender is commissioned Governor of New Sweden and 
arrives with new immigrants at Christiana just as the colony has resolved to 
break up. 

May 13, Dudley. Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. 
Bichard Bellingham, Deputy-Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. 
June 25, First General Court under Gorges' charter from Charles I opened at 
Saco, Maine. 

August 21, Petition of Claiborne to the Governor and Council to restore his 
property in the Isle of Kent, Maryland, denied. 

October 22, Provisional government established at Dover, New Hampshire. 
Kovember 2, Dutch settlement made a few miles from Christiana, under a heredi- 
tary life grant from the crown of Sweden. 

Arrival of two hundred and twenty-nine immigrant ships from England with 
21,200 people to date, making settlements and founding homes in the colonies from 
Plymouth Bock to the Connecticut Valley. 

December 9, Hugh Benitt, banished from Massachusetts by order of the court, 
for maintaining that he was free from ''original sin." He was to depart within 
fifteen days from time of rendering of decision and if he returned he should be 
hanged. 

The great lakes and the upper valley of the Mississippi Biver discovered and ex- 
plored. 

Henry Dunster, President of Harvard College. 

Inhabitants from the town of Lynn, Massachusetts, settle on Long Island. 
First original publication from Massachusetts, a volume of poems by Mrs. Anne 
Bradstreet, wife of Governor Bradstreet. 

The English settle on Salem Creek, New Jersey, at a place called Asamohaking. 
New England navigation and commerce dates from this year and cultivation of 
hemp and flax successfully undertaken. The manufacture of linen, cotton, and 
woollen cloth is begun, particularly at Bowley, Massachusetts, a new town, where 
a colony of Yorkshire Clothiers settled, with Ezekiel Bogers, grandson of the 
famous martyr, John Bogers, for their minister. 
William Coddington, Governor of Portsmouth, Bhode Island. 
Edward Hopkins, Governor of Connecticut colony. 
Peter HoUender, Swedish Governor of Delaware. 
CornwalUs Long Parliament in England assembled. 

Estimated population of Maine 700, New Hampshire 800, Massachusetts 14,000, 
Bhode Island 300, Connecticut 2,000, New Jersey 1,000, Maryland 1,500, and Vir- 
ginia 7,647, with a total population of the colonies about 27,947 inhabitants. 

1641 

April 14^ Four governments in New Hampshire subscribe to a Union with Massa- 
chusetts. 

June 2, Bichard Bellingham, Governor^ and John Endicott, Deputy-Governor, of 
the Massachusetts colony. 



1641, Oct. 9 34 Not. 1643 

October 9, The four governments of New Hampshire which subscribed to a 
union with Massachusetts goes into effect, giving New Hampshire representa- 
tives a vote in town affairs without regard to religious qualifications. 
December, ''The Body of Liberties.'' The Massachusetts body of liberties, the 
first code of laws ever established in New England Colonies, was compiled by 
Nathaniel Ward, a leading English Puritan Minister, who had been trained as a 
lawyer, who came to the colony in 1634, and was for a time pastor at Ipswich. 
The Liberties were established by the Massachusetts General Uourt in December 
of this year as the ''Liberties" of Massachusetts Colonies in New England. 
These laws, ninety-eight in number, were formally adopted. 

Act regulating measures and adopting the Winchester bushel as the standard 

in Maryland. 

Trouble of the Massachusetts and Plymouth Colonies with Samuel Gorton begins. 

Governor Bellingham, of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, selects his bride and 

performs the marriage ceremony himself. 

John Haynes, Governor of the Connecticut colony. 

New Hampshire united under the government of Massachusetts. 

The Grand Bemonstrance, a protest by the House of Commons in England against 

the acts of Charles I. 

Sir William Berkeley commissioned Governor of the Virginia colony. 

1642 

January 2, Nathaniel Bacon, lawyer and leader in Bacon's Bebellion, bom in 

Virginia 

March 1, Gorges founds a city in Agamenticus, which he calls (Jeorgeana, Maine. 

April 2, Connecticut's fourteen capital laws enacted founded on passages taken 

from the scriptures. 

Boundary between Massachusetts and Connecticut first surveyed and run by 

Woodward and Saffray. 

BCay 18, John Winthrop, Governor of the Massachusetts eolony. 

Berkeley's administration in Virginia 

First commencement at Harvard College. 

John Printz, Governor (New Sweden) New Jersey. 

George Wyllys, Governor of the Connecticut colony. 

1643 

Febnuury 16, John Printz, a Swede and Governor of New Sweden (Delaware), ar- 
rives at Christiana with two war vessels. 

April 11, Governor Calvert, of Maryland, returning to England, appoints Brent, 
Lieutenant-Governor, admiral, chief magistrate and commander of the colony in 
his absence. 

April 18^ Elder William Brewster, of Plymouth, dies. 

Apr., Alexander Bigby purchases the abandoned "Plough Patent or Lygonia" 
and commissions George Cleaver, deputy president. Cleaver opens a court at Saco, 
Maine, styled "the General Assembly of the province of Lygonia" which extends 
from Cape Porpoise to Casco. 

May 10, Colonies of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven, 
confederate under the name of the United Colonies of New England. 
May 19, Articles of Union of the four Colonies signed in Boston, Massachusetts. 
May 29, Bhode Island refused admission into the New England Confederation. 
Kovember, Gorton and his companions summoned to Boston. On their refusal a 
detachment of forty men is sent to arrest them. Gorton and his followers, after 
an unsuccessful attempt to defend themselves, are taken to Boston and tried. 
Gorton and several others are found guilty. 

Second attempt to form a union of the New England Colonies brought forward 
and adopted. By the terms of this compact, Massachusetts, Plymouui, and New 
Haven are joined in a loose confederation called the United Colonies of New 
England. (See above May 10.) 



IMS, KOY. 35 Oct. 1644 

Massachusetts first incorporated in counties, being divided into four counties, 

viz., Suffolk^ Middlesex, Essex, and Norfolk. 

Martha's Vineyard settled by some people from Watertown, Mass. 

James Briton and Mary Latham put to death for adultery. 

One thousand acres of land planted to orchards, 15,000 acres under general tillage. 

the number of neat cattle estimated at over 12,000 head, and sheep at 3,000. With 

money scarce, bullets for a time passed for farthings among the inhabitants of 

New England. 

John Haynes and Edward Hopkins, alternately, Governors of the Connecticut 

Colony. 

1644 

Jaanary, Governor Brent, of Maryland, issues a proclamation for arresting the 
person and seizing the ship of Bichard Ingle to answer the charge of treason in 
instigating a rebellion against the Maryland Government. Ingle arrested but 
makes his escape. 

1644^6 

Ingle's and Claiborne's rebellion in Maryland. Little is known of this in- 
stance other than that the great seal of the province at St. Mary's was destroyed 
in February, 1645 and Hill was appointed Governor of Maryland in the absence 
of Calvert, who fled from the parliamentary party presumably to Vir^nia. At 
the restoration of the authority of Lord Baltimore in 1646 the insurrection- 
ists carried away or destroyed most of the public papers and records of the 
province. 

1644 

ICardi 11, Fifth Swedish expedition arrives at Christiana, Delaware. 
Mar. 14, Charter granted to Bhode Island and Providence Plantations. 
BCar., Gorton and his companions, convicted during the previous year, are ordered 
to depart from the jurisdiction within fourteen days and not to return to Massa- 
chusetts or Shawomet on pain of death. 

Beverend John Wheelwright, sentenced to banishment, revoked upon his ac- 
knowledgment of his error and asking pardon. 

April 10, William Brewster, a Pilgrim father and a signer of the political com- 
pact on board of the * ' Mayflower, '' dies in Plymouth. 
Apr. 18, Indian Massacre in Virginia. 

BCay 29, John Endicott, Governor of Massachusetts, and John Winthrop, Deputy- 
Governor. 

June 6, Edward Winslow, Governor of Plymouth Colony. 

September, Boger Williams proceeds to England and obtains a charter, including 
the shores and islands of Narragansett Bay west of Plymouth and south of Massa- 
chusetts as far as the Pequod Biver, the country to be known as the Providence 
Plantation and the inhabitants to rule themselves as they shall find most suitable. 
Anabaptists banished from Massachusetts. 
Octobcor, William Penn born in London. 

Bichard Vines, Deputy-Governor of the province of Maine. 
Beligious liberty granted in Bhode Island. 

Colonel George Fenwick purchases the old Connecticut patent for one thousand 
pounds and assumes jurisdiction over the whole territory. 

Arbitrary Government described and the Government of Massachusetts vindicated 
from the aspersion by John Winthrop, the Deputy-Governor of the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts. A dispute arose in Massachusetts between the magistrates and 
the deputies as to the respective powers of the two branches of the legislature. 
The deputies claimed judicial authority. Opposition to this claim brought upon 
Winthrop and other magistrates the charge of arbitrary government. In order 
to clear up the situation he drew up a document, imparting his personal views 
and throwing hiuch light upon the origins of the political institutions of the 
Commonwealth. Many of his recommendations were later accepted partially or 
folly embodied in the laws or customs of the times. 



1646, May 14 36 Jan. 1648 

1646 

May 14^ William Bradford, Oovemor of the Plymouth colony. 
June 4, Thomas Dudley, Deputy-Governor of Massachusetts. 

Last Dutch Governor of New York appointed. 

Free schools established at Boxbury, Massachusetts, and other towns, to be sup- 
ported by voluntary allowance or by tax upon those who refuse. 
Law passed in Massachusetts against slave-stealing. 

1646 

MarcJi, Commissioners appointed for the purpose, decide that the province of 
Lygonia does not belong to the province of Maine. The Kennebec Biver is as- 
signed as the boundary between the two provinces as against the contentions of 
the former. 

May 6, John Winthrop, Governor of Massachusetts. 

October 28, John Eliot preaches his first sermon to the Indians near Newtown 
Comers, afterwards called Nonantum or ''Place of Bejoicing." 

Thomas Dudley, Deputy-Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

Court of the province of Maine convenes at Wells at the mouth of the Kennebec 

Biver. Edward Godfrey elected Governor of the province of Maine. 

Governor Calvert, of Maryland, organizes a military force in Virginia, proceeds 

to St. Marys, and regains that part of his province. 

Thomas Morton, of ''Merry Mount," dies at Agamenticus, Maine. 

Mrs. Oliver is adjudged to be whipped for reproaching the Magistratea and a 

cleft stick placed upon her tongue lor speaking ill of the elders. 

Plymouth and Boston, Massachusetts visited by Captain Comwell, who from a 

common sailor had come to command three ships. He had amassed wealth aa 

a buccaneer or fighter of the Spaniards. 

Peter Stuyvesant, Governor (New Netherlands) New Jersey colony. 

1647 

Apiril 18, In recovering the Isle of Kent, Governor Calvert, of Maryland, pardons 
all the inhabitants and appoints Vaughn chief captain and commander of the 
militia and civil governor. 

BCay 11, Peter Stuyvesant, Dutch Governor of New York. 

John Coggeshall, President of Warwick, Portsmouth, and Newport, Bhode Island. 
June 9, Governor Calvert, of Maryland, nominates Thomas Green as his suc- 
cessor. 

June^ Epidemic visits New England, which was like a cold with a light fever. It 
extended throughout the country, among the Indians, English, French, and Dutch 
settlements alike. Among those who died were Mr. Thomas Hooker, of Hart- 
ford, Mrs. Winthrop, wife of the Governor, and over fifty others in Massachu- 
setts alone among the white races. 

The "Agreement of the People" in England. 

First mention made in the legislative journal of the upper and lower house of 
the Assembly in Maryland records. 

Law passed in Massachusetts requiring every township containing fifty house- 
holders to have a school-house and employ a teacher. Each town containing one 
thousand freeholders must maintain a grammar schooL 

1648 

January, Miss Margaret Brent, administratrix of Governor Calvert, asks from 
the Maryland Assembly a vote in the House for herself and another as attorney 
for Lord Baltimore, but is refused. 

William Coddington, President of Providence, Warwick, Portsmouth, and New* 
port, Bhode Island (May). 



1648, June 16 37 Sept 11, 1660 

June 16, Margaret Jones, of Charlestown, Massachusetts, indicted for a witch, 
found guilty, and executed. (This is said to have been the first trial and 
execution for witchcraft in Mass.) 

August 12, Ma^land 's new great seal sent over from England by Lord Baltimore. 
New London, Connecticut, settled, Governor and magistrates receive no salaries 
until later, when the governor's salary was fixed at thirty pounds. 

William Stone, Proprietary Governor of Baltimore. 

Governor Green, of Maryland, removed by Lord Baltimore and William Stone, 

of Virginia, a zealous Protestant, appointed. 

Congregational Church Platform established at Cambridge, Mass. 

Samuel Gorton, after the second banishment from Massachusetts, proceeds to 

England to obtain redress. This he partially obtains and, returning again, 

settles at Shawomet, which he now names Warwick after the Earl of Warwick 

who had assisted and befriended him. 

1649 

January, Charles I of England beheaded. 

March 26, Governor John Winthrop, in the tenth term of his office as governor 

of Massachusetts, dies, age sixty-three years, leaving a fourth wife. He also 

left a journal commencing with his departure from England and containing 

complete data of happenings and events up to the time of his death. 

AprU, The ''Tolerance Act" of Maryland, the first act securing religious liberty 

ever passed by an established legislature. It declared that no person should 

be molested on account of his religious beliefs or abridged in the free exercise of 

his rights within the province. 

May 2, John Endicott, Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

May, John Smith, President of Providence, Warwick, Portsmouth, and Newport, 

Bhode Island. 

September, Commission granted by Lord Baltimore, of Maryland, to Brooks, as 

commander of Charles County around about and next adjoining to the place 

which he should settle on the south side of the Patuxent with a colony he was 

transporting to Maryland. 

Catholic worship prohibited in Maryland. 

Oliver Cromwell usurps the government of England and Colonies. 
Puritan refugees from Massachusetts, under Durand, settle on the site of Annap- 
olis, Maryland. 

The Assembly of Maryland grants Lord Baltimore power to seize and dispose 
of all lands purchased from the Indians, unless the purchaser can show a lawful 
title thereto from his lordship under the great seal of the province. 
Mr. Durand, from Massachusetts, elder of a Puritan or Independent church 
founded in Virginia, which was broken up by that government, obtains per- 
mission of the Lord Proprietary's government of Maryland, to settle with his 
people at Providence or Anne Arundel, now Annapolis, Maryland. 
WiUiam Pvnchon, of Springfield publishes a book upon Bedemption and Justifica- 
tion, which the General Court orders to be publicly burned in the market-place 
as containing doctrines of a dangerous tendency. 

1660 

May 22, Thomas Dudley, governor, and John Endicott, Deputy-Governor, of 

Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

May, Nicholas Easton, President of Providence, Warwick, Portsmouth and New- 

5ort, Bhode Island. 
uly 30, Settlement at Providence organized into a county called Anne Arundel, 
now Annapolis, Maryland. 

Thomas Dudley, Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

September 11, Governor Stuyvesant, of (New York) New Netherlands, visits 
Hartford to settle certain boundary questions in dispute with the New England 
United Colonies. 



1650, Sept 11 38 July 5, 1662 

Chowan Biver, North Carolina, settled by the English. 

Act passed by the Assembly of Maryland punishing by death and confiscation 
of property any compliance with Claiborne in opposition to Lord Baltimore. 
Estimated population of Maine 1,000, New Hampsnire 1,400, Massachusetts 18,000, 
Bhode Island 800, Connecticut 6,000, New York 3,000, Maryland 4,500, and of 
Virginia 17,000, an estimated total population of about 51,700 inhabitants. 

1661 

May 7, John Endicott, Oovemor, and Thomas Dudley, Deputy-Governor of the 

Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

July 19, A deed of land between Christiana Creek and Canarosse, Delaware, se- 

cured by the Dutch State General and West India Company from the Indians. The 

same land had previously been sold by the Indians to the Swedes who erected 

Fort Casimis near New Castle, Del. 

September 20, Council of State in England appoints three officers of the navy 

with Bennett and Claiborne of Virginia, as a commission to "use their best en> 

deavors to reduce all the plantations upon the bay of Chesapeake to their due 

obedience to the Parliament and Commonwealth of England. ' ' 

October, Samuel Gorton, President of Providence and Warwick. 

The "Pine Tree" shilling coined in Boston, Massachusetts. 

The Maine Colonies annexed to Massachusetts. 

Norwalk, Connecticut, settled. 

Middletown, Connecticut, settled. 

French agents from Quebec visit the Connecticut colonists, asking aid against the 

five nations of New York, the Iroquois Indians. 

Bichard Bennett, Colonial Governor, serves as a commissioner to reconcile the 

Virginians to the Cromwell Administration. 

First Navigation Act passed. 

The Indian tribes in Maryland having become greatly reduced by continued 

hostilities. Lord Baltimore grants a tract of land at the head of the Wicomoco 

Biver to be known as Galveston Manor and reserved for the Indians. 

Bumor of the resignation in England of Lord Baltimore leads the Puritans of 

Anne Arundel to refuse to send any Burgesses or delegates to the General 

Assembly at St. Mary's when summoned. 

John Clarke, a minister from the Baptist church at Newport, Bhode Island, and 

two others are arrested at Lynn as Baptists and sent to Boston, where Clarke is 

sentenced to pay a fine of twenty pounds or be whipped. The fine is paid and 

he is released with the injunction to leave the colony. Obadiah Holmes, one of 

Clarke's companions, is fined thirty pounds. Not paying it, he gets thirty 

strokes with a three corded whip and is sent out of tne colony. 

Hugh Parsons and his wife, Mary, tried for witchcraft. Mrs. Parsons dies in 

prison and Parsons is acquitted. 

Oliver Cromwell invites people of Massachusetts to Ireland. 

French and Canadians appeal in vain to the people of New England for aid 

against the Iroquois. 

1662 

Mgffch, Commissioners proceed to Maryland engaging Governor Stone and the 

rest of Lord Baltimore^ officers to submit themselves to the government of the 

Commonwealth of England, thus taking the control from Lord Baltimore. 

May, John Smith, President Providence and Warwick, Bhode Island. 

June 28, By proclamation of the commissioners sent from England, Governor 

Stone, of Maryland, is reinstated as Governor of Maryland. He assumes this 

office ' * until the pleasure of the state of England be known. ' ' 

July 6, Treaty with the Susquehannock Indians at the river of Severn, who cede 

their lands from the Patuxent Biver to Palmer's Island on the west side of the 

Chesapeake Bay and from Choptank Biver to the northeast branch northward 

of Elke Biver on the eastern side of the bay. 



1662; Oct 28 39 Sept 1664 

October 23, Massachusetts, laying claim by her charter to all lands south of a line 
drawn eastward from a point north of the source of the Merrimac, finds this 
point by survey to lie with its eastern point on the Upper Clapboard Island, 
in Gasco Bay, and confirms it by assumption of jurisdiction. 

Governor Printz appoints his son-in-law, John Pappegoin, Governor of the colony 
and returns home. 

Bichard Bennett, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

Isles of Shoals and all territory north of Piscataqua, Maine, belonging to Massa- 
chusetts, erected into the county of Yorkshire-Kittery, Maine, incorporated in 
1647, and Agamenticus made into the town of York, Maine. 

The British fleet, under Sir George Ayscue sent to reduce the Virginians to 
submission, but upon arrival they compromise. In place of force or coercion, 
conciliation resulting in the political freedom of the colonies ensues. 
Bhode Island enacts a law against human slavery. 

Mint set up at Boston, Massachusetts, by the General Court, which coined 
shillings, sixpences, and a few small coin of various denominations. John Hall 
was the first mint master. He was allowed fifteen pence out of every twenty 
shillings coined and amassed a large fortune. The dates on these coins were not 
changed for over thirty years, all bearing the date marks of 1652 and 1662. 

1663 

BCay, General Court of election at Boston, Massachusetts, admits for the first 

time two representatives from Maine, John Wincoln of Kittery, and Edward 

Bishworth. of York. 

John Sanford Sr., President of Portsmouth and Newport, Bhode Island. 

George Dexter, President of Warwick, Bhode Island. 

December 16, The "Instrument of Government'' is as important in the history 

of written Constitutions in the American Colonies as in England. It was adopted 

by Cromwell and his council of Officers on Dec. 16, of this year. Under it, 

Cromwell assumed the office of Lord Protector of England and her Colonies. When 

the Parliament, for which it provided, met in September in 1654 it passed a 

Constitution of which the above instrument was its basis. 

Bichard Bellingham, Deputy-Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. 
Johan Pappegoin, Governor of Delaware under the Swedes. 
Cromwell and Parliament addressed by the colonists for aid. 
Wells, Saco, and Cape Porpoise, Maine, declared towns. 

Alarm and distress of the colonies owing to the trouble with the Dutch. Com- 
missioners are for war but Massachusetts refuses assistance. 

1664 

February 7, Lord Baltimore issues instructions to Governor Stone to strictly en- 
force the submission of all the inhabitants of the Province of Maryland to his 
proprietary rights. 

May 3, Bichard Bellingham, Governor, and John Endicott, Deputy-Governor 
of Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

May 6^ Governor Stone, of Maryland declares by proclamation that the province 
of Maryland is under the government of Oliver CromweU, Lord Protector of the 
Commonwealth of England, Scotland, Ireland, etc. 
Nicholas Easton, President of the United Towns of Bhode Island. 
Johan C. Bising, arrives at Fort Casimir in the sloop, ''Eagle," direct from 
Sweden, with reinforcements for the New Sweden Colony. He demands its 
surrender, takes the fort, and renames it Fort Trinity. 

July 3, Broke, having been discharged by Lord Baltimore as commander of 
Charles County, Governor Stone erects the county into the county of Calvert. 
July 22, Commissioners Bennett and Claiborne, under instructions from Lord 
Baltimore, proceed to Maryland and make a second reducement of the province. 
They appoint Captain Fuller and others commissioners for governing the affairs 
of Maryland. 
September, Boger WilliamB, President of the four United Towns of Bhode Island. 



1654, Oct 26 40 Not. 29, 1665 

October 26^ Captain Fuller and other commiBBioners call an assembly at Patuxent, 
Maryland, which passes an "act of recognition.'' 

President Dunster, of Harvard Ck)llege, is indicted for disturbing infant baptism 
in the Cambridge Church, convicted, sentenced to a public admonition on lecture 
day, laid under bonds for good behavior, and compelled to resign and throw 
himself on the mercies of the General Court. 
Charles Chauncey accepts the presidency of Harvard College. 
Bichard Bellingham, Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 
John C. Bising, Governor of Delaware under the Swedes. 

Maryland Boyalists under Lord Baltimore revolt. International hostilities follow 
but are subdued by Governor Bennett of Virginia. 

Colonel Wood, seeking trade with the Indians, explores Kentucky as far as the 
Mississippi Biver. 

Vice-Govemor Pappegoin returning soon to Sweden, Bising, as director-general of 
New Sweden, assumes supreme authority. 

Colonists, ordered by Parliament to treat the Dutch as enemies, seize the 
Dutch house and lands at Hartford. 
Death of Governor Haynes. 

Acts of the Assembly of Maryland. One concerning religion declares that 
"none who profess the Popish religion can be protected in the province by the 
laws of England nor by the government of the commonwealth of England, but to 
be restrained from the exercise thereof." Also one making void the declaration 
of Governor Stone, requires the people to acknowledge Lord Baltimore as ab- 
solute lord of the province. ^ 

1655 

January, Governor Stone, hearing from England that Lord Baltimore still retains 
his patent, reassumes the government and organizes a military force in the 
county of St. Mary's under Fendall. Fendall seizes the province records which 
had been deposited in the house of Preston, on the Patuxent Biver during the 
revolution in July, 1654, and also arms and ammunition, which had been stored 
in the house. 

March 20, With a force of men and vessels. Governor Stone proceeds by land 
and water against the Puritans of Anne Arundel. 

Biar. 25, Governor Stone, of Maryland, a royalist, imprisoned by the Colonists. 
Biar. 25, The people of Providence, Maryland, having prepared for an invasion, 
a battle ensues between the Puritans and the Marylanders of which it is said ' ' of 
the whole company of the Marylanders there escaped only four or five." About 
fifty were slain or wounded, while of the Puritans only two were killed and two 
died later of their wounds. 

As a result of the encounter between the Puritans and the Marylanders, imme- 
diately following the event four of Governor Stone's men out of ten who were 
court-martialed and sentenced to be shot were executed. The others, including 
Governor Stone, escaped sentence but were held as prisoners of war. 
Biar. 8, Edward Winslow, aged sixty years, one of the "Mayflower's" first pas- 
sengers and governor of Plymouth, dies on shipboard near Hispaniola and is 
buried at sea. 

Biar. 23, John Endicott, Governor, and Bichard Bellingham, Deputy-Governor 
of Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

September 16-25, Governor Peter Stuyvesant, of Manhattan, captures Fort 
Trinity and Christiana, Delaware, and brings the colony under Dutch rule. He 
sends to Europe all Swedes refusing allegiance to Holland. -^ 

October 1, Governor Bising, with a company of companions, bids farewell to « 
Delaware and embarks for Sweden on the "De Waag." 
Oct., New Sweden conquered by the Dutch. 

November 29, John Paul Jaquet commissioned by Stuyvesant as Governor of the 
Dutch colony on the Delaware. He selects Fort Casimir as his residence, 

John Endicott, Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, 
Bdward Digg8| Colonial Governor of Virginia. 



1655, Nov. 29 41 Nov. 1656 



Thomas Wells, Governor of the Connecticut colony. 

Peter StuTvesant, Governor of Delaware under the Dutch. (From 1664 to 1682 

Delaware was under the government of New York, and from 1683 to 1773 it was 

under the proprietary government of Penn.) 

English, under Major Sedgwick, subdue Penobscot and Port Boyal. The whole 

Acadian province is confirmed to the English who hold it for about thirteen years. 

Diego de Bebellado succeeds as captain-generid to the house of Menendez of 

Florida. 

Civil War in Maryland. 

The Dutch capture Swedish forts in Pennsylvania. 

1656 

Bichard Bellingham, Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 
John Webster, Governor of Connecticut. 

Samuel Matthews elected Governor of Virginia and later appointed by Oliver 
Cromwell. 

March 24^ The ship <<Mercurius'' arrives bringing a company of Swedes. Not 
knowing of the change in government they attempt to go up the river and land, 
but are prevented by the Dutch. 

April 12, Governor-General and council given seventy-five deeds for land, chiefly 
for lots in New Castle (then New Amstel). These were the first deeds made. 
July 10, Commission received from Lord Baltimore appointing Fendall as Gov- 
ernor of Maryland. 

Two Quaker women, Mary Fisher and Ann Austin, arrive from England and are 
landed at Boston, Massachusetts. 

August 7, A number of Quakers arrive in Boston, Massachusetts, on the <'Speed- 
weU. ' ' 

Aug. 16, The Dutch West India Company transfer Fort Casimir and the adjacent 
territory of New Amstel to the city of Amsterdam. 

September 16, In the matter of the disputed proprietary rights of Lord Baltimore 
in Maryland at this time under consideration in England, the commissioners 
for trade report favorably of Lord Baltimore to Cromwell's council of state. 
Sept. 24, Fendall, arrested and imprisoned by the Puritans in Maryland, takes an 
oath that he wiH neither directly nor indirectly be any disturber to the govern- 
ment till there be a full determination in England of all the matters relating to 
the government and is released. 

October 4, At this session of the General Court a penalty of one hundred pounds 
is imposed upon the master of any ship bringing Quakers within the jurisdiction. 
All brought in are to be sent to jail, given twenty stripes, and kept at work until 
transported again beyond the seas. Plymouth, Connecticut, and the Dutch at 
Manhattan, but not the government at Providence, Bhode Island, adopt the same 
laws. 

Oct., Law that Quakers be fined and sent out of the jurisdiction of Connecticut 
enforced. 

November, Lord Baltimore makes his brother, Philip Calvert, one of the coun- 
cillors to the governor of Maryland and principal secretary of his province. 
Mrs. Anne Hibbins, sister of Governor Bellirgham and widow of a magistrate, is 
condemned and executed as a witch. 

A ''Healing Question." The Proclamation by Cromwell for a general fast to 
consider the cause of the continued distressed condition of Britain. In response. 
Sir Henry Vane, previously governor of Massachusetts and one of the most 
high minded gentlemen and statesmen of the Commonwealth of England, pub- 
lishes a tract expounding the principle of civil and religious liberty and pro- 
posing the method of forming a constitution through a convention called for 
that purpose. This method was actually followed in America after the Bevolution. 
New York City founded. 

Quakers, who arrived on the "Speedwell," are all imprisoned and banished 
without ceremony. The masters of the vessels which brought them are placed 
under bonds to take them away. 



1657, Jan. 20 42 July 27, 1660 

1657 

Jamiary 20, The Pettaquamscot in Bhode Island purchased from the Indians. 

ApxU, Jaquet is removed for mismanagement and Jacob Aldrich appointed in 

Holland as governor of New Amstil, Delaware. 

Biay 9, Thomas Prince, Qovemor of Plymouth colony. 

June 18, Luke Barber, Deputy-Governor of Maryland in the absence of Gk>vernor 

Fendall, who embarks for England. 

September 24, The Puritan assembly meets at Patuxent, Maryland. 

November 30, Beport of the Commissioners for trade made Sept. 16, 1656, being 

favorable to the rights of Lord Baltimore, the Puritan agents enter into a 

treaty with Lord Baltimore to give up their power in the province and give 

due obedience to his lordship's government, ''he agreeing especially that he 

will never give his assent to the repeal of the law established in Maryland, 

whereby all persons professing belief in the Protestant faith have freedom of 

conscience there." 

Benedict Arnold, President of the four united towns of Bhode Island. 

John Winthrop, Governor of the Connecticut Colony. 

Cornwallis, Assistant-Governor to Lord Baltimore in Maryland. 

Bhode Island refuses the request of the Plymouth Colony to banish or exclude 

the Quakers. 

First Quaker missionaries appear in Maryland. 

1658 

ICarch 24, The Puritan party in Maryland surrender their power to the governor. 
October 28, William Beekman appointed vice-governor of the colony with head- 
quarters of the company at Altena, now Wilnungton, Delaware. 

Thomas Wells, Governor of Connecticut Colony. 
Francis Newman, Governor of the New Haven Colony. 
Josias Fendall, Proprietory Governor of Baltimore. 
First town hall erected in Boston, Massachusetts. 
Towns of Scarborough and Falmouth in Maine erected. 

1659 

Biay 23, Beekman secures a deed of land from the Indians and erects a fort at 

the Hoorn-Kill, Delaware. 

October 27, William Bobinson and Marmaduke Stevenson, Quakers, executed for 

returning to the province after banishment. 

December 30, Governor Alrich dies and Alexander Hinoyosa succeeds him as 

Governor of the Dutch colony in Delaware. 

John Winthrop, Governor of the Connecticut Colony. (Until this time no person 
could hold a second term immediately following the first.) 
The Governor of Maryland asserts Lord Baltimore's title to the Dutch settle- 
ments on the Delaware Bay and unsuccessfully demands the submission of the 
settlement. 

Baltimore County founded in Maryland. 

Isaac Allerton, one of the Pilgrim Fathers, dies in New Haven, Connecticut. 
Town of Hadley, Massachusetts, settled. 

1660 

March 14, William Leddea hanged in New Hampshire for being a Quaker. 

June 1, Mary Dyer to be hanged as a Quaker, with Bobinson and Stevenson, but 

through the pleadings of her son she is reprieved and again banished. Betuming 

again to Massachusetts, she is hanged. 

July 27, Edward Whalley and WiUiam €k>ffe, the regicides, arrive in Boston, 

Mastaohuiettt. 



1660, July 27 43 Nov. 1663 

William Brenton, President of Bhode Island's four united towns. 

Benedict Arnold, Assistant President of the Bhode Island Colonj. 

Philip Calvert, Proprietory Governor of Baltimore. 

Sir William Berkeley, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

Navigation Act, passed in 1651, now in force. 

Hugh Peters executed in England. 

The General Court of Massachusetts forbids the celebration of OhristmaB under 

a penalty of five shillings. 

Bestoration of the Stuarts in England. 

Alexander, an Indian Chief, dies. 

Estimated population of New Hampshire 2,300, Massachusetts 25,000, Bhode 

Island 1,500, Connecticut 8,000; New York 6,000, Maryland 8,000, Virginia 33,000, 

and of North Carolina, 1,000, a grand total for the colonies of 84,800 inhabitants. 

1661 

August 8, Charles II, of England, proclaimed sovereign in Massachusetts. 
September 19, Bepresentatives of the Quakers in England cause Charles n to 
require the government to desist from proceedings against them. A ship is 
immediately chartered and Samuel Shattock, who has been banished from Massa- 
chusetts, is appointed to convey the King's letter to Governor Endicott. Soon 
after receiving it, Governor Endicott orders the release and discharge of all 
Quakers in prisons. 

William Leete, Governor of the New Haven Colony. 

Charies Calvert, later Lord Baltimore, eldest son of the Lord Proprietary, is 

f»)pointed Governor of Maryland. 

Colonel Francis Moryson, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

Eliot finishes his translation of the New Testament into the Indian language. 

1662 

April 20, New charter granted to Connecticut. 

December, Warrant issued at Dover, New Hampshire, directing three Quaker 

women to be whipped out of the province. Stripped and tied to a cart, they 

are publicly whipped at Dover and Hampton, but freed at Salisbury through 

the agency of Widter Barefoot. 

Dec., The Quakers hold their first meeting at Newichawannock or Piscataqua, in 

Maine. 

Benedict Arnold, again President of the Bhode Island Colony. 

Charles Calvert-, Proprietary Governor of Maryland. 

At the request of the Assembly, Lord Baltimore coins in England a large quantity 

of shillings, sixpence, and pounds, which were put in circulation in the province 

of Maryland. 

Sir Henry Vane executed in England. 

Children of respectable people not "professors'' allowed to be baptized. This 

was adopted in Massachusetts and called the "Half^way Covenant." 

Metacomet or Philip, youngest son of Massasoit, sachem of the Wampanoags and 

friend of the English, becomes sachem of the tribe on the death of his brother 

Alexander. 

Congregational Church established in Virginia. 

1663 

February 7, The Dutch Colony Company in Delaware surrenders its rights to the 

colony of the city. 

Feb. 12, Cotton Mather bom in Boston, Massachusetts. 

ICardi 24, Albemarle Colony founded. 

July 8, Charter granted Bhode Island by Charles. In force until the adoption 

of the State Constitution in 1842. 

November, Benedict Arnold, Governor of Bhode Island, under Boyal Charter. 



1663, Not. 44 Aug. 1666 

. 

Sir William Berkeley, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

William Drummondi Proprietary Governor of the North Carolina Colony. 

Mississippi included in the proprietary charter of Carolina. 

First American Indian Bible translated and issued at Cambridge, Maasachosetts, 

by Eliot. 

1664 

January 11, Ferdinando Gorges obtains from the King an order to the Oovemor 
and council of Massachusetts to restore his province in Maine. 
Jan. 30, The Dutch acquire a tract of land called Bergen in the eastern part of 
New Jersey. 

March 12, Charles II grants a patent to his brother, the Duke of York, of ex- 
tensive tracts including the west side of the Connecticut Biver. A part of the 
grant of the King of England to the Duke of York includes the territory be- 
tween the 8t. Croix and Penaquid and northward, variously called the ''Saga- 
dahoc Territory," "New Castle,'* and the ''County of Cornwall." 
Biar. 20, Royal Charter executed by Charles n in favor of the Duke of York, 
embracing the region between Connecticut and Delaware Biver. 
June 23-24, Present state of Delaware granted by the Duke of York to Lord 
John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, by deed of lease and release to be 
called Nova Caesaria or New «fersey. 

July 23, Four ships, the "Guinea" with thirty-six guns, "Elias" with thirty 
guns, "Martin" with sixteen guns, and the "William and Nicholas" with ten 
guns, with 450 English soldiers are sent against the Dutch at New Netherlands. 
They bring four commissioners to arrange affairs in New England, viz.: Colonel 
Bichard Nicolls, Sir Bobert Carr, Colonel George Cartwright, and Samuel 
Maverick, who come to Boston. 

August 27, Name New Netherlands changed to New York. 
September 8, Richard Nicolls, English Governor of the New York Colony. 
New York taken from the Dutch. 
Sept. 24, Fort Orange surrendered to the English. 

October 1, The Delaware Dutch Company passes into British control under the 
government of the Duke of York. 

Oct. 28, By license from Colonel Nicolls, Governor of the Colonv under the Duke 
of York, the Elizabethtown Associates Company purchases the site from the 
Indians. 

November 3, New Amstil, Delaware, surrenders to Sir Bobert Carr, who was 
sent by Charles 11 to subject the country. It is now called New Castle. 
Nov. 30, Colonel Richard Nicolls, Governor of New York, and commissioners 
from Connecticut, fix the western boundary of Connecticut, beginning on the 
east side of the Mamaroneck Creek and thence north-northwest to the Massa- 
chusetts line. The Sound is determined to be the southern line, Connecticut 
losing her possession on Long Island. 

New York City established. 

Berkeley and Carrheret, Governors of New York, 

Philip Carteret, first English Governor of the New Jersey Colony. 

Elizabeth, New Jersey, settled by the English. 

The first Baptist Church in Boston, Massachusetts. 

1666 

May 3, Governor Endicott dies at the age of seventy-seven years. 

May 3, Richard Bellingham, Governor, and Francis WiUoughby Deputy-€k>vemor, 

of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

June 23, King's commissioners establish a form of provisional government in the 

province of Maine. 

August, Philip Carteret appointed first English Governor of New Jersey, and 

arrives at Elizabethtown with other settlers. 

John Winthrop, Governor of Connecticut. 
Thomas Willett, Mayor of New York City. 



1666, Aug. 45 Doc 20, 1669 

Jobn Winthrop elected Governor of the United Colonies. 

First Colonial Congress assembled in New York. 

Boger Clapp, pioneer and captain of Castle Williams, Dorchester, Massachusetts. 

Sir John Yeamans, Governor of South Carolina, Clarendon Colony established. 

The English claim the Pennsylvania Colony. 

Quebec 's western wilds penetrated by the French explorers. 

St. Augustine, Florida, pillaged by buccaneers under the Englishman, Captain 

John Davis. 

1666 

Biay 17, Newark, New Jersey, settled by a company from Connecticut. 

William Brenton, Boyal Governor of Bhode Island. 

King's commissioners recalled from Massachusetts. 

Thomas Delavall, Mayor of New York City. 

On account of excessive production, an act is passed prohibiting the planting 

of tobacco for one year in Maryland. 

First naturalization act passed admitting certain French and Bohemians to 

citizenship in Maryland. 

Massachusetts ordered by the English government to send agents to England 

to answer for refusing the commissioners jurisdiction. She replies evasively. 

1667 

July 31, By the treaty of Breda, the English surrender Nova Scotia to France, 
who also claims the province east of the Penobscot Biver in Maine. 
October, Samuel Stephens, Proprietary Governor of North Carolina. 

Thomas Willett, Mayor of New York City. 

Bahama Isles granted to the Courtiers, to whom the Carolinas were granted by 

Charles II of England. 

Lyme, Connecticut, made a town. 

Castine establishes a trading post near the mouth of the Penobscot Biver. 

The Swedes erect a church at Crane-hook near Fort Christiana, Delaware. 

1668 

April 14, Churches of Massachusetts debate with Baptists at Boston. 
May 12, Grant of 276 acres issued for Hoboken, New Jersey. 

May 26, Session of the first legislative assembly of New Jersey at Elizabethtown. 
June 25, The boundary line between Maryland and Virginia, from the Chesa- 
peake Bay to the Atlantic Ocean is established and the location of Watkins 
Point on the bay makes its beginning. This was settled by a commission — 
Philip Calvert, of Maryland, and Edward Scarborough, of Virginia. 
July, Commissioners from Massachusetts hold a convention in York, commanding, 
in his Majesty's name, the people of the province of Maine to yield again all 
obedience to the colony. They do this at the request of prominent citizens 
in the province. 

August 17, Francis Lovelace, English Colonial Governor of New York. 
September 22, Bergen, New Jersey, chartered. 

Cornelius Steenwyck, Mayor of New York City. 

The foundation of the Commonwealth of North Carolina made at Edenton. 

Deputy-Governor Carr and others create temporary council, swearing allegiance 

to the Duke of York. They establish themselves at New Castle, Delaware. 

Claude Dablon and Jacques Marquette establish a permanent mission at Sault 

Ste Marie, Michigan. 

Hadden, Connecticut, made a town. 

1669 

July 26^ William Sayle, Proprietary Governor of South Carolina. 

December 20, Bebellion against the Duke of York, in Delaware, instigated by 

Konigsmarke or "Long Finn.'' He is arrested and imprisoned in New York, 

and i^terwards transported to the Barbadoes. 

Benedict Arnold, Boyal Governor of Bhode Island (May). 



1669, Dec. 20 46 June 17, 1673 

Green Bay, Wisconsin, settled by the French. 

Foundation laid for the Old South Church, Boston, MasBEchusetts. 

The Lutheran Church established in New York. 

1670 

Lovelace, Governor of New York. 

South Carolina settled on the Ashley Biver by the English. Lockes conBtitution 

adopted. 

Detroit, Michigan, settled by the French. 

Captain Batts travels from Virginia into Kentucky. 

Title of ''Reverend" first applied to the clergy in New England. 

Two sulpician priests, with three canoes and seven men, pass through the 

Detroit Biver and Lake St. Clair, Michigan. 

Estimated population of New Hampshire 3,000, Massachusetts, 30,000, Bhode 

Island 2,500, Connecticut 10,000, New York 9,000, New Jersey 2,500, Maryland 

15,000, Virginia 40,000, and of North Carolina 2,500, an approximate colonial 

population of 114,500 inhabitants. 

1671 

January 28, William Stephens, later Governor of Georgia, bom. 

Biay, French, under M. de St. Lusson, permitted by the Indians to occupy Sault 

Ste. Marie, Michigan. They erect a cross at that place bearing the arms of 

France. 

May, John Leverett, Deputy-Governor of Massachusetts. 

AugUBt 28, Joseph West, Proprietary Governor of South Carolina. 

December 26^ Sir John Yeamans, Proprietary Governor of South Carolina Colony. 

Thomas Delavall, Mayor of New York City. 

John Barnwell, military officer and Indian fighter in the Carolinas, bom. 

Act to encourage importation of slaves in Maryland. 

Two young married Quaker women walk naked through the town of Newbury 

and Balem, in emulation of the prophet Ezekiel as a sign of the nakedness 

of the land. 

Marquette commences Fort Michilimackinne, starts a Huron settlement, and 

builds a chapel in Michigan. 

1672 

May, Nicholas Easton, Boyal Governor of Bhode Island. 
December 7, Bichard Bellingham, Colonial Governor of Massachusetts, dies. 
Dec; 12, John Leverett, Acting Governor of Massachusetts. 

Governor Philip Carteret returns to England to lay the matter of the govern- 
ment of New Jersey before the proprietors. 
First Friends meeting house built at Shrewsbury, New Jersey. 
Leonard Hoar, President of Harvard College. 
Matthias Nicolls, Mayor of New York City. 

George Fox, founder and apostle of the Quakers, comes to Bhode Island, but 
does not venture into Massachusetts. He also visits ^friends in Maryland and 
New Castle, Delaware. 

Catawba Indians expel the fugitive Shawnees from the Carolinas. 
May 14, Settlers under grant from Governor Nicholls form an independent 
government whose deputies at Elizabethtown elect James Carteret as Governor. 
Biay, New Castle, Delaware, incorporated and a constable's court established. 

1673 

Biarch 18, Lord Berkeley sells his half interest in New Jersey to two English 

Quakers, John Fenwick and Edward Byllings. 

May 7, John Leverett, Governor of Massachusetts. 

Samuel Lymonds, Deputy-Governor of Massachusetts 

June 3, Josiah Win slow, Governor of Plymouth Colony. 

June 17, Marquette and Louis Jollet descend the Wisconsin Biver. On reaching 

the mouth, Jollet descends the Mississippi. Marquette discovers an Indian trau 

about one hundred miles below on the western shores of the Mississippi where 

he establishes his mission in Iowa. 



1673, July 47 SeiH;. 9, 1676 

July, New Netherlands inclading New Jersey, surrenders to the Dutch. 

July, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jollet, with other Frenchmen, spend several 

days exploring at the mouth of the Ohio Biver. 

August 12, Anthony Glove appointed Governor of Delaware, under the Dutch. 

He retakes New York and is made Colonial Governor of New York. ''Datcli 

War." 

John Lawrence, Mayor of New York City. 

First coast light erected in America. 

The present site of Chicago, Illinois, visited by French Missionariefl* 

French missionaries descend the Mississippi Biver into Missouri. 

1674 

February 9, New Jersey again becomes an English province under treaty of 
peace between Holland and England. 

Feb. 10, Edward Byllings, having become financially embarrassed, assigns bis 
contract to William Penn and others. 

New survey of the Massachusetts boundary to the north made by Mountjoy. 
The line fixed has its eastern terminus on White Head Island in Penobscot Bay, 
Maine. Massachusetts appoints commissioners, who open a court at Pemaquid, 
and proceed to organize the additional territoir^. 
Biay, William Coddington, Boyal Governor of Bhode Island. 
June 22> The Duke of York takes a new patent from the King and commis- 
sions Sir Edmund Andros, Governor of both New York and Sagadahoc Maine. 
August 13, Joseph West, Proprietary Governor of South Carolina. 
November 6^ Philip Carteret returns and resumes authority in New Jersey, 
meeting the General Assembly at Bergen. 

William Brenton, Governor of Bhode Island, dies. 

Edmund Andros, Colonial Governor of New York, becomes involved in serious 

disputes with the colonists. 

New York (New Amsterdam), formally restored to the English by treaty. 

New Jersey sold to the Quakers. 

George Cartwright, President of the council of North Carolina. 

Edmund Andros, under the Duke of York, Governor of the New Jersey Colony. 

Delaware reverts to the English by treaty of Westminster, and Sir Edmund 

Andros, who had been removed by the Dutch, is reappointed magistrate. 

1675 

April 8, Marquette, intending to establish a mission among Illinois Indians, makes 
porta^ from the Chicago to the Desplaines and descends the Illinois Biver nearly 
to Utica, meeting large concourse of chiefs and warriors. 

May 18, Marquette, the Indian missionary, dies and is buried near the present 
site of Ludington, Michigan. 

Biay 26, William Blackstone dies in Bhoboth, Mass. 

June 24, Indians attack Swanzey, Massachusetts, and kill several of its inhabi- 
tants 

June, Fenwick, sailing from London in the ship, ''Griffith," arrives with a small 
company of Quakers and settles at Salem, New Jersey. 

June, Three Indians of the Wampanoags are seized, taken to Plymouth, tried, 
and executed for the murder of one Sansaman, an Indian of the Massachusetts 
tribe. 

July 11, Major Andros appears before the forts of Saybrook with an armed 
force and demands its surrender. Surrender is refused by Captain Bull and the 
Patent and Commission are forbidden to be read. 

Hadley, Massachusetts, attacked by the Indians on a fast day while the in- 
habitants are at church. 

September 4, Captain Beers and his party ambushed near Northfield, Massa- 
chusetts. The captain and twenty of his men are killed. 

Sept. 9, Commissioners meet and agree that one-thousand troops must be levied by 
the United Colonies to subdue the Indian outrages. Massachusetts is to raise 



1675, Sept. 9 48 ICar. 17, 1676 

527, Plymouth 158, and Connecticut 315. Governor Josiah Winslow of Plymouth 
to command the whole. 

Sept. 18, Captain Lothrop, of Beverly, MassachusettB, the "Flower of Essex," 
having been sent with a company of picked men to bring in the harvest of the 
settlements, is surprised by a large body of Indians at a small stream, now 
Bloody Brook, and totally defeated. 

Indian depredations and massacres in King Philip's War begun Sept. 12. Saeo 
attacked Sept. 18, and Scarborough burned on Sept. 20. 

Sept. 25, Indian outrages on the people of Maryland and Virginia. Major True- 
man, in command of the Maryland forces, put to death five chiefs of the Susque- 
hannocks, captured in a joint expedition, although they protested their innocence 
and blamed the Senecas for the outrages. For this act Major Trueman is im- 
peached by the House of Delegates but escapes punishment. 
Sept., Deerfield and Northfield, Mass., abandoned by the inhabitants and burned 
by the Indians. 

slept., Indians, in King Philip's WaiN ravage Somersworth and Durham, New 
Hampshire, and between Exeter and Hampton. 

October, Springfield, Massachusetts, attacked and about fifty buildings burned 
before the Indians are routed. 

Oct. 19, Hatfield, Massachusetts, attacked by Indians. 

Kovember 2, The colonies resolve to regard the Narragansett Indians as enemies 
and to make a winter campaign against them. 

KoT. SO, Cecilias Calvert dies and Charles Calvert, third Lord Baltimore, becomes 
proprietary of Maryland. 

December 19, Colonial troops carry the Narragansett Fort. The Indians are 
routed and the place burned. Over 1,000 Indians are killed and captured, with 
the Colonial losses at about 200 killed and wounded, including six captains kiUed. 
This took place on Sunday, and was known as the ''Swamp Fight. 
Doc 19, Connecticut furnishes a body of men in the fight at Narragansett Fort. 

Walter Clarke, Colonial Deputy-Gk>vemor of Bhode Island. 
William Dervall, Mayor of New York City. 

Wampanoags, under Philip, having been attacked by the colonists, leave Narragan- 
sett Bay, unite with the Nipmucks, and attack Brookfield. The residents in the 
principal buildings defend themselves from August 2 to 5, when Major Willard 
routs the Indians with a troop of horse. 
Urian Oakes, President of Harvard University. 
King Philip's War begun. 
Bobert Beverly, historian, bom in Virginia. 

War waged against the sachem of the Wampanoag Indians in Connecticut. 
Major Andros, the new Governor of New York, claims under the Duke of York 
all lands west of the Connecticut Biver. 
Don Juan de Salacar, Captain General of Florida. 

Population of Massachusetts variously estimated at over 22,000. That of 
Plymouth Colony was probably about 7,000 inhabitants while the Indian popu- 
lation was less than 8,000. 

1676 

February 5, Indians attack Lancaster, Massachusetts, and, after killing all the 

men, carry the women and children into captivity. 

Feb. 21, Medfield, Massachusetts, surprised and laid in ashes by the Indians. 

Feb. 24, Weymouth, Massachusetts, attacked by Indians and several buildings 

burned. 

Feb., The colonies order 600 additional troops to fight the Indians. 

March S, Concessions and agreements of the proprietors, Fenwick and Byllings, 

in New Jersey. Fenwick is to have one tenth interest, and Byllings nine tenths. 

A government is to be established. 

ICar. 3-9 aad IS, Groton, Massachusetts, attacked by the Indians. 

ICar. 17, Warwick and Providence practically destroyed by the Indians. The 

aged Boger WiUiams accepts a commission as captain for the defence of the 

town he had founded. 



1676» Max. 26 49 Kov. 2» 1676 

ICar. 26^ Captain Price, of Scituate, Massachusetts, with about fifty men and 
twenty Indians, routed near Seekonk and his entire party cut off. 
ICar. 26, Marlboro, Massachusetts, attacked by Indians and partially burned. 
Mar. 28, Seekonk laid in ashes by the Indians. 

Mar., The town of Plymouth, Massachusetts, assaulted by the Indians and 
twelve persons killed. 

April 5, Death of Governor John Winthrop, of Ck>nnecticut. 
Apr. 9, Ganonchet, sachem of the Narragansetts, captured. 

Apr. 21, Captain Wadsworth, of Milton, Massachusetts, and his party, surprised 
and totally defeated. Sudbury, Massachusetts, attacked and partially burned. 
Apr., Father Claude Allouez, successor to Marquette, enters the Chicago Biver 
on his route to the Indians' Mission. 
Apr., Bacon's rebellion or civil war in Virginia. 

May 6, Massachusetts negotiates the purchase of the province of Maine. 
May 11, Plymouth, Massachusetts, again attacked by the Indians. 
May 18, The Indians defeated at l^mers Falls on the Connecticut by Captain 
Turner. The captain is afterwards killed and his command partially defeated by 
the arrival of other Indians. 

Biay 20, Scituate, Massachusetts, threatened and partially destroyed by the 
Indians. 

May 30, Hatfield, Massachusetts, burned bv the Indians. 
May, Walter Clarke, Boyal Governor of Bhode Island. 

Jime 10, Edward Bandolph arrives at Boston, Massachusetts, as a special mes- 
senger from the English government to make minute inquiries into the condition 
of the country. 

Jime 1^ Indians again attack Hadlev, Massachusetts, but are repulsed. 
July If Quintipartite deed executed between William Penn and others, assignees 
of Byllings and Sir George Carteret, for a division of New Jersey into east 
and west by a line drawn from Little Egg Harbor to the most northerly point 
or boundary on the Delaware, Carteret retains East Jersey. 
July 4, Governor Berkeley signs Bacon's commission as a general of Virginia 
troops. 

July SO, Edward Bandolph sails for England. 

July, King Philip's allies deserting him, he, with a few of his own tribe, 
move back to Mount Hope in his own territory. 

August 12; King Philip, surrounded in a swamp by the colonial troops under 
Captain Church, is shot while attempting to escape. His little son is sold into 
slavery. • 

Aug. 14, Black Point, Maine, captured by Indians. The fort and part of its 
garrison taken. 

Aug. 18, Bichard Hartshome and Bichard Guy, of East Jersey, and James 
Wasse, sent from England, are authorized by the Proprietors to establish a 
government for West Jersey. 

Angnst-September, Indians attack Casco, burn Arrowsick and Pemaquid, and 
attack Jewels Island. 

September 7, Four hundred Indians captured by strategy at Dover, New Hamp- 
shire. Seven or eight of these are put to death, about two hundred discharged, 
and the remainder sold into slavery to be transported into foreign parts. 
Sept. 26, Indians destroy the settlement at Cape Neddock. Forty persons are 
slain or captured. 

October 12, Bandolph presents to the English government a description of New 
England, under the title ''An Answer to Several Heads of Inquiry Concerning 
the Present State of New England." 
Oct. 29, Nathaniel Bacon, leader in Bacon's Bebellion, dies. 

Oct 30, William Stoughton and Peter Bulkely sent to the King with an address 
as agents of Massachusetts. 
NoTember 2, Boston 's first disaster by fire. 

Walter Clark, Colonial Governor of Bhode Island. 
William Leete, Governor of Connecticut. 
Nicholas de Meyer, Mayor of New York City. 
Philip Carteret, Governor of East Jersey. 




1676, Not. 2 50 Dee. 10, 1678 

Board of Commissioners govern West Jersey. 

Thomas Notlej appointed Governor of Maryland to act as deputy in the name 
of his infant son, Cecil Calvert. 

Edward Randolph a persistent disturber of the peace of Massachusetts in the 
interest of the government of England (1676-S9). 
Almanac published by John Foster, Boston, Mass. 

Captain Price, with a company of Massachusetts soldiers, exterminated by 
Indians between Pawtucket and Blackstone. 
Code of laws enacted in Virginia. 

King by Council confirms the decision of a commission which had been appointed 
and reports that 'Hhe right of soil in New Hampshire and Maine probabl^^ be- 
longs not to Massachusetts Colony but to the terre-tenants.'' 
For the second time (the first in 1674), the Dutch capture the French fortificf 
at Penobscot but are soon driven out by the English. 

1677 

Jaanary, Proceedings of England against Massachusetts. ^^ 

May 6^ Massachusetts purchases the claims of Gorges in Maine for about HBOO. 

Indian hostilities continue throughout the year. M&re affair takes place FeR 18. 

Pemaquid on Feb. 26. Indians attack Black Point and Wells May 16-18 and 

on June 29 ambush a party of ninety, killing sixty of their number. 

June, Sir Edmund Andros, fearing French agffression in the Duke's Sagadahoc 

Province, sends a force from New York to Pemaquid to establish a fort and 

custom-house. 

July IS, Berkeley recalled as Governor of Virginia. He returns to England 

where he soon dies. 

August, Nine executive commissioners appointed by the proprietors of We'st 

Jersey under a constitution promulgated March 3, 1676, arrive from England with 

a large number of settlers. They purchase from the Indians a tract of land on 

the Delaware, between Assunpink and Old Man's Creek, New Jersey. 

December, John Culpeper usuips the government of North Carolina. 

Biay, Benedict Arnold, Boyal Governor of Bhode Island. 

Anthony Brockholler, Commander-in-Chief and Colonial Governor of New York. 

S. van Cortlandt, Mayor of New York City. 

Thomas Notley, Proprietary Governor of Baltimore. 

Sir Herbert Jeffreys, Colonial Governor of Virginia. Becoming Proprietary 

Governor. 

Culpeper 's rebellion in North Carolina. 

July, Miller, President of the Council of North Carolina. 

Burlington laid out by agents of the London Land Company in New Jersey. 

1678 

April 12, Peace made with the Indians upon the Androscoggin and Kennebeo 
at Casco, Maine, by a commission from the government of Massachusetts. 
June 20, Benedict Arnold dies. 

August 28^ William Coddington, Boyal Governor of Bhode Island. 
Aug. 28, Sir John Berkeley, who had been granted a proprietary interest in 
New Jersey and Carolina by Charles n., dies. 
October, Simon Bradstreet, Deputy-Gk>vemor of Massachusetts. 
November, John Cranston, Boyal Governor of Bhode Island. 
December 10, Ship, "Shields," the first ship to ascend the Delaware to Burling- 
ton, New Jersey, arrives from Hull bringing settlers. 

Sir Edmond Andros, Governor of New York Colony. 

Thomas Delavall, Mayor of New York City. 

Sir Henry Chicheley, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

Daniel Greysolom du Luth, a native of Lyons, erects a trading post near 

Duluth at the entrance of the Pigeon Biver, Minn., on the shores of Lake 

Superior. 



1679, Jan. 4 51 Dee. 18, 1680 

1679 

Juiiury 4, Roger Wolcott, soldier, judge, and author, bom. 

Haardi 16^ Governor Leverett, of MasBachusetts, dies in office. 

April 2^ Bobert La SaUe, accompanied by Father Louis Hennepin and Chevalier 

de Tonti, sails up Lakes Erie and Huron in the ''Griffon" and reaches Michili- 

mackinac, Michigan. 

Biay 28, Simon Bradstreet, Governor of Massachusetts. 

BCay, Thomas Danforth, Deputj-Govemor of Massachusetts. 

August 8-9, Boston, Massachusetts, suffers its second disastrous fire. 

CMfeember 8, King's bench decides that Massachusetts has no jurisdiction over 

N^^ Hampshire, and that Mason 's heirs have none within the territory they 

^^B. To establish Mason's title, the King makes New Hampshire a distinct 
j^^^^e with John Gutes of Portsmouth, president of the colony. 
^^^^Hber, Bobert Cavalier de la Salle and Henry Ponti, with a party, ascend 
^H^B. Joseph Biver to the site of South Bend, Indiana, thence to the Kankakee 

■^Hown the Illinois Biver. 

S^^BEdward Bandolph, Collector of Customs at Boston, Mass. 

Stoughton and Bulkely, unsuccessful in their effort to conciliate the English 

government, return to Boston, 
imon Bradstreet, Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. 
Francis Bombouts, Mayor of New York City. 

Edward Billings, Governor, and Samuel Jennings, Deputy-Governor, of West 
Jersey. 

New Hampshire a District Colony. 
Habeas Corpus Act passed in England. 
Sir George Carteret, Proprietor of East Jersey, dies. 

1680 

Jannary 1, Boyal commission, declaring New Hampshire a royal province, reaches 
Portsmouth. 

Jan. S, Bobert Cavalier, Sieur de la Salle, with Henry Tonti, Father Hennapin, 
pass through Peoria Lake, Illinois. 

Jan. 21, John Cutler becomes first President of New Hampshire. 
February 23, Jean Baptist Le Mojrne Bienville bom in Montreal. 
Feb. 28, Louis Hennepin, M. Dugay, and other Frenchmen leaving Fort Creve- 
coeur, Illinois, ascend the Mississippi Biver from the mouth of the Illinois to the 
Falls of St. Anthony, Iowa. 

Ifarch 16, Peleg Sandford, Boyal Governor of Bhode Island. 

June 2, Sir Edmund Andros claims the government of New Jersey, which re- 
pudiates his authority. 

June, John Jenkins appointed Governor of North Carolina. 

The Duke of York, having submitted the claim of governmental power in New 
Jersey to a commission which decides against Andros, makes a record grant of 
West Jersey to the proprietors Aug. 6, and of East Jersey on September 6. 
October, Father Hennepin ascends the Mississippi Biver from the mouth of the 
Illinois through Lake I^epin. Thence he ascends the falls and reaches a site 
which he names St. Anthony. 

November, La Salle, en route from Montreal to Tonti at Fort Crevecoeur, 
traverses the St. Joseph to the Kankakee in Indiana. 

December 18, Thomas Hickley, Governor of Plymouth Colony. Mr. Hinckley 
was Governor until the union of the colonies in 1692, with the exception of the 
administration of Andros. Mr. Hinckley was first Deputy-Governor of Plymouth 
Colony. Previously there was no deputy-governor, a governor pro tem being 
appointed by the Governor to serve in his absence. 

Thomas Danforth chosen Governor of Maine by the Governor and board of 
colony assistants of Massachusetts. 

Andros deposed by Philip Carteret, who became (Governor of the New York Colony. 
William Dyse, Mayor of New York City. 



1680, Dec. 18 52 Mmx. 14, 1682 

Lord Culpeper, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 
John Harvey, President of the Council of North Carolina. 
Don Juan Marquez de Cabresa, Captain General of Florida. 

Massachusetts oecomes the Lord Proprietary of Maine, and in obedience to an 
ordinance of the general court of Massachusetts proceeds to organize the 
government of Maine. 

Bobert Cavelier Sieur de la Salle, and others, descend the Kankakee and 
Illinois rivers passing through Peoria Lake and erect Fort Crevecoenr on the 
east shores of the outlet. 

La Salle, on his return from Montreal with supplies for Fort Crevecoeur, finds 
the Illinois Indian town burned| the garrison dispersed, and the fort destroyed. 
Apostle Island, Lake Superior, settled by the French. 
Charleston, South Carolina, settled. 
Fort built on the Illinois Biver. 

First printing press at Williamsburg, Virginia, by John Buekner. 
Government land office erected in the province of Maryland, by the Lord 
Proprietary. 

Vicinity of Trenton, New Jersey, settled by Phineas Pemberton. 
Sieur de Luth and other Frenchmen and an Indian from their trading post 
reach, in canoes, the lake whose outlet enters the Mississippi Biver and meet 
with Father Hennepin from Minnesota. 

Estimated population of New Hampshire 4,000, Massachusetts 40,000, Bhode 
Island 4,000, Connecticut 13,000, New York 14,000, New Jersey 6,000, Delaware 
500, Maryland 20,000, Vir^ia 49,000, North Carolina 4,000, and South Carolina 
1,100. A grand total estimated population of all the colonies of 155,600 in- 
habitants. 

1681 

January 8, Jonathan Belcher, later colonial governor, bom in Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. 

Jan. 24, Edmund Quincy, jurist, born. 
February, Henry Wilkinson, Governor of North Carolina. 

April 5, President Cutes, of New Hampshire, dies and is succeeded by Major 
Bichard Waldron, of Dover. 

September, Ordinance promulgated by the proprietary of Maryland, limiting 
suffrage to freeholders or property owners. 

NovembMr 25, First Assembly meets at Burlington, New Jersey, and organizes 
a government, with Samuel Jennings as Deputy-Governor. 

James Cud worth, Deputy-Governor of Plymouth Colony. 

About this year Marquez Cabrera attempts to remove Indian tribes of Florida 
from the interior to the Islands on the coast. The attempt is followed by an 
insurrection. Some tribes removing to Carolina, make incursions into Florida. 
Anthony Brockholler, Commander-in-Chief and Colonial Governor of New York. 
First General Assembly in New Jersey meets at Salem, and enacts a code of laws. 
Charles, Lord Baltimore, reassumes personal government of Baltimore. 
William Penn receives hie grant of ''territory west of the Delaware and 
north of Maryland.'' 

1682 

January 25, Mason surrenders one fifth of his quit rents from the province to 
Charles n and thus secures the appointment of Edward Cranfield, as Lieutenant- 
Governor of his New Hampshire interests, with extraordinarv powers. 
February 1, Carteret 'b heirs sell East Jersey to a company of proprietors including 
William Penn. 

Feb. 6, La Salle and Tonti descend the Illinois Biver, seeking the mouth of 
the Mississippi Biver, and finally arrive at their destination. 
Feb., Bobert Cavelier de la Salle and his lieutenants descend the Illinois Biver, 
thence go down the Mississippi to the Ohio claiming both sides for France. 
March 14, Penn Company, now increased to twenty-four proprietors, secure a 
new conveyance to East Jersey from the Duke of York with full power of 
government. 



1682, Apr. 9 53 SeiH;. 6^ 1684 

April 9, Bobert Gavelier de la Balle names the countiy traversed along the 

Mississippi, Louisiana. 

May 16, Granfield suspends from the council Waldron and Bichard Martyn, both 

popular leaders of New Hampshire. 

August 81, Delaware granted to William Penn by the Duke of York. 

September 26^ Joseph Morton, Proprietary Qovemor of South Carolina. 

October 28^ William Penn arrives at New Castle, Delaware, with deed from the 

Duke of York for a circle of land twelve miles around New Castle and also 

land between this tract and the sea. 

NoTember, La Salle builds Fort St. Louis near the site of Utica on Starved Bock 

on the Illinois Biver. 

December 7, At the first Assembly in Upland, Delaware (now Chester, Pa.), an 

Act of Union and Naturalization is passed, annexing to Pennsylvania the three 

lower counties on the Delaware Biver, namely, New Castle, Kent, and Sussex. 

William Bradford, Deputy-Governor Plymouth Colony. 

Andros retires from the governorship of New York. 

Bobert Barclay appointed first Governor of East Jersey for life under the new 

proprietory, with Thomas Budyard as Deputy. 

Cornelius Steenwyck, Mayor of New York City. 

Penn^lvania Settled by William Penn as Colonial Governor. 

John Bogers, President of Harvard University. 

Delaware separated from New York. 

Antoine La Fdvre De Barre, Governor of Canada. 

La Salle passes down the Mississippi Biver to its mouth. 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, settled by the English. 

1688 
August 27, Thomas Dugan, English Governor of the New York Colony. 

William Coddington, Jr., Boyal Governor of Bhode Island. 

Bobert Treat, Governor of Connecticut. 

Gawen La .Frie, Governor of East Jersey. 

Seth Sothel, Governor of North Carolina. 

Edward Bandolph sends over a ''Memorial" to the Bang, urging proceedings 

against the charter of Massachusetts. 

Be venues of Matenicunk Island in the Delaware opposite Burlington, New Jersey, 

set apart for education. This is believed to be the first school fund in America. 

Perth Amboy, New Jersey, laid out in lots. 

First tavern or hotel in the province of New Jersey established at Woodbridge. 

The Baptist Church under Screven organized, but its members are soon obliged to 

fiee to South Carolina to avoid persecution. 

La SaUe returns to France. 

Death of Boger WiUiams, the founder of Providence, Bhode Island. 

Boundary between Connecticut and New York of 1664, superseded by that 

of this year. 

The first German settlement in Pennsylvania. 

1684 

June 18, Charter of Massachusetts Colony adjudged forfeited, and liberties of 
the colonies seized by the crown. 

Colonel Kirk appointed Governor of Massachusetts, Plymouth, New Hampshire, 
and Maine. Charles U dies before Kirk can embark; James U does not re- 
appoint him. 

July 7, Massachusetts charter being vacated, various purchases are made from 
the Indians. The most important, known as the "Pejepscot Purchase," is by 
Wharton, lying between Cape Small-point and Maquoit, thence northward on the 
west side of the Androscoggin to the ''Upper Falls," and on the opposite side 
of the river down to Merry-meeting Bay. 

August, La Salle sails from France for the mouth of the Mississippi Biver. 
September 6^ Joseph West, Proprietary Governor of South Carolina. 



1684^ Sept. 6 54 Dec 20, 1686 

Joseph Dudley, President of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 
Gabriel MinviUe, Mayor of New York city. 
Thomas Lloyd, Colonial President of Pennsylvania. 
Thomas Olive, Deputy-Governor of West Jersey. 

Lord Howard, of Effingham, Colonial Governor of Virginia. (Boyal govern- 
ment re-established in Virginia.) 

Bobert Quarry and Bichard Kirk, Proprietary Governors of South Carolina. 
Bite of Camden, New Jersey, occupied by Messrs. Cooper, Benyon, and Morris. 
The Iroquois Indians, by conclusion of treaty at Albany, New York, deed to the 
British a vast tract of land, including Kentucky. 

1685 

April 20, King James n, of England, proclaimed in Boston, Mass. 
July 2, Copy of the judgment of the forfeiture of the charter of Massachusetts 
received in Boston. (This charter had guided the Colony for fifty-five years.) 
September 8, Treaty made by Maine and New Hampshire with four tribes of 
Indians. 

November, In the contest between WiUiam Penn and Lord Baltimore the King 
and council decide that the Maryland charter includes only lands uncultivated 
and inherited by savages and that, therefore, the territory along the Delaware 
is not included, that the peninsula between the two bays should be divided equally, 
and that all east of the line drawn from the latitude of Cape Henlopen to the 
40th degree should belong to Penn. 

Plymouth Colony divided into three counties, viz., Plymouth, Bristol, and Barnsta- 
ble. 
Biay, Henry Bull, BoyBl Governor of Bhode Island. 

Nicholas Bayard, Mayor of New York City. 

John Skeine, Deputy Governor of West Jersey. 

Council of nine deputies, with Joseph as president, appointed by Lord Baltimore 

to govern the province of Maryland during his absence in England. 

8ir John Archdale, Governor of North Carolina. 

Joseph Morton, Proprietary Governor of South Carolina. 

Huguenots settle in Carolinas. 

Arkansas Post, Arkansas, settled by the French. 

The William Bradford Almanac published at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. This 

is accredited by historians of better authority as presumably the first complete 

almanac published in the Colonies. 

James n. King of England and colonies in America. 

Fort built and commanded on the present site of Chicago, Hlinois. 

Increase Mather, President of Harvard College. 

St. Peter ^s. First Episcopal Church in New Jersey, founded at Perth Amboy. 

1686 

Febmary IS, Tonti, with French and Indians, starts to meet La Salle, leaving Fort 

St. Louis for the mouth of the Mississippi Biver. 

Biay 14, Provisional government constituted in Massachusetts. 

May 25, Joseph Dudley assumes the office of President of the colonies under a 

commission of King James II, of England. With a council he has jurisdiction 

over the King's domains in New England. This office he holds until December 

20, the same year, when Sir Edmund Andros, appointed by James II April 20, '89, 

appears as Governor of New England. Governor Andros deposed by a revolution 

of the people. 

December 20, Sir Edmund AndrOs arrives in Boston to supersede Dudley as 

president of the Colonies. He came over in the ''Kingfisher," a fifty ton gun 

ship. Andros is Governor General of both the Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth 

Colonies. 

New Hampshire re-united to the Massachusetts colony. 
Walter Clarke, Boyal Governor of Bhode Island. 



1686^ Dec. 20 55 Dec. 11, 1688 

B. Van Cortlandt. Mayor of New York city. 
Lord Campbell, Governor of East Jersey. 

Collerton made Governor of South Carolina and given forty-eight thousand acres 
of land. 

Albany, New York, established. 

Spaniards from St. Augustine, Florida, break up the Scots' colony on Port Boyal 
Island, South Carolina. 

Huguenots arrive in great numbers in South Carolina. 
First Episcopal Church organized in Boston. 

Charter government is publicly displaced by arbitrary commission, popular rep- 
resentation is abolished, and the press subjected to censorship. 

1687 

January, Governor Clarke, of Bhode Island, compelled to surrender his commis- 
sion to the English Boyal Governor. 
July, Miller, President of the Council of North Carolina. 

October 31, Sir Edmund Andros, the Boyal Governor, comes to Hartford and 
demands the charter in the name of King James II of England. After a long 
discussion in the Assembly, it is said, the lights were extinguished and the charter 
was taken from the table and secreted by Captain William Wadsworth, of Hart- 
ford, in a hollow oak-tree on the estate of one Wyllyser across the river. This 
oak has been known since as the ''charter-oak.'' 
December 29, Legal consolidation of the New England Colonies. 

Sir Ferdinando, Governor of Maine. 

Edmund Andros, Governor of Connecticut. 

Andrew Hamilton, Governor of East Jersey. 

Byllings dies and Dr. Samuel Cox, of London, purchases his interests in West 

Jersey. Daniel Coxe is made Governor of the colony. 

Bhode Island joined to New York. 

Burlington laid out by agents of the London Land Company in New Jersey. 

1688 

January, Governor Andros active in oppressive legislation, thus causing great 
dissension in Massachusetts. 

March, Andros commissioned captain-general and vice-admiral over the whole of 
New England, New York, and the Jerseys. 

April 7, Increase Mather sent to England by the citizens of Massachusetts to 
lay before the King a petition of grievances. 

April, Extension of New England to Delaware Bay. Andros has seat of gov- 
ernment at Boston and the lieutenant governor is to reside at New York. 
April, Andros seizes upon Penobscot and sacks houses and fort of Baron de St. 
Cartier. He then aids in precipitating an Indian War. 

Septonber 5-6^ First outbreak of King William's War at the new settlement 
of Yarmouth on Boyal Biver. Indians surprise and break up the settlement. 
August 13, Indians attack and burn New Dartmouth (New Castle). They also 
destroy the fort and break up the settlement on the Sheepscot Biver, Maine. 
December 11, James II of England abdicates the throne. 

Francis Nicholson, Colonial Governor of New York. 

John Blackwell, Deputy-Colonial Governor of Pennsylvania. 

Edmund Andros, Governor of East Jersey. 

Nathaniel Bacon, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

Castine 's post on the Penobscot Biver pillaged bv the English. ^^ 

Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac receives a grant of land in Maine from Louis XIV 

of France. 

Death of John Alden, fifty years a colonial magistrate. 

Bhode Island charter lost. 

Fort Chicago, presumably built by M. de la Durantaye about 1685, appears on a 

map of Lake Michigan about this date. 

iint Baptist church in East Jersey built at Middletown. 



1689, Jan. 27 56 Biay, 1690 

1689 

January 27, Indians attack Dover, New Hampshire, surprise Major Waldron in his 
own home, and massacre him and many other settlers. They take many captives, 
whom they sell as slaves to the French in Canada. 

April 4, News of the landing in England of the Prince of Orange (afterwards 
William III of England) received in Boston, Mass. 

Apr. 18, On hearing of the revolution in England and the flight of James II, the 
people of Boston and vicinity overthrow the government and arrest Governor 
Andros and his adherents. The people restore Danforth to the office of provincial 
president, appoint a council for the safety of the people, and resume the govern- 
ment accordhig to charter rights. Ex-President Dudley, Bandolph, and other 
chief partisans of Andros are imprisoned. Andros escapes to Bhode Island. In 
the following July he is sent to England by Boyal Orders but acquitted. 
Apr. 20, Provisional government established with Simon Bradstreet, then in his 
eighty-sixth year, as Governor. 

May 8, Nicholas Perrot erects a fort on Lake Pepin, Minnesota, and takes pos- 
session of the country in the name of the King of France. 

May 9, Charter recovered and free government restored in the Connecticut Colony. 
May 2iif Simon Bradstreet, Governor of Massachusetts to May 14 and Thomas 
Danforth, Deputy-Governor, during the same time, after the dissolution of the 
first charter. 

William and Mary proclaimed in Boston, Mass., as King and Queen of England 
and her possessions in America. 

June 3, Jacob Leisler, Governor of the New York colony. 

June 13, William and Mary proclaimed with great ceremony and thanksgiving at 
Hartford, Connecticut. 

June 27, Governor Andros formally impeached. 

August 2, Garrison at Pemaquid, Maine, attacked by the Indians and forced to 
surrender. 

The "Bill of Bights'' in England. 

War with the French and Indians, known as King William's War, menaces the 

inhabitants of the colonies. 

Thomas Danforth, Acting Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

Thomas Hinckley, Governor of Plymouth Colony. 

William Bradford, Deputy-Governor of Plymouth Colony. 

Charter government restored to Bhode Island. 

Administration of Governor Bull in Bhode Island. 

Bobert Treat, Governor of Connecticut. 

Peter Delanoy, Mayor of New York City. 

Philip Ludwell, Governor of the North Carolina Colony. 

Habeas Corpus Act suspended for a short period. 

Major Benjamin Church, of Duxbury, Massachusetts, and a force of men proceed 

to Kennebec, Maine, and, ranging along the coasts, intimidate the Indians. He 

leaves soldiers at Fort Loyal and returns with the remainder of his forces to 

Massachusetts. 

1690 

January 2, Thomas Lloyd, Acting Governor of Pennsylvania. 
February 1, King William approves the motives of the Associators in Maryland in 
taking up arms against the Catholics under Lord Baltimore's government, and 
authorizes them to continue in power. 
Feb. 27, Henry Bull, Boyal Governor of Bhode Island. 

March 12; People of New Hampshire effect a governmental union with Massa- 
chusetts. 

Mar. 18, Newichawannock (now Salmon Falls, Maine) attacked by French and 
Indians under Sieur Artel, who bum the settlement. 

April 28, Fleet, fitted out by Massachusetts against Port Boyal, sails from Boston 
under Sir William Phipps. 

May 30, Attack on Port Boyal is successful and the fleet returns with spoils cov- 
ering cost of the whole expedition. 
May, French and Indians under Castine attack Fort Loyal at Falmouth, Maine. 



1690, Biay 57 Feb. 5, 1602 

The inhabitants abandon the village and retire to the garrison. Capitulating on 
the 20th. the town is burned and the French return to (^ebec with prisoners. 
May, John Easton, Boyal Governor of Bhode Island. 

Seiitember, Major Church, with a force of men from Massachusetts, sets out to 
reduce Indians in the province. He attacks them at Fort Pejepscot on the An- 
droscoggin, frees some English captives, and has an eng^ement with them at 
Purpooduck, Sept. 21. He leaves a garrison at Wells and returns home. 
October S, Governor Barclay, of New Jersey, dies. 
Oct. 13, Bobert Barclay, formerly Governor of Jersey, dies. 
NoYember 29, Truce with the Indians signed at Sagadahoc, Maine, by commis- 
sioners from Massachusetts. The Indians agree to surrender prisoners and to 
make a lasting peace at Wells the following May. 

Expedition against Canada by New England and New York. Governor Winthrop, 
of Connecticut, commands the land forces and Sir William Phipps the fleet. The 
expedition is a total failure. 

First paper money issued in Massachusetts to pay the troops in the Canada ex- 
pedition. 

John Eliot, "the apostle of the Indians,'' dies at the age of eighty-six years. 
John Tatham, Governor of East Jersey. 
Edward Hunloke, Deputy-Governor of West Jersey. 
Francis Nicholson, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 
Seth Sothel, Proprietary Governor of South Carolina. 

Mission, established at the great town of Illinois, is removed down the river 
about this time to the present city of Kaskaskia, Illinois. 
First newspaper in America printed in Boston. 

"Bill of Cfredit," first issued in the English- American Colonies, is put forth by 
Massachusetts. 

Feb. 7, Schenectady, New York, burned by the French and Indians. 
March 19, Colonial congress called to meet at New York. Massachusetts, Con- 
necticut and New York are represented. This was the first Colonial Congress 
called by circular addressed by the government of Massachusetts. 
John Coode and the Protestant Association, Governors of Baltimore, Maryland, 
under Boyal Charter of the English government. 

Estimated population of New Hampshire 5,000, Massachusetts (including Maine) 
54,000, Bhode Island 5,000, Connecticut 18,000, New York 20,000, New Jersey 
9,000, Pennsylvania (including Delaware) 12,000, Maryland 25,000, North Carolina 
3,000, and South Carolina 4,500, a grand total of 213,500 inhabitants. 

1691 

March 10, Henry Stoughton, Governor of New York colony. 

June 9, The Indians failing to meet President Danforth at Wells, as agreed, he 

returns to York and sends a reinforcement to Wells. They are attacked after 

their arrival and the Indians repulsed. 

July 26, Bichard Ingoldsby, Governor of the New York colony. 

October 7, Second charter granted to Massachusetts by England. 

Charter of William and Mary, or the Provincial Charter, passes the seals and 

receives Boyal sanction and the Province of Maine is united to the Boyal 

province of Massachusetts Bay. 

"Bill of Credit" made legal tender in Massachusetts. 
John Lawrence, Mayor of New York city. 
Colonel Joseph Dudley, Governor of East Jersey. 

West Jersey Proprietors, Governors of the West Jersey colony. Maryland be- 
comes a Boyal Province government under Sir Lionel-Copley, as Governor. 

1692 

February 6^ Indians and French Canadians assault York on the Agamenticus 
Biver. The inhabitants, sheltered in garrisoned houses, repulse the enemy, who 
retire after burning the town and killing and capturing half of the inhabitants. 



1682» Mar. 1 58 Oct 26^ 1608 

March 1, New Hampshire is purchased from Mason's heirs by Samuel Allen, of 
London. Allen prevents its insertion in the charter of William and Mary and 
becomes its Governor, appointing his son-in-law, John Usher, as Lieutenant- 
Governor. 

Mar., First appearance of the Witchcraft delusion in Salem, Massachusetts, at the 
house of the Reverend Samuel Parris. 

May 14, Sir William Phipps arrives in Boston, becoming Governor of Massachu- 
setts. He was appointed oy the King under the second charter, with William 
Stoughton, Lieutenant-Governor of the colony. 

May, Immediately after Governor Copley's arrival in Maryland he summons a 
General Assembly at St. Mary's which passes an act of recognition of William 
and Mary. Equal toleration in the province is overthrown by establishing the 
Church of England as the state church of Maryland. 

June 8, Eight representatives from Maine appear in the Massachusetts House of 
Bepresentatives at its first session. 

June 10, French and Indians, under Burneffe, attack Wells, Maine. The place 
was defended by a small garrison and two sloops which had just arrived in the 
harbor, bringing supplies and ammunition, and the enemy was repulsed after a 
siege of forty-eight hours. 

August 19, George Burroughs executed for witchcraft at Salem, Massachusetts. 
Aug. 30, Benjamin Fletcher, Governor of New York colony. 
Aug., Fort Pemaquid, Maine, built. 

The new charter of Massachusetts received b^ the colony. 

Abraham De Peyster, Mayor of New York city. 

Andrew Hamilton, Governor of East and West Jersey. 

Sir Lionel Copley, Boyal Governor of Maryland, succeeded by William Copley. 

Sir Edmund Andros, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

Philip Ludwell, Proprietary Governor of Sout£ Carolina. 

New Hampshire again separated from Massachusetts. 

Charter government restored in Connecticut. 

William Penn loses his commission in Pennsylvania. 

Congregational church established in Maryland. 

Presby^rian churches established in Freehold and Woodbridge, New Jersey. 

Witchcraft atrocities continue in Salem, Massachusetts. 

James Blair obtains the charter for William and Mary College in Virginia. 

San Antonio, Texas, settled by the Spanish. 

1698 

August 11, The Indians negotiate a treaty of peace with the English in Maine. 
October 12, First school law of the state of New Jersey to maintain a school- 
master within the town enacted by the General Assembly at Perth Amboy. 
Oct. 26, Colonel Benjamin Fletcher, Governor of New York, goes to Hartford while 
the Assemblv is in session and demands command of the military forces under 
commission from the King. The Assembly refusing, he orders the military forces 
under arms and attempto to read his commission to them and assume com- 
mand. Captain Wadsworth prevents this b^ ordering the drums to beat and 
threatening death to the Governor if he persists. 

Post Office established in Boston. 

Law passed in each town in New Hampshire requiring it to provide a school- 
master. Dover is excepted, being too much impoverished by Indian raids to do so. 
Burlington, New Jersey, incorporated. 

On the death of Governor Copley, Sir Edmund Andros assumes the government 
until the arrival of Nicholson as Governor of Maryland. 

Benjamin Fletcher, William Warkham and William Penn, Colonial Governors of 
Pennsylvania. 

Alexander Lillington, Deputy-Proprietary Governor of North Carolina. 
Thomas Smith, Proprietary Governor of South Carolina. 
Don Laureane de Torres, Governor of East Florida. 
First printing press introduced into New York city by William Bradford. 



16M, Jtly 17 59 Dea 10, 1697 

1694 

July 17, Sieur de Villieiiy with a force of Indians, approaches Durham, New 
Hampshire, undiscovered. He waits in ambush during the night, attacks the 

Slace at sunrise, destroys the houses and carries away captives, 
rorember 17, William Stoughton, Acting Governor or Massachusetts colony. 

Francis Nicholson, Boyal Governor of Maryland. 

Sir Ferdinando and Joseph Blacke, Governor and Proprietary Governor of South 

Carolina. 

Seat of government in Maryland established at Severn. It is later changed to 

Annapolis. 

Cadillac appointed Governor of Mackinac. 

Coin for New England struck in England, made of copper, bearing the design 

of an elephant. 

Connecticut charter ratified by King William m of England. 

1695 

May, Caleb Carr, Boyal Governor of Bhode Island. 

May, Bichard Bellamont appointed Governor of New York. 

William Merritt, Mayor of New York city. 

Thomas Harvey, Deputy Proprietary Governor of North Carolina. 

John Archdale, Proprietary Governor of South Carolina. Later in the year the 

two Assemblies in Carolina, North and South, are united under one Governor. 

Public Post established from the Potomac through Annapolis to Philadelphia, 

Pennsylvania. The route is to be covered eight times in a year and the postman 

to receive a salary of fifty pounds sterling per annum. 

Salem, New Jersey, incorporated. 

Le Sieur builds a trading-post on an island in the Mississippi Biver just above 

Lake Pipin, Minnesota. 

1696 

January, Walter Clarke, after the overthrow of the Boyal Governor, is again 
elected Governor of Bhode Island. 

July 16, The French and Indians, under Iberville Villebon and Castin, capture 
the fort at Pemaquid, Maine. 

Annapolis, Maryland, incorporated by law. The government is intrusted to 

eight freeholders called ''Commissioners and Trustees.'' 

St. John's College, Annapolis, Maryland, organized. 

Nathaniel Blackstone, Boyal Governor of Marvland. 

Andres de Arriola appointed first Governor of a Spanish colony at Pensacola, 

Florida. 

Joseph Blake, Proprietary Governor of South Carolina. 

Habeas Corpus Act suspended. 

Castine, with a force of Indians, captures the fort at Pemaquid. 

1697 

January 14, Judge Sewall, of Boston, Mass., publicly confesses his error in the 
witchcraft trials. 

Bfardi 15, Indians attack Haverhill, Massachusetts. 

Mar. 27, Governor Bradstreet dies at Salem, Massachusetts, at the age of ninety- 
five years. 

September 11, Eastern Sagadahoc claimed by the French as part of Nova Scotia, 
under the treaty of B3rswick. 

December 10, reace of Byswick proclaimed at Boston, Massachusetts, thus ter- 
minating the King William 's War. 

Jeremiah Basse, Governor of the West Jersey colony. 
France claims all the Mississippi Valley. 



1697, Dec. 10 60 1700 

The right of appeal from colonial courts to the King in council soetained by the 

highest legal authorities. 

George L. Anson, navigator, bom. 

1698 
May, Bichard Bellomont, Governor, arrives in New York. 

New Hampshire united with Massachusetts. 

Samuel Cranston, Boyal Governor of Bhode Island. 

Fitz John Winthrop, Governor of Connecticut. 

Earl of Bellomont assumes the duties as Colonial Governor of New York. 

Johannes De Peyster, Mayor of New York city. 

Jeremiah Besse, Governor of East Jersey. 

Andrew Hamilton, Governor of the West Jersey colony. 

Andros removed from the governorship of Virginia, through the influence of 

Commissary Blair. 

Francis Nicholson, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

Bienville founds a French settlement at the mouth of the Mississippi Biver. 

1699 

Jaanary 2, Nathaniel Blackstone becomes Governor of Maryland. 
Jan. 7, Treaty of Aug. 7 between the white men and the Indians signed and rati- 
fied with additional articles at Mare Point (now in Brunswick, Maine.) 
BlftTdti 2, Pierre Le Moyne Iberville enters the Mississippi Biver, settles Biloxi, 
Louisiana, and returns to France, leaving his lieutenant, Sanvolle de la Villantry, 
in command. 

May S, D 'Iberville reaches France. 

May 2Bf Earl of Bellomont supersedes William Stoughton as Governor of Massa- 
chusetts and arrives at Boston, Massachusetts. 
May, Colony on the Bay of Biloxi, Mississippi. 

July SI, Bichard, Earl of Bellomont, is installed Governor of New York, Massa- 
chusetts and New Hampshire. The council and courts reorganized by opponents of 
the Mason claim of rights. 

Sq^ytember 15, Bienville, returning from an expedition north of Lake Pontchar- 
train, finds an English ship at the mouth of the Mississippi Biver, which sails 
away after being notified by Bienville that France had taken possession. 
December 7, SonvoUe appointed Governor of Louisiana. 

John Matan, Acting Lieutenant Governor, Colonial Governor of New York. 

David Provost, Mayor of New York city. 

Andrew Hamilton, Governor of East Jersey. 

Andrew Bowne, Deputy Governor of East Jersey. 

Lord Berkeley, one of the Proprietors of New Jersey. 

H. Walker, President of the Colonial Council of North Carolina. 

Bienville appointed Governor of Louisiana. 

Iberville, Louisiana, settled by the French. 

Captain Kidd seized in Boston, Massachusetts, as a pirate and sent to England. 

Alaska territory granted to a Bussian Company by Emperor Paul VHI. 

1700 

William Stoughton, Governor of Massachusetts colony. 

James Moore, Proprietary Governor of South Carolina. 

East and West Jersey united. 

Earl of Bellomont, Colonial Governor of New York. 

Estimated population of the colonies, viz.: New Hampshire 6,000, Massachusetts 

70,000, Bhode Island 6,000, Connecticut 24,000, New York 19,000, New Jersey 

14,000, Pennsylvania (including Delaware) 20,000, Maryland 31,000, Virginia 

72,000, North Carolina 5,000, and South Carolina 8,000. Total estimated population 

of the colonies at this time 275,000 inhabitants. 



1701 61 May 1% 1709 

1701 

The Council administrating the government of the Massachosetts colony. 

Andrew Hamilton, Deputy Colonial Governor of Pennsylvania. 

Samuel Willard, President of Harvard College. 

William Penn returns to England. 

Lord Combury appointed Governor of New York. 

Yale College founded in Connecticut. 

The Earl of Bellomont dies. 

1702 

May 8, Lord Combury, Governor of New York colony. 

Queen Anne's War, or War of the Spanish Succession, commences. 

Expedition against St. Aus^stine, Florida. 

Indian outrages in Massachusetts. 

New Jersey made a Boyal Province under the Governor of New York, Edward 

Hyde (Lord Cornbury), Boyal Governor. 

Delaware secures a separate Legislative Assembly. 

Trial of Nicholas Bayard for treason. 

1703 

Edward Shippen, Colonial President of Pennsylvania. 
Boundary between Bhode Island and Connecticut adjusted. 
Sir Nathaniel Johnson, Proprietary Governor of South Carolina. 
Thomas Trench, Boyal Governor of Maryland. 

1704 

John Seymour, Boyal Governor of Maryland. 

John Evans, Colonial Deputy-Governor of Pennsylvania. 

Bobert Daniel, Colonial Deputy Governor of North Carolina. 

Andros, Governor of New York. 

First newspaper published in Massachusetts. 

Gibraltar taken by the English. 

1706 

Edward Nott, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 
Thomas Carey, Deputy-Governor of North Carolina. 

1706 

January 17, Benjamin Franklin, statesman and signer of the Declaration of Inde< 
pendence, bom in Boston, Massachusetts. 
Edmund Jennings, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

1707 

March 7, Stephen Hopkins, signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom in 

Scituate. 

Gk>rdon Saltonstall, Governor of Connecticut. 

John Leveretts, President of Harvard College. 

1708 
Bacember 18» Lord J. L. Lovelace, Colonial Governor of New York. 

1709 

May 12, Bichard Ingoldsby, Lieutenant-Govemor, Acting Governor of the New 
York colony. 

Joseph Dudley, Governor of the Massachusetts colony. 

Charles Gookin, Colonial Deputy-Governor of Pennsylvania. 

Edward Lloyd, Boyal Governor of Maryland. 

Arrival of German immigrants in North Carolina. 

Edward Tynte, Proprietary Govemor of South Carolina. 

First printing press introduced into New London, Connecticut, by Thomas Short. 



1710, Apr. 10 62 Nov., 1716 

1710 

April 10, G. Beekman, Colonial Governor of New York. 

June 14, Robert Hunter, Colonial Governor of New York and of the Boyal colony 

of New Jersey. 

Alexander Spotswood, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

August, Edward Hyde, President of the Council of North Carolina. 

Bobert Gibbes, Proprietary Governor of South Carolina. 

James Smith, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and a representative in 

Congress from Pennsylvania, bom in Ireland. 

First Post Office established in Massachusetts. 

Port Boyal, North Carolina, captured by the English and named Annapolis. 

Estimated population of the colonies, viz.: New Hampshire 7,500, Massachusetts 

80,000, Bhode Island 8,000, Connecticut 31,000, New York 26,000, New Jersey 

20,000, Pennsylvania (including Delaware) 35,000, Maryland 43,000, Virginia 

87,000, North Carolina 7,000, South Carolina 13,000, an estimated total population 

of all the colonies of 357,500 inhabitants. 

1711 

> 

Mobile, Alabama, settled by the French. 

The Cosce War and Indian Massacre in North Carolina. 

1712 

January 24, Edward Hyde, Colonial Governor of North Carolina. 
September 12, Thomas Pollock, President of the Council of North Carolina. 
Charles Craven, Proprietary Governor of South Carolina. 

1713 

January 3% Anthony Benezeth, philanthropist and anti-slavery agitator, bom. 
March, Francis Lewis, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom in 
Liandoff, Wales. 
Queen Anne's War closed by the treaty of Utrecht. 

1714 
May 28, Charles Eden, Colonial Govemor of North Carolina. 

John Hart, Boyal Governor of Maryland. 

Matthew Thornton, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and a delegate 

from New Hampshire, born in Ireland. 

George I, King of England and the Colonies. 

Andros, former Govemor of the American colonies, dies. 

Sir Francis Barnard, later Governor of New York and the Massachusetts Bay 

colonies, bom in Nettleham. 

1716 

February to Mardi, The Council administering the government of the Massachu- 
setts colony in absence of a Governor. 

March to November, Joseph Dudley, Governor of the Massachusetts colony. 
Noyember, William Tailor, Govemor of the Massachusetts colony. 

Maryland restored to Lord Baltimore, and John Hart appointed Proprietary 
Governor. 

First lighthouse built on Little Brewster Island in Boston Harbor, Massachu- 
setts. 

Habeas Corpus Act suspended on account of Scots' Bebellion. 
Isaac Addington, former Chief Justice of Massachusetts province, dies. 
John Hart, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom in Hopewell| New 
Jersey. 



1716, Jul 15 63 Feb. 24^ 1723 

1716 

January 15» Philip Livingston, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom 
in Albany, New York. 

George Taylor, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom in Ireland. 
Samuel Shnte, Governor of the Massachusetts colony. 
Bobert Daniel, Proprietary Governor of South Carolina. 
Natchez, Mississippi, settled by the French. 

1717 

Sir William Keith, Colonial Deputy-Governor of the Pennsylvania settlements. 
Bobert Johnson, Proprietary Governor of South Carolina. 

1718 

Death of William Penn. 

First American Bepublic (171819). 

1719 

Peter Schuyler, Colonial Governor of New York. 

James Moore, the Proprietary Governor of South Carolina, snceeeded by Arthur 

Middleton as Governor of the Temporary Bepublic. 

1720 

September 17, William Burnett, Colonial Governor of New York and New Jersey. 

Charles Calvert, Proprietary Governor of Maryland. 
Kaskaskia, Illinois, settled by the French. 
The introduction of tea into Massachusetts. 

Estimated population of the colonies: New Hampshire 9,500, Massachusetts, (in- 
cluding Maine) 92,000, Bhode Island 11,000, Connecticut 40,000, New York 36,000, 
New Jersey 26,000, Pennsylvania 48,000, Maryland 62,000, Virginia 116,000, North 
Carolina 13,060, South Carolina 20,828. Total estimated population of all the 
colonies 474,388 inhabitants. 

1721 

April 19, Boger Sherman, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom in 

Newton, Massachusetts. 

Francis Nicholson, Boyal Governor of South Carolina. 

1722 

February 5v John Winterspoon, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom 
in Yester, Scotland. 

March SO, Thomas Pollock, President of the Council of North Carolina. 
September 7, William Beed, President of the CouncU of North Carolina succeed- 
ing Pollock. 

B^ft. 22, Samuel Adams, statesmlin, patriot, and a signer of the Declaration of 
Independence, born in Massachusetts. 

y Hugh Drysdale, Colonial €N>vernor of Virginia. 

Habeas Corpus Act suspended for twelve months. 

1723 

February 24, John Burgoyne, a British General with General Gage at the battle 
of Bunker HiU, Boston, bom. 

William Drummer, Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

A number of pirates hanged on GraveUy Point, Newport, Bhode Island. 



1724, Jan. 16 64 Nov^ 1729 



1724 

January 15, George Bariington, Governor of North Carolina. 
April 1, Samuel Blodgett, inventor, bom in MasBachnsetta. 

John Morton, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom in Bidley, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Joseph Talcott, Governor of Connecticut. 
Fort Dummer, Vermont, settled by the English. 

1726 

July 17, Sir Bichard Everard, Colonial Govemor of North Carolina. 

Arthur Middleton, Boyal Governor of South Carolina. 
Benjamin Wadsworth, President of Harvard College. 

1726 

Febmary 16, Abraham Clark, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom at 
Elizabethtown, New Jersey. 

November 26, Oliver Wolcott, physician and a signer of the Declaration of In- 
dependence, bom at Windsor, Connecticut. 

Patrick Gordon, Colonial Govemor of Pennsylvania. 

William Gouch, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

First printing press set up at Annapolis, Maryland. 

George W^he, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom in Elizabeth 

County, Virginia. 

Lewis Morris, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bora at Morriaania, 

New York. 

1727 

Biay, Joseph Jenekes, Boyal Govemor of Bhode Island. 

Angost 8, James Bowdoin, prominent Bevolutionary War patriot and, when Gov- 
ernor of the state, suppressor of Shays ' Bebellion, bom in Massachusetts. 
December 22, William Ellery, lawyer and a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, bom at Newport, Bhode Island. 

Benedict I. Calvert, Proprietary Govemor of Maryland. 
George n. King of the £nglish Domains and Colonies in America. 

1728 

April 16, John Montgomery, Colonial Govemor of New York. 

JuJ^, 1728 to Sept., 1729, William Burnet, Colonial Governor of Massachusetts. 

John Montgomery, Boyal Governor of New Jersey. 

Bering discovers the Aleutian Islands off the Alaskan Peninsula. 

1729 

William Dummer, Colonial Govemor of Massachusetts to June, 1730. 
November, Josiah Bartlett, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom 
in Amesbury, Massachusetts. 
Baltimore, Maryland, established. 

November, Boyal Govemment established in South Carolina and the final separa- 
tion of the Carolinas to North and South Carolina about this time. 



1780, June to Aug. 65 Aug. 1, 1782 



1780 

June to August^ William Tailor, Colonial Governor of Massachusetts. 
Jonathan Belcher, Colonial Governor of Massachusetts. 

October 1, Richard Stockton, lawyer and a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, bom at Princeton, New Jersey. 

Bobert Johnson, Boyal Governor of South Carolina. 

Settlement by the French at Vincennes, Indiana. 

William Whipple, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, born at Kittery, 

Maine. 

George Boss, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and by profession a 

lawyer, bom at Newcastle, Delaware. 

Caesar Bodney, general and a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom 

at Dover, Delaware. 

Joseph Hewes, lawyer and a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom at 

Kingston, New Jersey. 

First printing press established at Charleston, South Carolina, 

Population of New Hampshire 12,000, Massachusetts (including Maine) 125,000, 

Bhode Island 16,950, Connecticut 55,000, New York (including Vermont) 49,000, 

New Jersey 37,000, Pennsylvania (including Delaware) 65,000, Maryland 82,000, 

Virginia 153,000, North Carolina 30,000, South Carolina 30,000. Total estimated 

population of all the colonies of 654,950 inhabitants. 

1781 

February 25, George Burrington, Boyal Governor of North Carolina. 
April 8^ William Williams, statesman and a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, born in Lebanon, Connecticut. 

Bip Van Dam, Governor of the New York colony. 

Lewis Morris, President of the council for the government of New Jersey. 

Samuel Ogle, Proprietary Governor of Maryland. 

Lyman Hall, physician and a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom in 

Connecticut. 

Bobert Treat Paine, lawyer and a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom 

in Boston, Massachusetts. 

Zebulon Butler, Bevolutionary War military officer, bom in Connecticut. 

1782 

January 20, Bichard Henry Lee, soldier and a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, born at Stratford, Virginia. 

February 22, George Washington, first President of the United States of America, 
bom. (See supplement of the Presidents.) 

Pidrre A. B. de Beaumarchais, a Bevolutionary War patriot, bom in Paris. 
March 14, Thomas H. Benton, statesman, born in North Carolina. 
June 17, William Hooper, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom in 
Boston, Massachusetts. 

Samuel Huntington, lawyer and a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom 
at Windham, Connecticut. 

August 1, William Crosby, Colonial Governor of New York and New Jersey. 
Button Gwinnett, merchant and a signer of the Declaration of Independence, born 
in England. 

William Wanton, Boyal Governor of Bhode Island. 

Charles (Lord Baltimore), Proprietary Governor of Maryland. 

Lotteries prohibited in Bhode Island. 

First printing press set up at Newport, Bhode Island. 

William Gushing bom (jurist) in Scituate, Mass. 

Savannah, (Georgia, settled by the English. 



1734, Jan. 20 66 Jan. 2i, 1739 

1734 

Jannary 20, Bobert Morris, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom in 

Lancashire, England. 

March 19, Thomas McKean, a signer of the Declaration of IndependencOi bom 

at New London, Pennsylvania. 

April 17, Nathanial Bice, Boyal Governor of North Carolina. 

May, John Wanton, Boyal Governor of Bhode Island. 

October 14, Francis Lightfoot Lee, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, 

bora at Stratford, Virginia. 

November 2, G. Johnson, Boyal Governor of North Carolina. 

December 17, William Floyd, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom 

at Setanket, New York. 

George Bead, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom in Cecil County, 

Maryland. 

Samuel Ogle, Proprietary €k»vemor of Maryland. 

1785 

February 11, Daniel Boone, pioneer of Kentucky, bom. 

October 30, John Adams, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and Presi- 
dent of the United States, bom in Braintree (now Quincy), Massachusetts. 

Trial and acquittal of John P. Zenger for libels on the Colonial Government. 
Thomas Broughton, Boyal Governor of South Carolina. 

1736 

September 10, Carter Braxton, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom 
at Newington, Virginia. 

George Clarke, Colonial Governor of New York. 

James Logan, Colonial President of the colony of Pennsylvania. 

John Anderson and John Hamilton, President of Council and Governor of the 

New Jersey colony. 

1737 

January 12, John Hancock, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and 
Governor of Massachusetts, born in Braintree, Massachusetts. 
September 20, Charles Carroll, lawyer and a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, bom in Annapolis, Maryland. 

Francis Hopkinson, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and by profes- 
sion a lawyer, bom at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
William Bull, Boyal Governor of South Carolina. 
Edward Holyoke, President of Harvard College. 
The Moravians in Georgia. 

1738 

December 26^ Thomas Nelson, Jr., a signer of the Declaration of Independence, 
bom in York, Virginia. 

Lewis Morris, Boyal Governor of the New Jersey colony, succeeding Dr. Franklin. 

George Thomas, Colonial Deputy-Governor of Pennsylvania. 

Jonathan Boucher, a loyalist during the Bevolutionary War, bom in England. 

1739 

January 24, George Clymer, merchant and a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, born at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

John Butledge, American statesman and jurist, bom. 
The Spanish War begins. 



1740, Jvly 15 67 Bejpt. 2, 174S 

17i0 

July 15v Bichard Ward, Bojal Governor of Rhode Island. 

October 31, William Paca, lawyer and a signer of the Declaration of IndependeneOi 

bom at Wye Hall, Maryland. 

George Walton, lawyer and a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom 

at Frederick County, Virginia. 

Benjamin Harrison, farmer and a signer of the Declaration of Independence, 

bom at Berkeley, Virginia. 

Jonathan TmmbnU, statesman, bom. 

The University of Pennsylvania established. 

Population of New Hampshire 22,000, Massachusetts (including Maine) 158,000, 

Bhode Island 24,000, Connecticut 70,000, New York (including Vermont) 63,000, 

New Jersey 52,000, Pennsylvania (including Delaware) 100,000, Maryland 105,000, 

Virginia 200,000, North Carolina 50,000, South Carolina 45,000. Total estimated 

population of all the colonies of 889,000 inhabitants. 

1741 

April 17, Samuel Chase, lawyer and a signer of the Declaration of Independence, 
bom in Somerset County, Maryland. 

May 17, John Penn, lawyer and a signer of the Declaration of Independence, boni 
in Carolina County, Virginia. 

William Shirley, Colonial Govemor of Massachusetts. 
Jonathan Law, Governor of Connecticut. 

Benedict Arnold, the attempted traitor to American Independence, bom im Nor- 
wich, Connecticut. 
Alaska discovered by Bering. 
New Hampshire finally separated from Massachusetts. 

1742 

January 30, Bichard Henry Lee, patriot and a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, bom in Stratford, Virginia. 

June 17, William Hooper, lawyer and a signer of the Declaration of Independence, 
born at Boston, Massachusetts. 

Angost 7, General Nathanael Greene, major-general in the Bevolutionary War, 
bom. 

Thomas Stone, lawyer and a signer of the Declaration of Ind^endence, bom 

at Pointoin Manor, Maryland. 

Thomas Bladen, Proprietary Govemor of Maryland. 

James Wilson, lawyer and a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom 

at St. Andrews, Scotland. 

Theodore Bland, military officer, bom in Virginia. 

Invasion of Georgia by the Spanish. 

Negro plot in New York. 

The Mohawk Indian Chief, Joseph Brant, bom in Ohio. 

1743 

April 13, Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, si^er, 

and President of the United States, bom in Shadville, Albermarle Co., Virginia. 

(See supplement of the Presidents.) 

Biay 23, William Aspinwall, United States Surgeon-General in the Bevolutionary 

War, bom in Brookline, Massachusetts. 

Biay, William Green, Boyal Govemor of Bhode Island. 

Bafrtamber 2; George Clinton, Colonial Governor of New York. 

Arthur Middleton, lawyer and a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom 
in Middleton Place, South Carolina, 



1743, Sept. 2 68 Aug. 5, 1749 

James Glen, Boyal Governor of South Carolina. 

Nasbit Balfour, British general, wounded at the Battle of Bunker Hill, Massa- 
chusetts, bom. 

1744 

July 17, Elbridge Gerry, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and Vice- 
President of the United States, bom in Marblehead, Massachusetts. 
Noyember 23, Abigail Adams, wife of President John Adams, born in Weymouth, 
Massachusetts. 

King George's War between England and France declared. 
Negro plot in New York city. 

1745 

May, Gideon Wanton, Boyal Governor of Rhode Island. 
June 17, Louisbnrg taken by the English. 

December 24, Benjamin Bush, physiciftn and a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, born at Berberry, Pennsylvania. 

Oliver Ellsworth, American jurist and statesman, bom. 

John Jay, first chief justice of the United States, bom. 

John Barry, naval officer in the Revolutionary War, to whom was assigned the 

honor of conveying Lafayette and Neabilles back to France, born. 

1746 
Biay, William Greene, Royal Governor of Rhode Island. 

John Hamlinton and John Reading, Presidents of the Royal colony of New Jersey. 

Samuel Ogle, Proprietary Governor of Maryland. 

Thomas Hayward, Jr., a signer of the Declaration of Independence and a lawyer 

by profession, bom at St. Lukes, South Carolina. 

Theodore Sedgwick, American jurist and statesman, bom. 

1747 

Gideon Wanton, Royal Governor of Rhode Island. 
Anthony Palmer, Colonial President of Pennsylvania. 
Jonathan Belcher, Governor of the Royal colony of New Jersey. 

1748 

March 25, Stephen Badlam, military officer, bom in Massachusetts. 
Mar. 26, William Barton, military officer, born in Rhode Island. 

William Greene, Royal Governor of Rhode Island. 

James HamOton, Deputy Colonial Governor of Pennsylvania. 

King George's War ended by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. 

1749 

Angnat 6v Thomas Lynch, Jr., lawyer and a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, born in Prince George County, South Carolina. 

Edward Rutledge, lawyer and a signer of the Declaration of Independence, bom 

at Charleston, Sou^ Carolina. 

Spencer Phipps, Governor of the Massachusetts colony. 

Thomas Lee and Lewis Burwell, Colonial Governors of Virginia. 

James Davis introduces the first printing press into New Berne, North Carolina. 

Beaver TaU Lighthouse built. It is said to be the oldest on the American coast. 



1750 69 Sept. 8, 1755 

1750 

Boger Wolcott, GoTemor of Conneeticat. 

F. A. Muhlenburg, Speaker of the United States House of Bepresentatives, bom. 

Joseph B. Varnum bom, statesman. 

Estimated population of New Hampshire 31,000, Massachusetts 180,000, Bhode 

Island 36,000, Connecticut 100,000. New York (including Vermont) 80,000, New 

Jersey 66,000, Pennsylvania (including Delaware) 150,000, Maryland 137,000, 

Virginia 275,000, North Carolina 80,000, South Carolina 68,000, Georgia 5,000. 

Total estimated population of all the colonies 207,000 inhabitants. 

1751 

Washington appointed adjutant-ffeneral of Virginia troops. 

John Adams enters Harvard College. 

James Madison, fourth President of the United States, bom at Post Conway, 

King George County, Virginia, 

Francis Barber, military officer, bom. 

James Iredell, American jurist, bom. 

First printing press set up at Woodbridge, New Jersey, by Parker. 

1752 

Washington inherits Mt. Vernon, Virginia, on the Potomac Biver. 

Boyal government established in Georgia. 

Bobert Dinwiddle, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

Benjamin Tasker, Proprietary Governor of Maryland. 

Nathaniel Bice, Boyal (Governor of North Carolina and president of the council. 

1753 

February 1, Matthew Bowan, President of the council of North Carolina. 

October 10, Sir Danvers Osbom, Governor of the New York colony. 

Oct. 12» James De Lancey, Colonial Governor of New York. 

Oct. 31, Washington dispatched to St. Pierre by Governor Dinwiddle; is also in 

command of the military district in Virginia. 

William Shirley, Governor of the Massachusetts colony. 
Horatio Sharpe, Proprietary Governor of Maryland. 

1754 

Harch 24, Joel Barlow, diplomat, born in Connecticut. 
Biay 28, Battle of Great Meadows, French and Indian War. 
July 4, Battle of Fort Necessity. 

Albany Convention, first definite step toward national union of the colonies. 

Washington appointed a lieutenant-colonel in command of Virginia Militia. 

French and Indian War. 

Thomas Fitch, Governor of Connecticut. 

Bobert H. Morris, Colonial Deputy-Governor of Pennsylvania. 

November 1, Arthur Dobbs, Boyal Govemor of North Carolina. 

John Beynolds, Colonial Govemor of Georgia. 

1756 

Biay, Stephen Hopkins, Boyal Govemor of Bhode Island. 
June 16^ Battle of Fort Beau Se jour, French and Indian War. 
June 17, Battle of Fort Gaspereauz, French and Indian War. 
June-September, The French driven from Arcadia. 
July 9, Braddock's defeat in the Battle of Monongahela. 
Sefptember 3, Sir Charles Hardy, Colonial Governor of New York. 
Septomber 8, The British defeat Dicekan at Lake George. 



1764, Oct. 26 72 Sept. 27, 1768 

1764 

October 26, Thomas Green publishes at Hartford, Connecticut, the first issue 

of the Connecticut Courant. 

Oct. 27, William Tryon, Boyal Qovemor of North Carolina. 

St. Louis, Missouri, settled by the French. 

Connecticut sends Jared Ingersoll to England in opposition to the Stamp Act. 

1766 

September 19, Ingersoll, of Connecticut, having accepted the position of stamp 
master, is compelled by the citizens of the colony to resign. 

October 7, Declaration of Bights. (First Colonial Congress in New York.) On 
the passage of the Stamp Act by the British Parliament in March, 1765, re- 
quiring that all legal instruments used in the American English colonies should 
bear a government stamp in order to be valid, delegates of nine of the colonies 
met in New York in October of same year to protest against this and other 
encroachments upon the rights of the people of these colonies and drew up their 
Declaration. As a result of this the Stamp Act was repealed in the following 
March. 

Oct. 7, Delaware sends Messrs. McEean and Bodney as delegates to the first 
Colonial Congress at New York. 
November 18, Sir Henry Moore, Governor of the New York colony. 

Samuel Ward, Charter Governor of Bhode Island. 

The Stamp Act. 

The Virginia Besolution. 

The Bhode Island Besolution, denying the right of England to tax the colonies. 

Patrick Henry, of Virffinia, "defies the King." 

Samuel Adams, a member of the Massachusetts Legislature. 

1766 

March 18, The American Stamp Act repealed by the British Parliament. 

Dedication of "Liberty Tree'* at Newport, Bhode Island. 

William Pitkin, Governor of Connecticut. 

Governor Thomas Fitch takes oath in Connecticut for the support of the Stamp 

Act, but is dismissed at the next general election. 

Charles Montague, Boyal Governor of South Carolina. 

1767 

March 15, Andrew Jackson, President of the United States, bom near Cnsetons 
Pond, Union County, North Carolina. 

BCay, Stephen Hopkins, Governor of Bhode Island, under Charter. 
June 19, The Tea Tax imposed on the American colonies by the British Govern- 
ment. 

July 11, John Quincy Adams, President of the United States, bom in Braintree, 
Mass. (now Quincy.) 

Thomas Jefferson admitted to the Virginia bar and begins the practice of law. 

Smith Thompson, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court in 1823, 

bom. 

First issue of the Connecticut Journal, published at New Haven, Connecticut. 

1768 

April 9, Jose de Galvez leaves Mexico, the Spanish having been aroused by re- 
peated reports of Bussian advances southwest from Alaska to the Pacific Coast 
and California. 

BCay, Josias Lyndon, Charter Governor of Bhode Island. 

Septembar 27, General Gage arrives in Boston, Massachusetts with troops from 
England. 



1768, Bept 27 73 Aug^ 1771 

Lord Boutetourt, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

Massachasetts Assembly petitions the King against unjust taxation. 

1769 

April 11 and BCay 1, Galvez fits out an expedition by sea and land in lower Cali- 
fornia. Two vessels reach San Diego. 

July 9, Portola reaches San Diego, California, with a land expedition. 
October 6, Sir Isaac Brook, British military commander, born. 
Oct. 30, Portola reaches San Pedro, California, with an expedition. 
Thomas Hutchinson, Governor of the Massachusetts colony. 

KOTember 11, Portola, with a land expedition, proceeds nearly to San Francisco 
Bay, when he is forced to return to his base at San Diego on account of the 
want of provisions and the exhaustion of his forces. 
BCay, Joseph Wanton, Charter Governor of Rhode Island. 

Jonathan Trumbull, Governor of Connecticut. (He retained the governorship for 
about fifteen years and was the one Colonial Governor who favored independence 
in 1776. It is said that General Washington humorously bestowed upon him the 
name "Brother Jonathan,'' since applied to the United States.) 

Cadwallader Colden, Governor of the New York colony. 
Bobert Eden, Proprietary Governor of Maryland. 
William Bull, Boyal Governor of South Carolina. 
James Madison enters Princeton College, New Jersey. 
Thomas Jefferson, a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses. 
John Adams, chairman of the Committee to prepare instructions to their repre- 
sentatives relative to encroachments of home government. 
The British revenue sloop, "Liberty," destroyed. 
San Diego, California, settled by the Spanish. 
Captain Cook discovers the Pacific Ocean. 

1770 

March 6, Boston Massacre. 

Blar. 6, William Werner, James Hartegan, William McCauley, with other British 

soldiers, tried in Boston for the murder of Crispus Attucks, Samuel Gray, Samuel 

Maverick, James Caldwell and Patrick Carr. 

April 12; All duties, except that on tea, repealed by the British government, 

formally imposed on the colonies. 

BCay 24, Second expedition of Portola, reaching Monterey Bay, California, f^om 

San Diego. 

June 3, Misson of San Carlos founded at Monterey, California. 

October 19, John L. Denmore, Colonial Governor of New York. 

John Adams, a member of the Massachusetts Legislature. 

William Nelson, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

Samuel Locke, President of Harvard College. 

Tumult in Boston over unjust taxation. 

Estimated population of Maine 34,000, New Hampshire 60,000, Vermont 25,000, 

Massachusetts 265,000. Bhode Island 55,000, Connecticut 175,000, New York 

160,000, New Jersey 110,000, Pennsylvania 250,000, Delaware 25,000, Maryland 

200,000, Virginia 450,000 North Carolina 230,000, South Carolina 140,000, Georgia 

26,000. Total estimated population of all the colonies 2,205,000 inhabitants. 

1771 

Thomas Hutchinson, Governor of the Massachusetts colony. 

July 1, James Hasell, President of the council of North Carolina. 

July 9, William Try on, Governor of the New York colony. 

James Hamilton, President, and Bichard Penn, Governor of the Pennsylvania 

colony. 

Angiur^ Joiiah Martin, Governor of North Carolina. 



1771, Aug. 74 Jnly 22, 1774 

James Madison graduates from Princeton College, New Jersey. 
Missions founded at Ban Antonio de Padua and San Gabriel, California. 

1772 

March 27, The Viceroy of Mexico sends Don Pedro Fager, as successor to Portola, 
with an expedition from Monterey to clear the Francisco harbor of foreign 
Aggression. . 

A]^ 4, Expedition sent out from Monterey, California, for Ban Francisco, ad- 
vances along the Pacific shores reaching San Joaquin Biver. Being unable to 
cross, they are forced to return to Monterey. 

Lord Dunmore, Colonial Governor of Virginia. 

Commissioners chosen by Delaware to erect a state house and other public build- 
ings at Dover. Caesar Bodney is chosen. 
The British revenue sloop, "Gaspee," burned at Narragansett Bay. 

1778 

Febmazy 9, William Henry Harrison, President of the United States, bom in 
Berkeley, Charles City County, Virginia. 

John Penn, Colonial Governor of Pennsylvania. (Under the proprietary gov- 
ernment, when there was no Deputy-Governor, the president of the council 
acted as such. Proprietary government ended by the Constitution of 1776. The 
representatives of the Penn family were paid for the surrender of their rights and 
a government by the people established.) 

Washington a delegate to the Williamsburg Convention, where it is resolved 
that taxation and representation are one and inseparable. 

Thomas Jefferson chosen as member of the first committee of correspondence, 
established by the Colonial Legislature. 

Agitation in Boston and shipments of tea thrown overboard in the harbor. . 
Captain Cook makes second voyage. 

1774 

Marcb 22; Expedition under Juan Bautista de Anza from Sonora, California, 
reaches San GabrieL 

Mar. 81, The Boston <<Port Bill,'' passed. 

May 7, William Bainbridge, naval officer who conquered the British ship "Java'' 
during the war of 1812, bom in New York. 
2£aj 25, Moncada appointed Lieutenant-Governor of California. 
June 6, Sherman, Dyer, and Deane, elected at Norwich, Connecticut, to represent 
the colony in the first Continental Congress. 

June 17, John and Samuel Adams, Bobert Treat Paine, and Thomas Cushing, 
attend the first Continental Congress at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as delegates 
representing Massachusetts. 

Jtme 22; Bobert Goldsborongh, William Paca, Thomas Johnson, and Matthew 
Tilghman. delegates from Maryland at the first Continental Congress meeting at 
Phuadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

July 6, Henry Middleton, Christopher Gadsden, Edward Butledge, Thomas Lynch, 
members of the first Continental Congress at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, repre- 
senting as delegates the state of South Carolina. 

July Ov The northern coast of California explored by Perez in the "Santiago." 
July 13, E. Dyer, Boger Sherman, and Silas Deane, chosen members of the first 
Continental dongress, held at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as delegates from 
Connecticut. 

July 21, Major John Sullivan and Colonel Nathaniel Folsom attend the first 
Continental Confess, as delegates from New Hampshire. 

July 22, Credentials signed, and J. Galloway, Samuel Bhodes, Thomas Miffin, J«hn 
Morton, Charles Humphreys, Edward Bid die, George Boss, and John Dickinson, 
sent as members to the first Continental Congress, at Philadelphia, Pennsylvaniai 
representing as delegates the state of Pennsylvania, 



1774, July 23 75 Oct 8, 1774 

July 28, James Einsey, John De Hart, Bichard Smith, William LivingBton, 
Stephen Crane, members of the first Continental Congress at Philadelphia, Irenn- 

J^lvania, representing as delegates \the state of New Jersey, 
nly 28, Colonel William Floyd, a member of the first Continental Congress, held 
at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, representing as delegate the county of Suffolk in 
the province of New York. 

Jnly 28, James Dnane, Philip Livingston, John Jay, Isaac Low, John Alsop, John 
Herring, Simon Boerum, and Henry Wilson, members of the first Continental 
Congress held at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as delegates representing the city 
and county of New York and oth^r counties in the province of New York. 
Aagust 1, CflBsar Bodney, Thomib McKane, and George Bead, members of the 
first Continental Congress, meeting at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, representing 
as delegates New Castle, Kent, and Sussex, on the Delaware. 
Aug. 6, Peyton Bandolph, Patrick Henry, Benjamin Harrison, George Washing- 
ton, Bichard Bland, Edmund Pendleton, and Bichard Henry Lee, members of the 
first Continental Congress, meeting at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, representing 
as delegates the state of Virginia. 

Aug. 10, Stephen Hopkins and Samuel Ward, members of the first Continental 
Congress, at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as delegates from Bhode Island and 
Providence Plantations. 

Aug. 26^ Bichard Caswell, Joseph Hewes, and William Hooper, members of the 
first Continental Congress, at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, representing as delegates 
the state of North Carolina. 

September 1, About this time delegates having been chosen from most of the 
respective colonies to the first Continental Congress to meet at Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, America is virtually under the government of the Continental 
Congress. 

Sept. 6, The first Continental Congress assembled at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
on this date. 

Sept. 5^ Peyton Bandolph, of Virffinia, chosen as the first president of the first 
Continental Conrress at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The first meeting was held 
in Carpenter's Hall, with all the states represented except Georgia and North 
Carolina. Charles Thomson was elected secretary, a position which he con- 
tinued to hold from its beginning to its final close. Forty-four delegates 
were in attendance at this Congress. 

Sept. 6, Congress resolves that in determining questions each colony or province 
shall be entitled to one vote in the assembly by each representative. 
Sept. 6, Bichard Henry Lee, of Virginia, takes his seat in the first Continental 
Conffress. and Thomas Johnson, of Maryland, represents as delegate his state 
in this Cfongress. 

Sept. 7, The first Continental Congress opened with prayer by the Beverend 
Jacob Duche. 

Sept. 10^ Besolution of Suffolk, Massachusetts, that no obedience is due the 
recent acts of Parliament, approved by the Congress. 

Sept. 12, Thomas Tilghman, of Maryland, takes his seat in the first Continental 
Congress at Philadelphia, Fennsylvaniai representing as delegate the state of 
Maryland. 

Sept. 14, Henry Wilson and John Alsop, of New York, George Boss, of Pennsyl- 
vania, and Joseph Hewes and William Hooper, of North Carolina, also take 
their seats in the first Continental Congiess at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, repre- 
senting as delegates their respective states. 

Sept. 17, John Dickinson, of Pennsylvania, takes his seat in the first Continental 
Congress at Philadelphia, representing Pennsylvania. 

Sept. 17, Bichard Caswell, of North Carolina, takes his seat in the Continental 
CoBigress at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, representing as a delegate that state in 
the Congress. 

Sept. 28, John Herring and Simon Boerum, of New York, take their seats in the 
Continental Congress representing as delegates their state. 
Sept. 28, Plans of union with Great Britain intended to perpetuate dependence 
proposed by Joseph Galloway of Pennsvlvania. rejected bv Consress. 
October 2; Henry Middleton, of South Carolina, elected president of the Con- 
tinental Congress. 



1774, Oct 10 76 Jan. 25^ 1775 

Oct. 10, Battle of Point Pleasant, West Virginia. 

Oct 14, Declaration of Colonial Bights claming self-govemment, adopted by 
Congress. 

Oct 20, Foreign slave trade denounced and signers of congress pledge non- 
intercourse with Great Britain, Ireland, and the British possessions in the West 
Indies. 

Oct 21, Memorial to the several Anglo-American Colonies adopted hj Congress. 
Oct 21, An address to the people of Great Britain prepared by John Hj and 
approved by Congress. 

Oct 22, Bandolph succeeds Henry Middleton of South Carolina, who resigns as 
president of Congress on account of indisposition. 

Oct 22, A letter dispatched by Congress to the unrepresented colonies of Nova 
Bcotia, St. John, Georgia, and rlMt and West Florida. 

Oct 26, Petition to the King drawn up by John Dickinson and ordered sent to 
Colonial agents in London. 

Oct 26^ Address to the people of Quebec drawn by Dickinson and adopted by 
Congress. 

Oct 26^ Proceedings of the first Continental Congress endorsed by the Colonies 
and Congress dissolved. 

November 8, Connecticut chooses five delegates to attend the second Continental 
Congress. 

Nov., Connecticut endorses the proceedings of the first Continental CongrOs. 
December 6, Massachusetts chooses five delegates to attend the second Continental 
Congress. 

Massachusetts endorses the proceedings of the first Continental Congress. 
Dec. 6, Colonists of Bhode Island seize ordnance at Newport. 
Dec. 8, Maryland chooses seven delegates to attend the second Continental Con- 

fress at Philadelphia, and endorses the proceedings of the first Congress, 
hode Island also takes favorable action on the same date. 
Dec. 10, Pennsylvania endorses the proceedings of the Colonists in the first Con- 
tinental Congress. 

Dec. 11, One hundred barrels of powder and some ordnance seized at Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire, by the inhabitants. 

Seizure oi: powder and ordnance by the Colonists from the Boyalists in various 
sections of the country. 

Dec 12, Ten thousand pounds voted by the Maryland convention for the purchase 
of arms and enrollment of the militia. 

Dec 15, Pennsylvania chooses six delegates to attend the second Continental 
Congress at Philadelphia. 

The Council administrates the government of the Massachusetts Colony. 
Samuel Langdon, president of Harvard College. 

John Adams, a delegate to the Continental Congress at Philadelphia, from Massa- 
chusetts. 

Washington, elected a delegate from Virginia to the Virginia House of Burgessess 
and to the Continental Congress. He was an active member, it is recorded, on 
all the important committees on military affairs coming before that body. 
John Adams, chosen a member of the Revolutionary Convention of Massachusetts. 
James Madison, a member of the Committee of Public Safety for Orange County, 
Virginia. 

Messrs McEean, Bead, and Bodnev^ elected delegates to represent Delaware at 
the first Continental Congress in Philadelphia. 

The first colony of Shakers in the New England Colonies reaches New York 
for settlement. 

1776 

January 11, South Carolina Colony endorses the proceedings of the colonies in 

the first Continental Congress. 

Jan. 24, New Jersey chooses five delegates to attend the second Continental Con 

gross at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Jan. 26, New Hampshire chooses two delegates to attend the second Continental 

Congress at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and endorses the proceedings of the 

colonies in the first Congress. 



1775, Feb. 3 77 May 20, 1776 

FebniAxy 3, South Carolina chooses five delegates to attend the second Con- 
tinental Congress at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Ifarch 15, Delaware endorses the proceedings of the colonies in the first Con- 
tinental Congress, and on the following day chooses three delegates to attend 
the second Continental Congress at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
liar. 20, Virginia chooses seven delegates to the second Continental Congress at 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and endorses the proceedings of the colonies in the 
first Congress. 

April 5, North Carolina chooses three delegates to attend the second Continental 
Congress at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and endorses the proceedings of the 
first Congress. 

Apr. 8, Delegates from Georgia express loyalty and regret their inability to attend 
the Congress in a letter to the Congress. 

Apr. 14, First anti-slavery society in the United States formed by the Qnakers 
of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Apr. 19, Determination of England expressed as to course of coercion on 
the colonies by letter intercepted at Charleston, South Carolina and made 
public. 

Apr. 19, Battle of Lexington and Concord. Massachusetts, first blood shed in the 
Bevolutionary War in the great cause of Liberty, Freedom, Independence, and 
the Bights of Men. 

Apr. 21, Alexander Anderson, wood-engraver, bom. 

Apr. 21, On hearing of the battle of Lexington, Israel Putnam, of Pomfret, Con- 
necticut, leaves for Boston, Massachusetts, covering the distance, it is said, 
with the same horse in less than eighteen hours. 

Apr. 22, New York chooses twelve delegates to attend the second Continental 
Congress at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Apr. 27, Plans laid for the capture of Ticonderoga, by Colonel Parsons and Arnold, 
at Hartford, Connecticut. 

Apr. 29, Benedict Arnold reaches Boston, with his military company from New 
Haven, Connecticut. 

Apr., Franklin returns from his mission in England. 

May 6, Pennsylvania chooses three addition^ delegates to attend the second 
Continental Congress at Philadelphia. 

May 7, Bhode Island chooses two delegates to attend the second Continental 
Congress at Philadelphia. 

BCay 9, Jacob Brown, army officer, bom in Pennsylvania. (He was voted the 
thanks of Congress for his defence on the Canadian Frontier, and voted the 
freedom of the city of New York.) 

May 10, The second Continental Congress meets at Independence Hall, in Phila- 
delphia. Peyton Bandolph, of Virginia, is president and Charles Thompson is 
secretary. 

Colonial Bepresentation in the second Continental Congress was made up of 
the following numbers: 

Connecticut 5 South Carolina 5 

Massachusetts 5 Delaware 5 

Maryland 7 Virginia 7 

Pe'nnsylvania 18 North Carolina 3 

New Jersey 5 New York 12 

New Hampshire 2 Bhode Island 8 

May 10, Colonel Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold receive the surrender of 

Ticonderoga. 

BCay 11, The General Assembly of Connecticut authorizes bids of credit to 

equip several regiments for service of the Colonies. 

May 12; Americans capture Crown Point, New York. 

May 16, St. John, Canada, captured by the Americans under Arnold. 

BCay 20, Congress agrees upon the Articles of Union and Confederation. 

BCay 20, Signing of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. 

"Mecklenburg Convention, North Carolina, Declaration of Independence,'' 

adopted, viz.: 



1775^ 2£aj 20 78 July 27, 1775 

Besolved, that whosoever directly or indirectly abetted or in any way, form or 
manner countenanced the unchartered and dangerous invasion of our rights, as 
claimed by Great Britain, is an enemy of this country, to America, and to the 
inherent and inalienable rights of men. 

Besolved, that we. the citizens of Mecklenburg County, do hereby dissolve the 
political bonds wnich have connected us to the Mother Ckiuntry, and hereby 
absolve ourselves from all allegiance to the British Crown, and abjure all political 
connection, contract or association, with that Nation, who have wantonly 
trampled on our rights and liberties, and inhumanly shed the innocent blood of 
American patriots at Lexington. 

Besolved, that we do hereby declare ourselves a free and independent people, 
are, and of right ought to be a sovereign and self -governing association, under 
the control of no power other than that of our God, and the general govern- 
ment of the congress: to the maintenance of which independence, we solemnly 
pledge to each other, our mutual co-operation, our lives, our fortunes and our 
most sacred honor. * 

Besolved, that as we now acknowledge the existence and control of no law or 
legal officer, civil or military within this country we do hereby ordain and adopt, 
as a rule of life, all, each and every of our former laws where, nevertheless, 
the Crown of Great Britain, never can be considered as holding rights, privileges, 
immunities or authority therein. 

Besolved, that it is also further decreed, that all, each and every military officer 
in this country, is hereby reinstated to his former command and authQrity, 
he acting conformably to these regulations, and that every member present of 
this delegation shall henceforth be a civil officer, viz.: a justice of the peace, 
in the character of a committee-man, to issue process, hear and determine all 
matters of controversy, according to said adopted laws, and to preserve peace and 
union, and harmony in said county, and to use every exertion to spread the 
love of Country and fire of Freedom throughout America, until a more general 
and organized government be established in this province. 
liiay 2^ Bandolph resigns the presidency of Congress and John Hancock, of 
Massachusetts, who was the presiding officer and £st signer of the Declaration 
of Independence, July 4, 1776, is chosen. 

BCay 25^ English troops arrive in Boston, under Howe, Clinton, and Burgoyne. 
May 29, An address to the peopl^ and inhabitants of Canada adopted by the 
Continental Congress. 

June 14, The raising of twenty-thousand men voted by Congress. 
June 15, Congress unanimously elects George Washington, commander-in-chie^ 
of the American forces. 

June 17, Battle of Bunker (Breeds) Hill, and Charlestown, Massachusetts, burned. 
June 22, Congress resolves that a sum not exceeding 2,000,000 Spanish 
milled dollars be emitted in bills of credit by the colonies for the defence of 
America. 

July 2, Washington takes command of the Bevolutionary Army and the troops 
before Boston, Massachusetts. 

July 6, Declaration by Congress, sanctioning the cause and necessity of taking 
up arms in defence of the people's liberties. 

July 8, Congress adopts the second petition to the Eang of England for the 
redress of wrongs perpetrated upon the colonies by the home government. 
July 10, First provincial vessel commissioned for naval warfare in the Bevolu- 
tionary War sent out by Georgia. 

July 12, A system organized by Congress for the superintendence of Indian 
affairs. 

July to June 12, 1776, Provisional Convention rules Virginia. 
July 18, Congress organizes a systematic procedure for the importation of fire- 
arms, gunpowder, etc. 
July 20, Georgia joins the United Colonies. 

July 21, A plan for Confederation, submitted by Franklin for perpetual union 
as the "United Colonies of North America,'' considered by Congress. 
July 26^ Posts established from Maine to Georgia by Benjamin Franklin as 
first Postmaster General under the Confederacy. 
July 27, Congress resolves to establish an army hospital. 



1775, July 28 79 Dee^ 1776 

July 28, An address to the people of Ireland adopted hj the Congress. 
July 29, By Besolve of Congress, George Clymer and Michael HUligas are made 
joint treasurers of the United Colonies. 

AngOBt 23, The English King issues a proclamation for suppressing rebellion and 
sedition in the colonies. 

Aug., The British vessel, the "Betsy," captured with munitions of war off the 
coast of 8t. Augustine, Florida, by a privateer from Carolina. 
Septembeir 17, English ship seizes munitions of war off Tvbee Island, Georgia. 
Sept 22, De Ayala visits the coast of San Francisco, California, explores the bay, 
and returns to Monterey, then the capital of the province. 
SepL 25, Battle near Montreal, in which Ethan Allen is captured. 
Sept., Montgomery sent into Canada to cut off British Bupplies. 
Sept., Colonel Arnold marches against Quebec via the Kennebee Biver with a 
force of over one thousand Americans. 

October 2; Lyman Beecher bom in Connecticut. He la particularly noted for 
his sermon on the death of Alexander Hamilton. 
Oct. 7, Bombardment of Bristol, Bhode Island. 

Oct. 10, General Howe supersedes General Gage as commander of the British 
forces in America. 

Oct. 18, Burning of Falmouth, Maine, by the British. 

Oct. 22, Peyton Bandolph, statesman and one of the presidents of the Con- 
tinental Congress, dies at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
Oct. 22, Engagement at Hampton, Virginia, and the British fleet repulied. 
October-Koyember, Battle and siege of St. Johns. 
November 4, Congress orders a battalion to protect Georgia. 
Nov. 7, Lord Dunmore declares open war. 

Not. 12, The British vessels, "Tama" and "Cherokee," make a night attack 
on the American shore defences in Hog Island Channel, South Carolina. 
Nov. 13, Americans under Montgomery capture Montreal, Canada. 
Nov. 25, Silas Deane, John Langdon, and Christopher (Gadsden, appointed by 
Congress to fit out vessels of war. 

Congress appoints Benjamin Harrison, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Johnson. John 
Dickinson, and John Jay as committee for secret correspondence with mends 
of America in foreign nations. 

Nov., Nicholas Clarke, charter governor of Bhode Island. 
December 9, Battle of Great Bridge. 

Dec. 13, Thirteen vessels of war ordered built. Eric Hopkins appointed com- 
mander. 

Dec 17, Settlement opposite the mouth of the Gila on the Colorado Biver. 
Dec. 31, Battle of Quebec, in which Montgomery is killed. 

Dec, Artillery company under Colonel Moultrie, stationed on Haddrels Point, 
drives British vessel from Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. 

MeshEck Weare, Governor of New Hampshire. 
John Butledge, Governor of South Carolina. 
William Campbell, Boyal Governor of South Carolina. 
Governor Joseph Wanton, last of the Carolina governors, suspended. 
Alexandria, Virginia, the headquarters of Gener^ Braddock. 
First naval engagement of the Bevolntionary War. 

John Hancock, of Massachusetts, president of the Continental Gongresi at 
Philadelphia. 

John Adams, a member of the second Continental Congress at Philadelphia, from 
Massachusetts. 

Erick Hopkins, appointed commander of the navy by Congress. 
Thomas Jefferson, a member of the second Continental Congresa and drafter 
of the Declaration of Independence. 

John Adams, of Massachusetts, proposes Washington's name aa commander-in- 
chief of the American Army. 
Nathanael Greene chosen a brigadier-general. 
John Andreas, military officer, made a prisoner by the Americana. 
Siege of Boston, Massachusetts. 
Boonesboro, Kentucky, settled by the Engliah. 



1776, Jan. 1 80 July 4, 1776 



1776 

January 1, The first Union flag of thirteen stripes nnforled at Otunbridgei Massa- 
chusetts, hj Oeneral George Washington. 

Jan. 1, Norfolk, Virginia, partly burned by Governor Dnnmore. 
Jan. 8, Thomas Paine 's "Common Sense'' published. 

February 27, Battle of More's Creek, North Carolina. McDonald, a royalist, is 
routed by the militia. 

Mareb 2; Silas Deane appointed political agent to the French Court from the 
United States. 

Mar. 17, Boston, Massachusetts, evacuated by the British under General Howe. 
Mar. 23, Privateering authorized by Congress. 

Mar. 26, General George Washington awarded a gold medal by Congress for the 
capture of Boston, Massachusetts. 
April 6, Congress orders the ports open to all nations. 
Apr. 2^ North Carolina declares for Independence. 
May 4, Bhode Island, declares for Independence. 

May 6, American forces under General Thomas retire from the siege of Quebee. 
Blay 9, Battle of Cedar Bapids. 
BCay 10, Massachusetts declares for Independence. 
Bfay 14, Virginia declares for Independence. 

BCay 15, Congress advises each colony to form a government independent of 
Great Britain. 

June 2, General Thomas dies of small-pox at Chambly, Canada. 
June 7, Resolution introduced by Bichard Henry Lee in Congress declaring, ' < The 
United Colonies are and ought to be free and independent States, that they 
are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that their political 
connections with Great Britain is and ought to be totally dissolved.'' 
June 8, Battle of Three Bivers. 

Jnne 11, Congress appoints a committee to draw np a Declaration of Independence 
and to prepare a form of Confederation. 

June 1^ Congress appoints a Board of War and Ordnance, consisting of five 
members, viz: John Adams, Boger Sherman, Benjamin Harrison, James Wilson, 
and Edward Bntledge, with Bichard Peters as secretary. 

June 18^ American forces under General Sullivan retire from Canada to Crown 
Point, New York. 

June 29, The British fieet repulsed at Fort Sullivan, Charleston Harbor. 
The British, under Sir Peter Parker, make an unsuccessful attack on the Amer- 
icans at Fort Moultrie. 

July 4, The Declaration of Independence of the United States of AmericA 
adopted by Congress, via: 

DECLABATION OF INDEPENDENCE. America is declared Free, 

Sovereign and Independent under a declaration siffned by the Delegates of the 
following States: New Hampshire, Bhode Island, Delaware, Virginia, South 
Carolina, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Maryland, North Carolina, New York, 
Pennsylvania, and Georgia. In the third session of the second Continental 
Congress, Bichard Henry Lee, of Virginia^ proposed, and John Adams, of 
Massachusetts, seconded, a resolution declaring the United Colonies free and 
independ^t states, and Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Boger Sherman, and 
Bobert Livingston, were appointed a committee to draw up a declaration of 
independence. This famous document, composed almost entirely by Jefferson, 
was adopted unanimously on July 4. 

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to 
dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to 
assume among tl^e Powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which 
the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the 
opinions of mankind require that they should declare the causes which impel 
them to the separation. 

We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal, that 
they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Bights, that among 
these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these 



1776^ July 4 81 July 4^ 1776 

rightSi Oovemments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers f^om 
the consent of the governed. That whenever any Form of Qovemment becomes 
destructive to these ends, it is the Bieht of the People to alter or to abolish 
it, and to institute new Oovemment, laying its foundation on such principles 
and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to 
effect their Suety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Govern- 
ments long established should not be changed for Ught and transient causes, 
and accordingly all experience hath shown, that mankind are more disposed 
to suffer, while evils are sufPerable, than to right themselves by abolishing 
the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses 
and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to 
reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to 
throw off such Qovernment, and to provide new Guards for their future security. 
Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies, and such is now the 
necessity which constrains them to alter their former System of Government. 
The nistory of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated in- 
juries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an 
absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a 
candid world. 

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the 
public good. 

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing import- 
ance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained, and 
when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them. 
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of 
people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Bepresentation in the 
Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only. 
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and 
distant from the depository of their Public Becords for the sole purpose of 
fatiffuing them into compliance with his measures. 

He has dissolved Bepresentative Houses repeatedly for opposing with manly 
firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. 

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be 
elected, whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned 
to the People at large for their exercise, the State remaining in the mean 
time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within. 
He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States, for that purpose 
obstructing the Laws of Naturalization of Foreigners, refusing to pass otners 
to eneouraffe their migration hither, and riusing the conditions of new Appro- 
priations of Lands. 

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his assent to Laws 
for establishing Judicianr Powers. 

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their 
oflees, and the amount and payment of their salaries. 

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers 
to harass our People, and eat out their substance. 

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies, without the 
consent of our legislature. 

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the 
Civil Power. 

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our 
constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws, giving his Assent to their acts 
of pretended legislation. 

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us. 

For protecting them, by mock Trial, from Punishment for any Murders 
which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States. 
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world. 
For imp6sing taxes on us without our Consent. 
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury. 
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences. 
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighboring Province, 
establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so 



1776, Jnly 4 82 July 4, 1776 

f 

as to render it at once an example and fit instrament for introducing the 
same absolute rule into these Colonies. 

For taking away our Charters abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering 
fundamentally the Forms of our Governments. 

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with 
Power to legislate for us in aU cases wnatsoever. 

He has ab<Scated Government here, bj declaring us out of his Protection and 
waging Wars against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and de- 
stroyed the lives of our people. 

He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete 
the work of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances 
of Cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally 
unworthy the Head of a civilized nation. 

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear 
Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and 
Brethren, or to fall themselves b^ their Hands. 

He has excited domestic insurrection amongst us, and has endeavored to bring 
on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known 
rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions. 
In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Bedress in the 
most humble terms. Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by re- 
peated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which 
may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free People. 
Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have 
warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an 
unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We nave reminded them of the circum- 
stances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their 
native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of 
our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would ineyifftbly 
interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the 
voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the 
necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of 
mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends. 

We, therefore, the Bepresentatives of the United States of America, in (General 
Congress Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judse of the world for the 
rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by the Authority of the 
good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United 
Colonies are, and of Bight ought to be Free and Independent States, that they 
are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political 
connections between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ousht to be 
totally dissolved, and that as Free and Independent States, they have full 
Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, 
and do all other acts and things wuch Independent States may of right do. 
And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the Protection 
of Divine Providence we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes 
and our sacred Honor. (signed) John Hancock. 

New Hampshire, Josiah Bartlett, Matthew Thornton, William Whipple. 

Massachusetts Bay, Samuel Adams, John Adams, Elbridge Gerry, and Bobert 

Treat Paine. 
Bhode Island, Stephen Hopkins, William Ellery. 

Connecticut, Boger Sherman, Samuel Huntington, Oliver Wolcott, Wil- 

liam Williams. 
New York, William Floyd, Philip Livingston, Lewis Morris. 

New Jersey, Bichard Stockton, John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, 

John Hart, Abraham Clark. 
Pennsylvania, Bobert Morris, Benjamin Bush, Benjamin Franklin, John 

Morton, George Clymer, Jasper Smith, George Taylor, 
James Wilson, George Boss. 
Delaware, CaBsar Bodney, George Bead, Thomas McKean. 

Maryland, Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, Charles Car- 

roll, of Carrollton. 



1776, July 4 83 Dec. 30, 1776 

I I III 

Virginia, Oeorge Wythe, Bichard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, 

Benjamin Harrison, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Garter Braxton, 
Francis Lightfoot Lee. 
North Carolina, William Booper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn. 

Sonth Carolina, Edward Bntledge, Thomas Heyward, Jr., Arthur Middle- 

ton, Thomas Lynch, Jr. 
Georffia, Button Qwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton. 

Admission of States. The Declaration of Independence, declares that these 
United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and Independent States. 
Its adoption therefore created as such the original thirteen States of the 
Union. Shortly before this date several of the colonies had modified their 
original charters and established independent local governments. 

Articles of Confederation Proposed. 

An Expedition under Escalanto of New Mexico visits Colorado territory. 
July 9, General Washington orders that the Declaration of Independence be 
read to the army in New York. 

August 2, Engrossed Declaration of Independence signed by fifty-four delegates. 
Copies of the Declaration given to the members of Congress. 
Aug. 10, "E Pluribus Unum" suggested as the motto for the seal of the 
United States by a committee consisting of Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, 
and Thomas Jefferson. 

Aug. 22, British forces ten thousand strong, under General Howe, land near 
Gravesend, Long Island, New York. 
Aug. 27, Battle of Long Island. 

Aug. 29^30, American forces under General Washington withdrawn to New 
York. 

September 9, Congress resolves that in all Continental Commissions in which 
heretofore the words "United Colonies" appear or have been use'd, hereafter 
be inserted the words "United States.'' 
8ei»L 14, The Americans evacuate the city of New York. 
Stijft, 16^ The Americans repulse the British at Harlem Heights, New York. 
Sept. 22; Congress appoints Benjamin Franklin, Silas Deane, and Arthur Lee, 
ambassadors to the court of France. 
SepL 22, Nathan Hale executed as a spy at New York. 

8ept» Shakers' Society make first settlement in the United Colonies at Watervliet, 
New York. 

October 3, Motto adopted by the state of New Jersey, * ' Liberty and Prosperity. ' ' 
Oct. 11-13, Battle on Lake Champlain, British victory. 

Oct. 18, Thaddeus Koscinszko, a Pole, arrives. He is recommended to Wash* 
ington by Dr. Franklin and is appointed Colonel of the Engineers by Congress. 
Oct. 28, Battle of White Plains, British victory. 

Oct., F'ranklin sails for France in the '^Beprisal," one of the new Continental 
frigates of sixteen guns, the first national vessel to appear in the Eastern 
Hemisphere. 

November 1, Congress authorizes the raising of $5,000,000 by lottery to defray 
expenses of the following campaign in prosecution of the war. 
Not. 16, The British forces capture Fort Washington on the Hudson, New York. 
Not. 18, The Americans evacute Fort Lee. 

Not. 28, British troops land and take possession of Bhode Island. 
Nov., The American army retires across New Jersey into Pennsylvania. 
December 8, Washington with his forces crosses the Delaware Biver. 
Dec. 8, The British take possession and blockade the American fleet at Providence. 
Dec. 12; Major-General Charles Lee captured by the British at Baskiridge, New 
Jersey. 

Dec. 12, After a session of five hundred and eighty-two days, the second Con- 
tinental Congress at Philadelphia adjourns. 

Dec. 20, The third Continental Congress meets at Baltimore, Maryland, with 
John Hancock President. 
Dec. 26, Battle of Trenton, New Jersey. 

Dec. SO, Congress resolves to send commissioners to Vienna, Spain, Prussia, and 
Tuscany. 



1778^ Dec. 84 July 27, 1777 

December, Bichard Caawell, Governor of North Carolina. (From 1776 to 1835 
governors were elected hj the Aesembly.) 

John McKinlej, governor of Delaware. 

William Livingston, Governor of the state of New Jereej. 

Patrick Henry, Governor of the state of Virginia. 

A. Bullock, acting Colonial Governor of Georgia. 

Langdon Cheves, American statesman, bom. 

James Monroe graduates from William and Mary College in Yirffinia. 

Nathanael Greene advanced by act of Congress to the grade of major general 

in the American Army. 

John Adams appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts. 

Delaware organized as a separate Conunonwealth. 

James Madison, a member of the Convention which framed the Constitution 

of Virginia and a member of the first Virginia Assembly. 

John Adams, of Massachusetts, a member of the Continental Congress and a 

signer of the Declaration of Independence. 

The military forces of East Florida called out by the governor to join the 

royal troops in resisting "the perfidious insinuations" of the colonies. 

Besolutions of the Continental Congress unanimously approved by the Delaware 

Assembly, and the delegates instructed to vote on independence according to 

their better judgment. 

New Constitution of Delaware framed at a convention held at New Castle, the 

colony assuming under the new constitution the name of Delaware State and 

designating Dover as its capital city. 

Sir Fhilip B. W. Broke, British admiral, distinguished as the commander of the 

"Shannon," bom. 

Founding of the Presidio of San Francisco, California, and the establishment 

of a mission. 

1777 

Jannary 3, Battle of Princeton, New Jersey. 

Jan. 23, By vote of Congress an authentic copy of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence is sent to each of the several states of the Union. 

Jan. 23, Americans, under General Maxwell, capture Elizabethtown, New Jersey. 
Jan., Washington's army encamps at Morristown for the winter. 
Jan., Vermont declares itself an independent State. 

Februazy 6, Letters of Marque and Beprisal granted by England against 
American vessels and shipping. 
Feb. 26, British supply ships sunk near Amboy. 

March 3, The third Continental Congress at Baltimore, Maryland, adjoums 
after a session of seventy-five days. 

Mar. 4, The Fourth Continental Congress meets at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
with John Hancock, of Massachusetts, as president. 

April 8, Vermont presents a petition to Congress for admission into the 
Confederacy which is denied. 

Apr. 12, Henry Cli^, statesman, bom in Kentucky. 
Apr. 26, Dan bury, Connecticut, destroyed by ex-Governor Tryon. 
General David Wooster is mortally wounded. 

May 23, Colonel Meigs attacks the British forces by boat at Sag Harbor, de- 
stroying vessels and stores and taking prisoners. 

June 14, Stars and Stripes adopted by Congress as the flag of the United States. 
June 30, The British, under General Howe, evacuate New Jersey and cross to 
Staten Island. 

July 1, The British, under General Burgoyne, iu>pear before Ticonderoga. 
July 6, The American garrison withdrawn from New York. 
July 7, Battle of Hubbardtown, Vermont. 

July 10, The British General Prescott surprised and captured near Newport, 
Bhode Island, by Lieutenant-Colonel Barton. 

Ju^ 27, Miss McCrea captured by Indians in British employ at Fort Edwards, 
New York, and shot and scalped. 

July 29, General Schuyler, on the approach of Burgoyne, evacuates Fort Edwards 
and retreats down the Hudson Valley. 



1777, July 29 85 Nov. 16, 1777 

Jnly 81, General Lafayette volanteers his servicee to Congress and is com- 
missioned a Major-General in the American Army. 

August 3, Lafayette introduced to General Washington in Philadelphia^ and 
attached to his personal staff at headquarters. 
Aug. 6, Battle of Oriskany, New York. 
Aug. 16, Battle of Bennington, Vermont. 

Aug. 19, General Schuyler succeeded by General Gates in command 6f the 
Northern Army. 

Aug. 22, General Arnold sent to relieve Fort Schuyler, invested by the British, 
under St. Leger, who retreats to Montreal. 

September 11, Battle of Brandywine, Washington routed. The Stars and Stripes 
flag first carried officially. 

Sept. 12, General Bead, speaker of the Delaware Assembly, succeeds the 
president of the Assembly, the former having been captured by the British at 
the Battle of Brandywine. 

Sept. 16^ Count Pulaski commissioned by Congress as a brigadier-general in the 
American Army. 

Sept 18» After a session of one hundred and ninety-nine days, the fourth 
Continental Congress being held at Philadelphia adjourns. 
Sept 19, Battle of Stillwater, New York, indecisive. 
Sept 19, First Battle of Bemis's Heights. 
Sept 20, Battle of Paoli. 

Sept 27, Fifth session of the Continental Congress opened at Lancaster, Penn., 
with John Hancock, of Massachusetts, president. The Congress is adjourned 
after one day session. 

Sept 27, The British army occupies Philadelphia. 

S^t SO, The Sixth Continental Congress meets at York, Penn^lvaaia, with 
John Hancock, president 

October 4, Battle of Germantown, Americans repulsed. 
Oct 6; Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery. 

Oct 7, Second Battle of Bemis's Heights and Battle of Saratoga, New York. 
Oct 17, General Burg03me's army surrenders. 
Oct 22-23, Successful defence of Fort Miffin and Fort Mercier. 
Oct, Congress creates a new board of war with General (hites presiding. 
Norember 1, The Continental Congress chooses Henry Laurens, of South Carolina, 
president of that body to succeed John Hancock, of Massachusetts, who re- 
signed on account of failing health. 

Nov. 4, Brigadier-General Horatio Gates awarded a gold medal by Congress for 
the defeat of Burgoyne. 

Not. 9, Pueblo of San Jos6, California, established. 

Not. 15, ''Articles of Confederation" adopted. (The same Continental Con- 
gress, which passed the Declaration of Independence, appointed a committee 
to prepare and digest the form of Confederation to be entered into between 
these Colonies. On July 12, 1776, the committee reported a draft of these 
Articles' and, after many changes, the Congress adopted them on November 15. 
The Articles did not, however, become operative until they had been adopted by 
all the individual states. Maryland, the last to consent, finally did so on 
March 1, 1781. The Articles were superseded by the Constitution in 1789. They 
were approved and signed on the part and behalf of the States, viz.: 
Of New Hampshire. 

Joseph Bartlett, John Wentworth, Jr., August 8, 1778. 
On the part and behalf of Massachusetts Bay: 

John Hancock, Elbridge Gerry, James Lovell, Samuel Adams, Francis Dana, 
Samuel Holton. 

On the part and behalf of the state of Bhode Island and Providence Plantations: 
William EUery, Henry Merchant, John CoDins. 
On the part and behalf of the state of Connecticut: 

Boger Sherman, Oliver Wolcott, Andrew Adams, Samuel Huntington, Titus 
Hosmer. 

On the part and behalf of the state of New York: 
James Duane, Gouvemour Morris, Francis Lewis, William Duer. 



1777, Nov. 15 86 Blay 4, 1778 

On the part and behalf of the state of New Jersey: 

John Witherspoon, Nathaniel Bcudder. 

On the part and behalf of the state of Pennsylvania: 

Bobert Morris, John Bauard Smith, Joseph Beed, Daniel Boberdean, William 

Clingan, July 22, 1778. 

On the part and behalf of the state of Delaware: 

Thomas McKean, February 12, 1779. John Dickinson, Nicholas Van Dyke, May 

5, 1779. 

On the part and behalf of the state of Maryland: | 

John Hanson, Daniel Carroll, March 1, 1781. ^ 

On the part and behalf of the state of Virginia: 

Bichard Henry Lee, Thomas Adams, Francis Lightfoot Lee, John Barrister, John 

Harvie. 

On the part and behalf of the state of North Carolina: 

John Penn, John Williams, Corris Harnett, July 21, 1778. 

On the part and behalf of the state of south Carolina: 

Henry Laurens, Jno Matthews, Thomas Heyward, Jr., William Henry Drayton, 

Bichard Hutson. 

On the part and behalf of the state of Georgia: 

Edward Telfair, John Walton^ Edward Langworthy, July 24, 1778. 

Nov. 16-20, Forts Miffin and Mercier besieged by the British and captured. 

Nov., Congress recommends to the several States the raising of $5,000,000 by 

taxation for the ensuing year. 

December 4, Howe leaves Philadelphia with an army of abont 14,000 men to 

dislodge and drive Washington from his position at Whitemarsh, but fails to 

attack. 

Dec 8^ General Howe hurriedly returns to Philadelphia. 

Dec 16, France acknowledges the Independence of the United States of America. 

Dec 18, The American army goes into winter quarters at Valley Forge on the 

Schuylkill. 

Dec, General Charles Lee released in exchange for General Prescott. 

Thomas Chittenden, Governor of the state of Vermont. 

George Clinton, Governor of the state of New York. 

Thomas Wharton, President of the state of Pennsylvania. 

Thomas Johnson, Governor of Maryland under the Continental Congress. 

John A. Trueitlen, Acting-Governor of the colony of Georgia. (Appointed under 

the new state constitution.) 

Button Gwinnett, Acting-Governor of the colony of Georgia. 

John Adams appointed a commissioner to France. 

Boger B. Taney, Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court 1836-1864, bom. 

Siege of Fort Henry, West Virginia. 

Siege of Fort Miffin, Pennsylvania. 

Siege of Fort Schuyler, New York. 

The Habeas Corpus Act suspended during the American War. (In the United 

States Constitution its suspension is prohibited except in ease of rebellion or 

invasion, i.e., only when public safety requires it.) 

1778 

Jannar^ 6, Battle of the Kegs. 

February 6, General John Cadwallader seriously wounded in a duel with General 

Conway. 

Feb. i, Treaty of Alliance concluded between the United States and France, 

at Paris, also a treaty of Amity and Commerce on same date and place. 

Feb., An oath of office for the United States Army prescribed by Congress. 

Feb., Baron Steuben joins the camp at Valley Forge. 

Aprii 15, The bill which Lord North introduced in Parliament concerning peace 

negotiations with America reaches Congress. 

Apr. 22, Lord North's bill seeking peace negotiations rejected by the American 

Congress. 

May 2, The French treaty reaches Conp^ress by special messenger. 

May 4, Deane's treaty with France ratified. 



1778, liaylS 87 Jtily 9, 1778 

May 18, Misehianza gives a festival to British officers at Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania, in honor of Howe, who had been succeeded by Clinton, just before 
his return to England. ^ 

liay 20, Affairs at Barren Hill. 

May 26, British raid in Warren and Bristol, Bhode Island. 

liay 81, Colonel Allen released from imprisonment and returns to Bennington, 
Vermont. 

May, William Greene, Charter Governor of Bhode Island. 
July 9, (Supplement to be inserted Chronologically.) 

ABTICLES OF CONFEDEBATION. 
Done at Philadelphia on the 9th day of July, 1778. 

On June 11, 1776. it was ''Besolved" that a committee be appointed to pre- 
pare and digest tne form of a confederation to be entered into between these 
Colonies. A committee was appointed on the following day consisting of a 
member from each colony. On July 12, the committee reported a draught of the 
Articles of Confederation, which was submitted in secrecy for consideration 
and final action. After thorough discussion in Congress, these "Articles of Con- 
federation and Perpetual Union" were adopted November 15, 1777, and were 
submitted to all the Legislatures of all the United States for approval, where- 
upon they were to become conclusive. On June 26, 1776, Congress agreed 
upon the form of a ratification of the Articles of Confederation and directed a 
copy of the articles and the ratification to be engrossed on parchment, which, 
on July 3, 1778, having been examined and the olanks filled, was signed by 
the delegates of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Bhode Island and Providence 
Plantations, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and South Carolina. 
Congress then directed that a circular letter be addressed to the States whose 
delegates were not present or, being present, wanted to be authorized to sign 
the ratification. Of these States, North Carolina ratified on the 2l8t and 
Georgia on the 24th of July, 1778. New Jersey on the 26th of the following 
November, Delaware on the 5th of May, 1779, and Maryland on the Ist of March, 
1781. On March 2, 1781, Congress assembled under the new form of Govern- 
ment. 

The members of the committee appointed to form Articles of Confederation con- 
sisted of one from each colony, namely: 

Mr. Bartlett 
Mr. Sherman 
Mr. McKean 
Mr. S. Adams 
Mr. B. B. Livingston 
Mr. Stone 
Mr. Hopkins 
Mr. Dickinson 
Mr. Nelson 
Mr. Hewes 
Mr. E. Butledge 
Mr. Gwinnett 
ABTICLES OF CONFEDEBATION 
To all to whom these presents shall come. 

We the undersigned, delegates of the States affixed to our names, send greeting: 
Whereas the delegates of the United States of America in Congress assembled 
did, on the fifteenth day of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
seven hundred and seventy-seven, and in the second year of the independence 
of America, agree to certain Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union 
between the states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Bhode Island 
and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, 
in the words following, viz.: 

Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union between the states of New 
Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Bhode Island and Providence Plantations, Con- 
necticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, 
North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. 



1778» July 9 88 July 9, 1778 

ABTICLE L The style of this Confederacy shall be, The United States of 
America. 

ABTICLE n. Each State retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, 
and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this confederation 
enressly delegated to the United States in Congress assembled. 
ABTICLE HL The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league 
of friendship with each other for their common defense, the security of their 
liberties, and their muthal and general welfare, binding themselves to assist 
each otner against all forces offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any 
of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretense 
whatever. 

ABTICLE IV. The better to secure and perpetuate mutual friendship and 
intercourse among the people of the different States of this Union, the free 
inhabitants of each of these States, paupers, vagabonds, and fugitives from 
justice excepted, Shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of free citizens 
in the several States, and the people of each State shall have free ingress and 
regress to and from any other State, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of 
trade and commerce, subject to the same duties, impositions, and restrictions, as 
• the inhabitants thereof respectively, Provided, that such restrictions shall 
not extend so far as to prevent the removal of property imported into any State 
to any other State, of which the owner is an inhabitant. Provided, also, that 
no imposition, duties, or restriction shall be laid by any State on the property 
of the United States or either of them. 

If any person guilty of or charged with treason, felony, or other high mis- 
demeanor, in anv State, shall flee from justice, and be found in any of the 
United States, he shaU, upon demand of the governor or executive power 
of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, and removed to the state 
havinff jurisdiction of the offense. 

FuU faith and credit shall be given in each of these states to the records, acts, 
and judicial proceedings of the courts and magistrates of every other State. 
ABTICLE v. For the more convenient manasement of the general interests 
of the United States, delegates shall be annuaUy appointed in such manner as 
the Legislature of each State shall direct, to meet in Congress on the first 
Monday in November, in every year, with a power reserved to each State to 
recall its delegates or any of them, at any time within the year, and to send 
others in their stead for the remainder of the year. No State shaU be represented 
in Congress by less than two nor more than seven members, and no person 
shall be capable of being a delegate for more than three years in any term of 
six years, nor shall any person, being a delegate, be capable of holding any 
office under the United States, for which he, or another for his benefit, receives 
any salary, fees or emolument of any kind. Each State shall maintain its own 
delegates in a meeting of the States, and while they act as members of the 
committee of these States. 

In determining questions in the United States in Congress assembled, each 
State shall have one vote. 

Freedom of speech and debate in Congress shall not be impeaved or questioned in 
any court or place out of Congress, and the members of congress shall be 
protected in tneir persons from arrest and imprisonment during the time 
of their going to and from, and attendance on, Congress, except for treason, 
felony, or breach of the peace. 

ABTICLE VI. No State, without the consent of the United States, in Con- 
gress assembled, shall send any embassy to, or receive any embassy from, or 
enter into any conference, agreement, alliance, or treaty with any King, prince, 
or state, nor shall any person holding any office of profit or trust under the 
United States, or any of them accept of any present, emolument, office, or 
title of any kind whatever from any King, prince, or foreign state, nor shaU 
the United States in Congress assembled, or any of them, grant any title of 
nobility. 

No two or more States shall enter into any treaty, confederation, or alliance 
whatever between them without the consent of the United States in Congress 
assembled, specifying accurately the purposes for which the same is to be 



1778, July 9 89 July 9, 1778 

entered into, and how long it shall eontinne. No State shall lay any imposts or 
duties, which may interfere with so declared, and under such regulations as 
shall be established by the United States in Congress Assembled, unless such 
State be infested by pirates, in which case vessels of war may be fitted out 
for that occasion, and kept so long as the danger shaU continue, or until the 
United States in Congress assembled shall determine otherwise. 
ABTICLE VII. When land forces are raised by any State for the common 
defense, all officers of, or under the rank of colonel, shall be appointed by the 
legislature of each State respectively by whom such force shall be raised, or 
in such manner as such State shall direct: and all vacancies shaU be filled up 
by the State which first made the appointment. 

ABTICLE Yin. All charges of war, and all other expenses that shall be in- 
curred for the common defense or generiU welfare and allowed by the United 
States in Congress assembled, shall be defrayed out of a common treasury, 
which shall be supplied by the several States in proportion to the value of all 
lands within each State, granted to, or surveyed for, any person, as such land 
and the buildings and improvements thereon shall be estimated, according to 
such mode as the United States in Congress assembled shall, from time to 
time, direct and appoint. The taxes for paying that proportion shall be laid 
and levied by the authority and direction of the Legislatures of the several States, 
within the time agreed upon by the United States in Congress assembled. 
ABTICLE IX. The United States in Congress assembled shaU have the sole 
and exclusive right and power of determining on peace and war, except in the 
cases mentioned in the sixth article: of sending and receiving ambassadors: 
entering into treaties and alliances: Provided, that no treaty of commerce shaU 
be made whereby the legislative power of the respective States shall be re- 
strained from imposing such imposts and duties on foreigners as their own people 
are subject to, or from prohibiting the exportation or importation of any species 
of goods or commodities whatsoever: of establishing nUes for deciding, in all 
cases, what captures on land or water shall be legal, and in what manner prizes 
taken by land or naval forces in the service of the United States shaU be divided 
or appropriated: of granting letters of marque and reprisal in times of peace, 
appointing courts for the trial of piracies and felonies committed on the high 
seas, and establishing courts for receiving and determining finally, appeals in all 
eases of capture: Provided, that no member of Congress shall be appointed a 
judge of any of the said courts. 

The United States in Congress assembled shall also be the last resort on appeals 
in all disputes and differences now subsisting, or that hereafter may arise between 
two or more States concerning boundary, jurisdiction, or any other cause 
whatever, which authority shall always be exercised in the manner following: 
Whenever the le^lative or executive authority or lawful agent of any State 
in controversy with another, shall present a petition to Congress, stating the 
matter in question, and praying for a hearing, notice thereof shall be given 
by order of Congress to the legislative or executive authority of the other 
States in controversy, and a day assigned for the appearance of the parties 
by their lawful agents, who shall then be directed to appoint, by joint consent, 
commissioners or judges to constitute a court for hearing and determining the 
matter in question, but if they cannot agree. Congress shall name three persons 
out of each of the United States, and from the list of such persons each party 
shall alternately strike out one, the petitioners beginning, until the number shall 
be reduced to thirteen, and from that number not less than seven or more than 
nine names, as Congress shall direct, shall, in the presence of Congress, be 
drawn out oy lot: and the persons whose names riiaU be drawn, or any five of 
them, shall be commissioners or judges, to hear and finally determine the con- 
troversy, so always as a major part of the judges who shall hear the cause, 
shall agree in the determination: and if either party shaU neglect to attend 
at the day appointed, without showing reasons which Congress shidl judge 
sufficient, or, being present, shall refuse to strike, the Congress shall proceed to 
nominate three persons out of each State, and the Secretary of Congress shall 
strike in behalf of such party absent or refusing: and the judgment and sentence 
of the court to be appointed in the manner before prescribed shaU be final and 



1778, July 9 90 July 9, 1778 

conclusive: and if any of the parties shall refuse to submit to the authority of 
such court or to appear or defend their claims or cause, the court shall, never- 
theless, proceed to pronounce sentence or judgment, which shall, in like manner, 
be final and decisive; the judgment or sentence, and other proceedings, being in 
either ease transmitted to Congress, and lodged among the acts of Congress 
for the security of the parties concerned. Provided, that every commissioner, 
before he sits in judgment, shcdl take an oath, to be administered by one 
of the judges of the supreme or superior court of the State, where the case 
shall be tried, "well and truly to hear and determine the matter in question, 
according to the best of his judgment without favor, affection, or hope of 
reward:" Provided, also, that no State shall be deprived of territory for the 
benefit of the United States. 

All controversies concerning the private rights of soil climate under different 
grants of two or more States, whose jurisdictions, as they may respect su^ 
lands, and the States which passed such grants, are adjusted, the said grants, or 
either of them being at the same time claimed to have originated antecedent 
to such settlement of jurisdiction, shall, on the petition of either party to the 
Congress of the United States, be finally determined, as near as may be, in the 
same manner as is before prescribed for deciding disputes respecting territorial 
jurisdiction between different States. 

The United States in Congress assembled shall also have the sole and exclu- 
sive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of each coin struck 
by their own authority, or by that of the respective States, fixing the standard 
of weights and measures throughout the United States: regulating the trade 
and managing all affairs with the Indians, not members of any of the States, 
Provided, that the legislative right of any State within its own limits, be 
within its own limits, be not infringed or violated: establishing and regulating 
post-offices from one State to another, throughout all the United States, and 
exacting such postage on the papers passing through the same, as may be req- 
uisite to defray the expenses ox the said office: appointing all officers of the 
land forces in the service of the United States, excepting regimental officers; 
appointing all the officers of the naval forces, and commissioning all officers 
whatever in the service of the United States, making rules for the government 
and regulation of the said land and naval forces, and directing their operations. 
The United States in Congress assembled shall have authority to appoint a 
committee to sit in the recess of Congress, to be denominated ''a Committee 
of the States," and to consist of one delegate from each State, and to appoint 
such other committees and civil officers as may be necessary for managing 
the general affairs of the United States, under their direction: to appoint one 
of their number to preside, provided that no person be allowed to serve in the 
office of president more than one year, in any term of three years: to ascertain 
the necessary sums of money to be raised for the services of the United 
States, and to appropriate and apply the same for defraying the public expenses: 
to borrow money or emit bills on the credit of the United States, transmitting 
every half year to the respective states, an account of the sums of money 
80 borrowed or emitted: to build and equip a navy: to agree upon the number 
of land forces, and to make requisitions from each State for its quota, in pro- 
portion to the number of white inhabitants in each State, which requisitions 
shall be binding: and thereupon the Legislature of each state shall appoint 
the regimental officers, raise the men, and clothe, arm, and equip them in a 
soldier-like manner, at the expense of the United States, and the officers and men 
so clothed, armed, and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within 
the time agreed upon by the United States in Congress assembled; but if 
the United States in Congress assembled shall, on consideration of circum- 
stances, judee proper that any State should not raise men, or should raise a 
smaller number than its quota, and that any other State should raise a greater 
number of men than the quota thereof, such extra number shall be raised, officered, 
clothed, armed, and equipped in the same manner as the quota in each State, 
unless the Legislature of such State shall judge that such extra number cannot 
be safely spared out of the same: in which case they shall raise, officer, clothe, 
arm, and equip as many of such extra number as they judge can be safely 
spared. And the officers and men so clothed, armed and equipped shall march 



1778, July 9 91 July 9, 1778 

to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on hj the United States in 
Congress assembled. 

The United States in Congress assembled shall never engage in a war, nor 
grant letters of marque and reprisal in time of peace nor enter into any treaties 
or alliances, nor coin money, nor regulate the value thereof, nor ascertain the 
sums and expenses necessary for the defense and welfare of the United States 
or any of them, nor emit bills, nor borrow money on the credit of the United 
States, nor appropriate money, nor agree upon the number of vessels of war 
to be built or purchased, or the number of land or sea forces to be raised, nor 
appoint a commander in chief of the Army or Navy, unless nine states assent 
to the same, nor shall a question on any other point, except for adjourning 
from day to day, be determined, unless by the voice of a majority of the 
United States in Congress assembled. 

The Congress of the United States shall have power to adjourn to any time 
within the year, and to any place within the United States, so that no period 
of adjournment be for a longer duration than the space of six months; and 
shall publish the journal of their proceedings monthly, except such parts thereof 
relating to treaties, alliances, or militanr operations, as in their judgment 
require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the delegates of each State on any 
question, shall be entered on the journal, when it is desired by any delegate, 
and the delegates of a State, or any of them, at his or their request, shaU be 
furnished with a transcript of the said journal, except such parts as are 
above excepted, to lay before the Legislature of the several States. 
ARTICLE X. The committee of the States, or any nine of them, shall be 
authorized to execute, in the recess of Congress, such of the powers of Congress 
as the United States in Congress assembled, by the consent of nine States, 
shall from time to time, think expedient to vest them with, Provided, that no 
power be delegated the said committee, for 'the exercise of which, by the 
Articles of Confederation, the voice of nine States in the Congress of the 
United States assembled is requisite. 

ARTICLE XI. Canada, acceding to this Confederation, and joining in the meas- 
ures of the United States, shall be admitted into, and entitled to, all the 
advantages of this Union, but no other Colony shall be admitted into the same, 
unless such admission be agreed to by nine States. 

ARTICLE XII. Every State shall abide by the determination of the United 
States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation 
are submitted to them. And the articles of this confederation shall be inviolably 
observed by every State, and the union shall be perpetual: nor shall any 
alteration at any time hereafter be made in any of them, unless such alteration 
be agreed to in a Congress of the United States, and be afterwards confirmed 
by the Legislatures of every State. And, whereas, it has pleased the Great 
Governor of the world to incline the hearts of the Legislatures we respectively 
represent in Congress, to approve of, and to authorize us to ratify the said 
articles of confederation and perpetual union: Know ye, that we, the undersigned 
delegates, by virtue of the power and authority to us given for that purpose, 
do, by these presents, in the name and in behalf of our respective constituents, 
fully and entirely ratify and confirm each and every of uie said Articles of 
Confederation and Perpetual Union, and all and singular the matters and things 
therein contained. And we do further solemnly plight and engage the faith 
of our respective constituents, that they shall abide by the determinations of the 
United States, in Congress assembled, on all questions which, by the said confed- 
eration, are submitted to them; and that the articles thereof shaU be any stipula- 
tions in treaties entered into by the United States in Congress assembled with 
any King, prince or state, in pursuance of any treaties already proposed by 
Congress to the Courts of France and Spain. 

No vessels of war shall be kept up in time of peace by any State, except such 
number only as shall be deemed necessary by the United States in Congress 
assembled, for the defense of such State, or its trade, nor shall any body 
of forces be kept up by any State in time of peace, except such number only, 
as, in the judgment of the United States, in Concrress assembled, shall be 
deemed requisite to garrison the forts necessary for the defense of such 
States, but every State shall always keep up a weU regulated and disciplined 



1778, July 9 



92 



July 4^ 1778 



militia, sufficiently armed and aceontered, and sliall provide and constantly have 
ready for nse, in public stores, a due number of field-pieces and tents, and 
a proper quantity of arms, ammunition, and camp equipage. 
No State shall engage in any war without the consent of the United States 
in Congress assembled, unless such State be actually invaded by enemies, or 
shaU have received certain advice of a resolution bein^ formed by some nation 
of Indians, to invade such States, and the danger is so imminent as not to admit 
of delay till the United States in Congress assembled can be consulted, nor 
shall any State grant commissions to any ships or vessels of war, nor letters 
of marque or reprisal, except it be after a declaration of war by the United 
States in Congress assembled, and then only against the kingdom or state, and 
the subjects thereof, against which war has been inviolably observed, by the 
States we respectively represent: and that the Union shall be perpetual. 
IN WITNESS WHEBEOF we have hereunto set our hands, in Congress, DONE 
AT PHILADELPHIA, in the State of PENNSYLVANIA, the ninth day of 
July in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight and 
in the third year of the INDEPENDENCE OF AMEBICA. 



Josiah Bartlett 

John Wentworth, Jr., New Hampshire, 
Auffust 8, 1778 

John Hancock 

Samuel Adams 

Elbridge Gerry 

Francis Dana 

James Lovell 

Samuel Holton, Massachusetts Bay 

William EUery 

Henry Merchant 

John Collins, Bhode Island and Provi- 
dence Plantations 

Boger Sherman 

Samuel Huntington 

Oliver Wolcott 

Titus Hosmer 

Andrew Adams, Connecticut 

James Duane 

Francis Lewis 

William Duer 

Gouvemeur Morris, New York 

John Winterspoon 

Nathaniel Scudder, New Jersey, No- 
vember 26, 1778 

Bobert Morris 

Daniel Boberdeau 



Jonathan Bayard Smith 

William Ctingan 

Joseph Beed, Pennsylvania, July 22, 

1778 
Thomas McEean 

Nicholas Van Dyke, February 13, 1779 
John Dickinson, Delaware, May 5, 1779 
John Hanson, March 1, 1781 
Daniel Carroll, Maryland, March 1, 

1779 
Bichard Henry Lee 
John Banister 
Thomas Adams 
John Harvie 

Francis Lightfoot Lee, Virginia 
John Penn, July 21, 1778. 
Corns Harnett 

John Williams, North Carolina 
Henry Laurens 
William Henry Drayton 
John Mathews 
Bichard Hutson 

Thomas Heyward, Jr., South Carolina 
John Walton, July 24, 1778 
Edward Telfair 
Edward Langworth, Georgia 



June 10, The Earl of Carlisle, George Johnson, and William Eden, appointed by 
England as peace commissioners to America, with Professor Adam Ferguson as 
secretary. 

June 18, The British evacuate Philadelphia and re&e across the Delaware Biver 
into New Jersey. 

June 18^ The Americans break camp at Valley Forge and advance in pursuit of 
the British. 

June 27, The sixth session of the Continental Congress adjourns after a session 
of two hundred and seventy-two days. 

June 28, Battle of Monmouth Court House, New Jersey. The British are de- 
feated and retreat. 

June 29, Molly Pitcher commissioned sergeant by Washington for bravery at 
Monmouth. 

July S^ The Continental Congress meets for its seventh session in Philadelphia 
with Henry Laurens as president. 

July 4, Massacre of inhabitants in Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania, by Indians 
and Tories. 



1778, July 4 93 Feb. 12, 1779 

July 4^ Expedition from Virginia, under Major Clark, captures the British fort 
at Easkaskia. 

July 5, New Haven, Connecticut, plundered by a force of men landed by Governor 
Trvon. 

July 9, Articles of Confederation signed by the delegates from the following eight 
states: 

New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Bhode Island, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, New 
York, Virginia and South Carolina. 

July 21, Delegates from North Carolina sign the Articles of Confederation. 
Ju]^ 24, Delegates from Georgia sign the .^^cles of Confederation. 
July 27, Congress elects Francis Hopkinson as Treasurer of Loans for the Gov- 
ernment. 

July 29, French fleet, under Count D'Estaing, enters Narragansett Bay. 
August 6, M. Gerard, Minister from France to America, received in Congress. 
Aug. 11, Congress rejects the bills of Parliament and refuses to negotiate with 
Great Britain until her forces, fleets, and armies are withdrawn and she ac- 
knowledges the independence of the colonies. 

Aug. 12; General Cnarles Lee is court-martialed for disobedience, misbehavior 
and disrespect to Washington, and suspended from command for one year. 
Aug. 29, Battle of Quaker HilL Bhode Island. 
Aug. SO, Americans evacuate Bhode Island. 
Aug. 31, The British occupy Newport, Bhode Island. 

8ex»t6mber 5, The British, under General Grey, burn Bedford Village in Dart- 
mouth, Massachusetts, with many American vessels Iving at the wharves. 
S^pt. 14^ Benjamin Franklin appointed Minister to the court of France. 
Octobor 12, The several states advised by Congress to take measures for the 
suppressing specific entertainments, gambling and other diversions as productive 
of dissipation among its inhabitants. 

Oct., Territory northwest of the Ohio occupied by Major Clark, as constituting a 
colony of Virginia, named Hlinois by the Assembly. 

NoTtmbor 10, Massacre by Indians and Tories at Cherry Vallev, New York. 
Not. 26, Articles of Confederation signed by the Delegates from the state of 
New York. 

December 10, The Continental Congress chooses John Jay, of New York, as its 
President. 

Dec. 29, British troops, under (General Howe, capture Savannah, Georgia, and 
the Americans retreat across the Savannah Biver. 

Thomas Wharton, President of the state of Pennsylvania, dies, and George Bryan 
becomes Acting President. 

Joseph Beed, President of the state of Pennsylvania. 
CsBsar Bodney, Governor of the state of Delaware. 
Bawlin Lowndes, Governor of the state of South Carolina. 
John Houston, Governor of the Georgia colony. 
Burning of Fairfield, Greens Farms, and Norwalk, Connecticut. 
Legion raised in Maryland by Count Pulaski. 

By act of Congress, Thomas Mutchins, of New Jersey, is appointed Geographer- 
General of the United States. 

Northern American army hutted in cantonments from Danbury, Connecticut, to 
Elizabethtown, New Jersey, for the winter. 

The seventh Continental Congress meets at Philadelphia, with Henry Laurens, 
President. 
Francis Barber, military officer, dies. 

1779 

Congress calls upon the states for their quotas of $16,000,000 for the year, and 

$6,000,000 annually for a period of eighteen years to foUow as a sinking fund. 

January 12, The British, under Generid McLane, take possession of Castine, Maine. 

Jan., Vincennes^ Indiana, captured by the British. 

February 8, British, under Major Gardiner, driven from Port Boyal by General 

Moultrie. 

Feb. 12, Thomas McEean, of Delaware, signs the Articles of Confederation. 



1779, Feb. 14 94 D«s., 1779 

Feb. 14, Battle of Kettle Greek, Georgia, American victory. 
Feb. 14, Captain Cook killed. 

Feb. 20, Americans, under Major Clark, capture Yincennes. 
Feb., Franklin commissioned sole minister plenipotentiary to France and Adams 
recalled. 

Marcb 3, Battle of Briers Creek, Georgia. 

Mar. 26, Salt works at Horseneck, Connecticut, destroyed by Governor Tryon, 
General Putnam escapes by driving down a declivity. 

April, Recall of the American Ministers by the Government except at Versailles 
and Madrid. 

liay 5, John Dickinson, of Delaware, signs the Articles of Confederation. 
liay 8, War declared by Spain against England. 

May 31, Fort Stony Point on the Hudson Biver captured by the British. 
June l, Vesplancks Point, on the Hudson, captured. 

June 16, Sir Francis Barnard, Governor of New York and Massachasetta Bay 
colonies, dies. 

June 20, Americans repulsed at Stone Ferry, South Carolina. 
July 6, The British, under Tryon, plunder New Haven, Connecticut. 
July 8, The British bum Fairfield, Connecticut. 
July 12; The British bum Norwalk, Connecticut. 
July 15, Stony Point, New York, captured by (General Wayne. 
July 25, Expedition against the British at Fort Castine, Maine, repulsed. 
July 26, Major-General Anthony Wayne awarded by Congress a gold medal 
for the successful storming of Stony Point. 

July 26, Silver medal awarded Major John Stewart by Congress for services in 
storming Stony Point. 

July 26, Congress awards a silver medal to Lieutenant-Colonel De Fleury for 
services at the storming of Stony Point. 

July-Sept., Campaign against the Six Nations by General Sullivan. The villages 
of the Genesee Valley destroyed. 

August 10, Major Lee captures the British garrison at Paulus Hook. 
Aug. 13v British defeat the American flotilla on the Penobscot Biver. 
Aug. 14, A basis of terms agreed to by Congress for a peace with Great Britain. 
Aug. 19, Battle of Paulus Hook. 

Aug. 29, Sullivan defeats the Tories and Indians near Elmira, New York, at the 
Battle of Chemung. 

September 3, The British fleet at Tybee captured by Count D'Estaing. 
Sept. 17, Congress guarantees the Floridas to Spain, provided the United States 
be permitted to enjoy free navigation of the Mississippi Biver if Spain takes 
them from Great Britain. 

Sept. 23, Naval engagement oif Flamborough Head, England. Paul Jones, in the 
"Bon Homme Richard," captures the British ship "Serapis." 
Sept. 23, The American fleet captures the "Scarborough" off the English coast. 
Sept. 27, John Jay appointed Minister to Spain and John Adams to negotiate 
a peace treaty with Great Britain. 

Sept. 28, The Continental Congress chooses Samuel Huntington as President. 
Sept., Thanks of Congress voted and a gold medal awarded Major Lee for cap- 
turing the British garrison at Paulus Hook. 

October 1, British regulars and armed vessels in the Ogeechee Biver, Georgia, 
surrendered to Colonel White. 

Oct. 9, D'Estaing and Lincoln repulsed at Savannah, Georgia. 
Oct. 11-25, Bhode Island evacuated by the British troops. 

NoTember 17, M. Gerard succeeded as Minister from France to the United States 
by Chavalier de la Luzerne. 

December 26^ General Clinton sails from New York against Charleston, South 
Carolina. 
Dec., The American army winters at Morristown. 

Abner Nash, Governor of North Carolina. 

James Madison, a member of the Continental Congress. 

Thomas Jefferson, Governor of Virginia. 

John Quincy Adams returns home from his mission to Europe, 



1779, Dec 95 Sept 28^ 1780 

Captain Cook, navigator, killed. 

John Adams, a member of the Massachnsetts Convention for framing the State 
Constitution and appointed by Congress, Minister Plenipotentiary to negotiate 
a peace treaty with Great Britain. 
Alliance of Spain with the United States concluded. 
Stephen Decatur, naval officer, bom. 

Major-General Benjamin Lincoln, commanding the Southern Forces, establishes his 
first post at Pensybnrg on the Savannah Biver. 
John Rutledge, Governor of North Carolina. 

The Georgia colony held by the British, with Sir James Wright as Boyal Gov- 
ernor. 

Henry Baldwin, Justice of the United States Supreme Court, bom. 
Joseph Story, jurist and associated justice of the Supreme Court, bom. 

1780 

January lOy General Charles Lee dismissed from the army. 

Jan., Washington reprimands General Arnold, by order of Congress, for alleged 
misconduct. 

February 1, David Porter, American commodore, bom. 

Feb. 19, The New York Legislature empowers its delegates to cede to the United 
States Congress a portion of its western territory for the common benefit. 
March 1, The first bank in the United States chartered and located at Phila- 
delphia. 

Mar. 14^ Mobile, Alabama, captured by the Spanish under Don Bernardo de Galvez, 
then the Governor of Louisiana. 

April 10, General Clinton lays siege to Charleston, South Carolina. 
Apr. 14, Battle at Monk's Corner, South Carolina. 

liay 6, Fort Moultrie, South Carolina, surrenders to the British under Captain 
Hudson. 

liay 11, After a visit to France, Lafayette rejoins the army, bringing a com- 
mission to Washington from the French Government as Lieutenant-General and 
Vice- Admiral of France, and as Commander-in-Chief of the united French forces 
in the United States. 

liay 12, Charleston, South Carolina, surrenders. 
Bfay 19, Known throughout New England as the "Dark Day.'' 
May 29, Americans massacred at Waxham, on the North Carolina border, by the 
British. 

June 3, South Carolina inhabitants proclaimed by (General Clinton as subjects to 
England. 

June 16, Battle of Camden, North Carolina. 
June 20, Battle of Banesours Mills, North Carolina. 

June 23, Battle at Springfield, New Jersey, and town burned by General Clinton. 
July 10^ The French army, under Bochambeau, reaches Newport Harbor, Bhode 
Island. 

July 30, Battle of Bocky Mount, North Carolina. 

August 3, General Benedict Arnold in command of the highlands of the Hudson 
and West Point. 

Aug. 6, Battle of Hanging Bock, South Carolina. 
Aug. 16, Battle of Saunders Creek (near Camden), South Carolina. 
Aug. 18, Battle of Murgrove Mills and Fishing Creek, South Carolina. 
September 6^ Henry Laurens, Minister from the United States, seifced on hil way 
to Holland by a British frigate. 

Sept. 6, The States advised by Congress to surrender territory claims of western 
lands for the general benefit of the United States. 
Sept. 17, Augusta, Georgia, retaken by the British. 

Sept. 21, The British Adjutant-General, Major John Andr6, meets Benedict Arnold 
near Stony Point, New York. 
Sept. 23, Major Andrd captured near Tarrytown. 
Sept. 24, Augusta, Georgia, taken by Colonel Clark. 
Sept. 24, Arnold escapes to the British vessel "Vulture.'' 
Btijfit. 26» Battle of Charlotte, North Carolina. 



1780, Seirt. 29 96 Dec, 1780 

Sept. 29, Andrd convicted as a spy by a military board, General Nathanael Qreene 
presiding. 

October 2, Andr6 hanged at Tappan, New York, haying been convicted by a mili- 
tary board for treason. 

Oct. 6, Henry Laurens imprisoned in the Tower of London. 
Oct. 7, Battle of King's Mountain, South Carolina. 

Oct. 10, Congress resolves that ceded western lands shall be formed into Be- 
publican States becoming equal members of the American Union. 
Oct. 14, General Nathanael Greene appointed by Congress to the command of the 
American Armies in the South, superseding General Gates. 

Oct. 17, Congress sends to its ministers at France and Spain statement of claims 
of the United States to lands west of the Mississippi Siver. 
Oct. 19, Admission of States. The Declaration of Independence declares that 
these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and Independent States. 
Its adoption, on July 4, created as such the original thirteen states of the Union. 
Shortly before this date several of the colonies had modified their original char- 
ter and established independent local governments. October 19, 1780, the Con- 
tinental Congress passed a resolution providing that western territory to be ceded 
to the United States shall be settled and formed into distinct Republican states, 
which shall presumably become members of the Federal Union, under the Con- 
stitution for the common good of all, and the steps by which a territory may 
become a state are briefly stated as follows, viz.: 

FIBST. A petition to the Congress expressing on the part of the people the 
desire for admission as a state to the Union. 

SECOND. Followed by an enabling* act passed by Congress stating and setting 
forth the conditions upon which admission may be procured by the inhabitants 
of the territory SEEKING STATEHOOD. 

THIBD. The adoption of a constitution by the people, and a form of state 
government prescribed by a convention of delegates chosen by the people to act 
m the matter. 

FOUBTH. The ratification of the constitution as submitted and the election and 
installing of state officers by the people by popular vote, to be strictly followed. 
FIFTH. A proclamation by the President of the United States, announcing that 
said territory has formally prescribed to all the usages attending such procedure, 
and consequently becomes a state, and the date of a state's admission to the 
Union, is the date on which the act takes effect, upon its passage. 
Oct., Congress votes its thanks and a silver medal with a yearly pension to each 
for life to John Paulding, David Williams and Isaac Van Wart for capturing 
Andr6. 

November 18, Battle of Fish Dam Ford. 
Not. 20, Battle of Blackstocks. 

December, Colonel John Laurens appointed a special Minister to secure a loan 
from France. 

John Hancock, Governor of the state of Massachusetts. 

Thomas Sim Lee, Governor of Maryland under the Continental Government. 

James Madison, a delegate to Congress from Virginia. 

John McKinley, United States Senator, born. 

Pembina, North Dakota, settled by the French. 

James Monroe appointed on an important mission to South Carolina by Governor 

Jefferson. 

John H. Smith tried for assisting Benedict Arnold in New York and acquitted. 

Academy of Science founded, succeeding the institution founded by Benjamin 

Franklin in Boston. 

The British seize distinguished citizens of Carolina and transport them to St. 

Augustine, Florida. 

The establishment of the Pueblo of Conception in California. 

General Gates sent by Congress to succeed Baron de Kalb, who, by the surrender 

of General Lincoln, had been commander-in-chief in the south of Michigan. 

Estimated population of Maine 55,500, New Hampshire 84,500, Vermont 40,000, 

Massachusetts 307,000, Bhode Island 52,000, Connecticut 203,000, New York 

200,000, New Jersey 137,000, Pennsylvania 335,000, Delaware 37,000 Maryland 



1780, Dec 97 Aug. 25, 1781 

250,000, Virginia 520,000, North Carolina 300,000, South Carolina 160,000, Georgia 
65,000 and Kentucky 45,000, a total estimated population of all the colonies 
2,781,000 inhabitants. (No figures given to this date on the population of Tonnes- 

Bee«y 

1781 

January 1, Pennsylvania troops break camp at Morristown. 
Jan. 1, Congress appoints a commission which accedes the demand of Pennsylyania 
troops for back pay. 

Jan. 5-6k Benedict Arnold plunders Bichmond, Virginia. 
Jan. 17, Battle of the Cowpens, South Carolina, a American victory. 
Jan. 23-27, Mutiny of New Jersey troops quelled by General Bobert Howe. 
Jan., Bobert B. Livingston appointed secretary of Foreign Affairs by Congress. 
Jan.-Febniar7, General Greeners celebrated retreat. 

Jan. 28-Feb. IS, Americans retreat from the Cowpens to the Biver Dan, pursued by 
Cornwallis. 

February 2, Young's house, near White Plains, surprised by the British. 
Feb. 20, Biobert Morris appointed superintendent of the country's finance by 
Congress. 

March 1, Final ratification of Articles of Confederation announced by order of 
Congress, and Congress assembles under the new form of government, in force as 
the supreme law of the land until 1789. 

Mar. 1, The Maryland delegation signs the Articles of Confederation. 
l£ar. 9, Congress awards a gold medal to Brigadier-General Daniel Morgan for 
the victory of the Cowpens. 

Mar. 9, Lieutenant-Colonels William A. Washington and John E. Howard awarded 
silver medals for services at the victory of the Cowpens by the Continental 
Congress. 

Mar. 15, Battle of Guilford Court-House, North Carolina. 

Mar. 17, Governor Tonyn calls a general assembly in Florida on account of public 
aifairs. 

Mar., de Galvez, assisted by the naval forces of Admiral Solana, invest Pensacola, 
Fort St. Michel and St. Barnard, Florida, garrisoned by the English under General 
Campbell, compelling them to capitulate. Spain recedes to Great Britain terri- 
tory west of Pensacola, Florida, as far as the Mississippi Biver. 
April 19, The Independence of the United States recognized by Holland. 
Apr. 24, Generals Phillips and Benedict Arnold, with a British force, occupy 
Petersburg. 

Apr. 26, Battle of Hobkirk's Hill, South Carolina. 
May 20, Cornwallis and Arnold join forces at Petersburg, Virginia. 
May, Union of Vermont with the British proposed by Colonel Ira Allen at the 
Isles aux Noiz, Canada. 

June 5, Augusta, Georgia, capitulates to the American forces. 
June 10, Thomas McKean chosen President of the Continentfd Congress. 
June 18, Capture and imprisonment of General Wadsworth at Castine, Maine. 
June 21, The British abandon Fort Ninety-six. 

June 22, Bazaled Woodward, Ira Allen and James Fay appointed by the State 
Legislature to represent the cause of Vermont in the Continental Congress. 
Jvne, Siege of Augusta (May to June). 

July 6, General Laiayette attacks Cornwallis and is repulsed near Green Springs, 
Virginia. 

July 9, Battle of Jamestown. 

July 10, The Continental Congress elects Thomas McKean as President. 
July 17, Bivera slain in Indian Massacre at San Pablo, Colorado. 
July, Thomas Burke, Governor of North Carolina. 
August 4, Cornwallis retires with his army to Torktown, Virginia. 
Aug. 20, Congress requires Vermont to relinquish territory east of the present 
New York line before admission as a state. 
Aug. 23, John McP. Berrien, statesman, bom in New Jersey. 
Aug. 25, Combined armies of America and France start for Torktown, Virginia, 
from the Hudson Biver. 



1781, Aug. 26 98 Oct. 19, 1781 

Aug. 26, Founding of the Pueblo of Los Angeles, California. 
Aug. 30, Count de Grasse arrives in the Chesapeake with the French fleet. 
August, R. R. Livingston appointed secretary of Foreign Affairs by Congress. 
September 3, Lafayette joins the French troops at Green Springs under Count 
de St. Simon. 

Sept. 6, The French troops occupy Williamsburg, about fifteen miles from York- 
town, Virginia, under Count de St. Simon and General Lafayette. 
Sept. 6, Benedict Arnold captures Fort Griswold and plunders and burns New 
London, Connecticut. 

Sept. 7, The British make their appearance in the Chesapeake under Admiral 
Graves. 

liept. 8, Indecisive battle fought at Eutaw Springs, South Carolina. 
Sept. 14, General Washington and Count Rochambeau reach Williamsburg. 
8ept.-Oct., Siege of Torktown, Virginia. 

October 19, Lord Cornwallis surrenders to Washington at Torktown, Virginia. 
"Articles of Capitulation" of Torktown, Virginia, contained fourteen articles 
or clauses and were signed by Cornwallis and ^omas Symonds, in behalf and on 
the part of the British and by General George Washington, Le Comte de Rocham- 
beau, Le Comte de Barras, en mon nom and celui de Comte de Grasse, in be- 
half and on the part of the American forces: 

ARTICLES OF CAPITULATION AT TORKTOWN, VIRGINIA. 
The surrender of Lord Cornwallis virtually brought to a close hostilities between 
Great Britain and the American colonies in the Revolutionary War, and assured 
the Independence of the United States of America under the great Washington. 
Settlement between his Excellency General Washington, Commander-in-Chief of 
the combined forces of America and France; his Excellency the Count de Rocham- 
beau, Lieutenant-General of the armies of the King of France, Great Cross of 
the royal and military Order of St. Louis, commanding the auxiliary troops of 
his Most Christian Majesty in America; and his Excellency the Count de Grasse, 
Lieutenant-General of the Naval Armies of his most Christian Majesty, Com- 
mander of the Order of St. Louis, Commander-in-Chief of the Naval Army of 
France in the Chesapeake on the one part^ and the Right Honorable Earl Corn- 
wallis, Lieutenant-General of his Britannic Majesty's forces, commanding the 
garrisons of Tork and Gloucester, and Thomas Symonds, Esquire, commanding 
his Britannic Majesty's Naval forces in Tork River in Virginia, on the other 
part. 

ARTICLE I, The garrison of Tork and Gloucester, including the officers and sea- 
men of his Britannic Majesty's ships, as well as other mariners, to surrender 
themselves prisoners of war to the combined forces of America and France. 
The land troops to remain prisoners to the United States, the navy to the naval 
army of his Most Christian Majesty. (Granted.) 

ARTICLE II, The artillery, arms, accoutrements, military chest, and public stores 
of every denomination, shall be delivered unimpaired to the heads of depart- 
ments appointed to receive them. (Granted.) 

ARTICLE III, At twelve o'clock this day the two redoubts on the left flank 
of Tork to be delivered, the one to a detachment of American infantry, the 
other to a detachment of French grenadiers. (Granted.) 

The garrison at Tork will march out to a place to be appointed in front of the 
posts, at two o'clock precisely, with shouldered arms, colors cased, and drums 
beating a British or German march. They are then to ground their arms, and re- 
turn to their encampments, where they will remain until they are despatched 
to the places of their destination. Two works on the Gloucester side will be de- 
livered at one o'clock to a detachment of French and American troops appointed 
to possess them. The garrison will march out at three o'clock in the afternoon: 
the cavalry with their swords drawn, trumpets soundings and the infantry in the 
manner prescribed for the garrison at Tork. They are likewise to return to their 
encampments until they can be marched off. 

ARTICLE rv. Officers are to retain their side arms. Both officers and soldiers 
to keep their private property of every kind, and no part of their baggage or 
papers to be at any time subject to search or inspection. The baggage and papers 



1781, Oct. 19 99 Oct^ 19, 1781 

of officers and soldiers taken daring the siege to be likewise preserved for them. 
(Granted.) 

It is understood that any property obviously belonging to the inhabitants of these 
States, in the possession of the garrison, shall be subject to be reclaimed. 
ABTIGLE V. The soldiers to be kept in Virginia, Maryland, or Pennsylvania, 
and as much by regiments as possible, and supplied with the same rations of 
provisions as are allowed to soldiers in the service of America. A field-officer 
from each nation, to wit, British, Anspach, and Hessian, and other officers on 
parole, in the proportion of one to fifty men to be allowed to reside near their 
respective regiments, to visit them frequently, and be witnesses of their treat- 
ment, and that their officers may receive and deliver clothing and other neces- 
saries for them, for which passports are to be granted when applied for. (Granted.) 
ABTIGLE VI. The general, staff and other officers not employed as mentioned in 
the above articles, and who choose it, to be permitted to go on parole to Europe, 
to New York, or to any other American maritime post at present in the posses- 
sion of the British forces at their own option, and proper vessels to be granted 
by the Count de Grasse to carry them under flags of truce to New York within 
ten days from this date, if possible, and they to reside at a district to be agreed 
upon hereafter, until they embark. The officers of the civil department of the 
army and navy to be included in this article. Passports to go by land to be 
granted to those to whom vessels cannot be furnished. (Granted.) 
ABTIGLE VII. Officers to be allowed to keep soldiers as servants, according 
to the common practice of the service. Servants, not soldiers, are not to be 
considered as prisoners, and are to be allowed to attend their masters. (Granted.) 
ABTIGLE VIII. The "Bonetta" sloop-of-war to be equipped and navigated by its 
present captain and crew, and left entirely at the disposal of Lord Gornwallis 
from the hour that the capitulation is signed to receive an aide-de-camp to carry 
despatches to Sir Henry Glinton and such soldiers as he may think proper to send 
to New York, to be permitted to sail without examination. When his despatches 
are ready his Lordship engages on his part that the ship shall be delivered to 
the order of the Gount de Grasse if she escapes the dangers of the sea. That 
she shall not carry off any public stores. Any part of the crew that may be 
deficient on her return, and the soldiers passengers, to be accounted for on her 
delivery. 

ABTIGLE IX. The traders are to preserve their property, and to be allowed 
three months to dispose of or remove them, and those traders are not to be 
considered as prisoners of war. 

The traders will be allowed to dispose of their effects, the allied army having the 
right of preemption. The traders to be considered as prisoners of war upon 
parole. 

ABTIGLE X. Natives or inhabitants of different parts of this country, at present 
in York or Gloucester, are not to be punished on account of having joined the 
British army. 

This article cannot be assented to, being altogether of civil resort. 
ABTIGLE XI. Proper hospitals to be furnished for the sick and wounded. They 
are to be attended by their own surgeons on parole, and they are to be furnished 
with medicine and stores from the American hospitals. 

The hospital stores now at York and Gloucester shall be delivered for the use 
of the British sick and wounded. Passports will be granted for procuring them 
further supplies from New York, as occasion may require, and proper hospitals 
will be furnished for the reception of the sick and wounded of the two gar- 
risons. 

ABTIGLE XII. Wagons to be furnished to carry the baggage of the officers at- 
tendin|^ the soldiers, and to surgeons when travelling on account of the sick, 
attending the hospitals at public expense. They are to be furnished if pos- 
sible. 

ABTIGLE XIII. The shipping and boats in the two harbors, with all their 
stores, guns, tackling and apparel, shall be delivered up in their present state 
to any officer of the navy appointed to take possession of them, previously un- 
loading the private property, part of which has been on board for security during 
the siege. (Granted.) 



1781, Oct 19 100 June 20, 1782 

ABTICLE XIY. No article of capitulation to be infringed on pretence of re- 
prisals, and if there be any doubtful expressions in it, they are to be interpreted 
according to the common meaning and acceptation of the words. (Qranted.) 
Done at Yorktown, in Virginia, (>2tober 19, 1781. 

(Signed) Gomwallis 

Thomas Symonds 
Done in the Trenches before Yorktown, in Vimnia, October 19, 1781. 

(Signed) George Washington 

Le Gomte de Bochambean 
Le Gomte de Barras 
En mon nom ft celui da 
Gomte de Grasse 

Oct Zif Sir Henry Glinton Arriyea in the Ghesapeake with a fleet of vessels and 
troops. 

Oct 29, Hajor-General Nathanael Greene awarded a gold medal for the victory 
of Eutaw Springs by Gongress. 

Oct 2^ The fleet and armies of General Glinton return to New York. 
Oct SO, Benjamin Lincoln appointed Secretary of War by the Gongress of the 
United States. 

Oct, Blakeley Johnson, naval officer, bom. 

Noramber (1781-1788), Gongress meets annuaUy on the first Monday in November 
as fixed by the Articles of Gonfederation. 

Not. 5, The Gontinental Gongress elects John Hanson, of Maryland, as its presid- 
ing officer. 

Not. 11, Gyrus Alger, inventor of war implements, bom. 

December 13, A day of public thanksgiving observed throughout the Unifed 
States of America. 

Dec. 22, The "Alliance,'' with General Lafayette, sails from Boston for France. 
Dec 81, Henry Laurens released from imprisonment in the London Tower. 
John Adams, a commissioner to conclude treaties of peace with European 
Powers. 

John Quincy Adams, secretary to Francis Dana, United States Minister to 
Bttssia. 

Thomas Jeiferson appointed Minister Plenipotentiary, together with Adams, Jay, 
Laurens, and Dr. Franklin, but declines the honor. 
Andrew Jackson wounded by a British officer. 
Thomas Nelson, Governor of the state of Virginia. 
Benjamin Harrison, Governor of the state of Virginia. 
Siege of Yorktown, Virginia. 
Siege of Fort Ninety-six, South Garolina. 
Wifliam Moore, President of the state of Pennsylvania. 
Joseph Willard, President of Harvard GoUege. 
Los Angeles, Galifomia, established. 

Excepting Massachusetts, Gonnecticut furnished more troops during the war of 
the Kevolution than any other state 5f the Union, with a total of 31,959 men 
to her credit. 

1782 

January 18, Daniel Webster, statesman, lawyer, and great expounder and de- 
fender of the Gonstitution, bom in Salisbury (now Franklin), rfew Hampshire. 
BCarch 18, John G. Galhoun, statesman, bom in Abbeville District, South Garo- 
lina. 

April 19, The Independence of the United States of America recognized by 
Holland. 

liay 6, Sir Guy Garleton, appointed to succeed Glinton, arrives in New York. 
June 5, Battle of Sandusky, Ohio. 

June 14, Sir James Wright receives ord^s at Savannah, Georgia, for the evacua- 
tion of the province. 

June 20, The Great Seal of the United States adopted by the Gontinental Gon- 
grest| and the motto £ Pluribos Unum ordered. 



1782^ Jnly 16 101 Sept. 3» 1783 

July 16, Convention for the payment of loan concluded and agreed upon be- 
tween the United States and France at Versailles. 

NoY. 4^ The Continental Congress chooses Elias Bondinot as President of that 
body. 

October 8, Treaty of Amity and Commerce concluded by Mr. Adams, on the part 
of the United States, with Holland. 

Not. so, Preliminary articles of peace si^ed at Paris by Bichard Oswald, for 
Great Britain, and by John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay and Henry 
Laurens, for and on behalf of the United States of America. 
December 14, The British army evacuates Charleston, South Carolina. 
Dec* 23, Washington resigns his commission in the army. 

Dec. 24, The French army embarks from Boston for San Domingo, having been 
in the United States for two years, five months and fourteen days. 

John Adams negotiates a treaty of peace with the Netherlands. 
Samuel Adams, President of the Massachusetts State Senate. 
James Monroe, a member of the Virginia Assembly. 

Martin Van Buren, President of the United States, bom at Kinderhook, Colum- 
bia County, New York. 
John Dickinson, Governor of Delaware. 
John Martin, Governor of Georgia. 

John Dickinson, President of the state of Pennsylvania. 
John Matthews, Governor of the state of South Carolina. 

1783 

January 20, Convention for the adjustment of an armistice between the United 
States and Great Britain concluded at Versailles, France. 

Jan. 20, John Adams negotiates with others a commercial treaty preliminary to 
peace and the Independence of America. 

February 5, Sweden recognizes the independence of the United States of America. 
Feb. 25, Denmark recognizes the independence of the United States of America. 
Mardi 11, Congress being unable to pay the officers and men for services in 
the army, an anonymous address is circulated advising the army at Newburg, 
New York, to enforce its claims. 

l£ar. 22, Congress grants five years' full pay to officers in lieu of half pay prom- 
ised on October 21, 1780, for life. 

ICar. 24, Spain recognizes the independence of the United States of America. 
April Sv Washington Irving, essayist, novelist, historian, born. 
Apr. 3, Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the United States and Sweden 
concluded at Paris, France. 

Apr. 11, The Bevolutionary War virtually ended and Congress proclaims a cessa- 
tion of hostilities. 

Apr. 15, Congress of the United States ratifies the preliminary treaty with 
Great Britain. 

Apr. 19, Cessation of hostilities is read to the American army in the field. 
Bfay 13, Constitution for the Society of the Cincinnati formed at the army head- 
quarters by officers of the Bevolutionary War in camp on the Hudson Biver. 
June 8, Washington corresponds with the respective state governors relative to 
the situation of the government. 

June 21, Adjournment of the seventh Continental Congress after a session of 1,816 
days, the longest session ever held in the United States. 

June 30, The Continental Congress called to meet in its eighth session at Prince- 
ton, New Jersey, with Elias Bondinot as its President. 

July 11, Savannah, Georgia, evacuated by the British. Also Charleston, Soufh 
Carolina, evacuated. 

July, Independence of the United States of America recognized by Bussia. 
September 3, East and West Florida ceded to Spain by Great Britain by treaty. 
Septb 3, Definite treaty signed by David Hartley, on the part of Great Britain, 
and by Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and John Jay, on the part and in behalf 
of the United States, at Paris, France, and thus the complete independence of the 
American States is acknowledged by England. 

J Concluded Sept 3, 1788, Batified by Congress Jan, 14, 1784, and proclaimed 
an, 14| same 7ear.) 



1783, Sept. 3 102 Sept 3» 1783 

TBEATT WITH GBEAT BBITAIN. In the name of the Most Holy and Undi- 
vided Trinity. 

It having pleased the Divine Providence to dispose the hearts of the most 
serene and most potent Prince George the Third, by the Grace of God, King of 
Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Duke of Brunswick 
and Luneburg, Arch-Treasurer and Prince Elector of the Holy Boman Empire, 
etc., and of the United States of America, to forget all past misunderstandings 
and differences that have unhappily interrupted the good correspondence and 
friendship which they mutually wish to restore: and to establish such a beneficial 
and satisfactory intercourse between the two countries, upon the ground of 
reciprocal advantages and mutual convenience, as may promote and to secure 
to both perpetual peace and harmony: And having for this desirable end already 
laid the foundation of peace and reconciliation, by the provisional articles, signed 
at Paris, on the 30th of November, 1782, by the commissioners empowered on 
each part, which articles were agreed to be inserted in and to constitute the 
treaty of peace proposed to be concluded between the Grown of Great Britain 
and the said United States, but which treaty was not to be concluded until terms 
of peace should be agreed upon between Great Britain and France, and His 
Britannic Majesty should be ready to conclude such treaty accordingly: and the 
treaty between Great Britain and France having since been concluded. His 
Britannic Majesty and the United States of America, in order to carry into full 
effect the provisional articles above mentioned, according to the tenor thereof, 
have constituted and appointed, that is to say, His BritaDnic Majesty on his 
part, David Hartley, esq., member of the Parliament of Great Britain: and the 
said United States on their part, John Adams, esq., late a commissioner of the 
United States of America, at the court of VersaiUes, late delegate in Congress 
from the State of Massachusetts, and chief justice of the said State, and Minister 
Plenipotentiary of the said United States to their High Mightinesses the States 
General of the United Netherlands: Benjamin Franklin, esq 're, late Delegate in 
Congress from the State of Pennsylvania, president of the convention of the 
said State, and Minister Plenipotentiary from the United States of America, at 
the court of Versailles: John Jay, esq 're, late president of Congress, and chief 
justice of the State of New Tork, and Minister Plenipotentiary from the said 
United States at the Court of Madrid, to be the Plenipotentiaries for the con- 
cluding and signing the present definitive treaty: who, after having reciprocally 
communicated their respective full powers, have agreed upon and confirmed the 
following articles, viz.: 

ABTICLE I. His Britannic Majesty acknowledges the said United States, viz.. 
New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Bhode Island and Providence Plantations, 
Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, 
North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, to be free, sovereign and independent 
states that he treats with them as such, and for himself, his heirs and successors, 
relinquishes all claim to the Government, proprietary and territorial rights of the 
same, and every part therof. 

ABTICLE II. ioid that all disputes which might arise in future, on the sub- 
ject of the boundaries of the said United States may be prevented, it is hereby 
agreed and declared that the following are, and shall be their boundaries, viz.: 
From the north-west angle of Nova Scotia, viz., that angle which is formed by a 
line drawn due north from the source or Saint Croix Kiver to the Highlands: 
along the said Highlands which divide those rivers that empty themselves into 
the River St. Lawrence, from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to the 
northwesternmost head of Connecticut River: thence down along the middle of that 
river, to the forty-fifth degree of north latitude: from thence, by a line due 
west on said latitude, until it strikes the River Iroquois or Cataraquy: thence 
along the middle of said river into Lake Ontario, through the middle of said 
lake until it strikes the communication by water between that lake and Lake 
Erie, thence along the middle of said communication into Lake Erie, through 
the middle of said lake until it arrives at the water communication between 
that lake and Lake Huron, thence along the middle of said water communication 
into the Lake Huron: thence through tne middle of said lake to the water com- 
munication between that lake and Lake Superior: thence through Lake Superior 
northward to the Isles Boyal and Phelipeaox, to the Long Lake, thence through 



1783, 8ei^ 3 103 Bej^ 3, 1783 

the middle of said Long Lake, and the water commnnication between it and the 
Lake of the Woods, to the said Lake of the Woods: thence through the said lake 
to the most northwestern point thereof, and from thence on a due west course 
to the Biver Mississippi, thence by a line to be drawn along the middle of the 
said Biver Mississippi, until it shall intersect the northernmost part of the 
thirty-first degree oi north latitude, south, by a line to be drawn due east from 
the determination of the line last mentioned, in the latitude of thirty-one degrees 
north of the Equator, to the middle of the Biver Apalachicola or Catahouche: 
thence along the middle thereof to its junction with the Flint Biver: thence 
straight to the head of St. Marys Biver: and thence down along the middle of 
St. Marys Biver to the Atlantic Ocean. 

East by a line to be drawn alonp^ the middle of the Biver St. Groiz, from its 
mouth in the Bay of Fundy to its source, and from its source directly north 
to the aforesaid Highlands, which divides the rivers that fall into the Atlantic 
Ocean from those which fall into the Biver St. Lawrence: comprehending all 
islands within twenty leagues of any part of the shores of the United States, and 
lying between lines to be drawn due east from the points where the aforesaid 
boundaries between Nova Scotia on the one part, and East Florida on the other, 
shall respectively touch the Bay of Fundy and the Atlantic Ocean, excepting such 
islands as now are, or heretofore have been, within the limits of the said province- 
of Nova Scotia. 

ABTICLE m. It is agreed that the people of the United States shall continue to 
enjoy unmolested the rights to take fish of every kind on the Grand Bank, and 
on all the other banks of Newfoundland: also in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, and 
at all other places in the sea where the inhabitants of both countries used at 
any time heretofore to fish. And also that the inhabitants of the United States 
shall have liberty to take fish of every kind on such parts of the coast of New- 
foundland as British fishermen shall use (but not to dry or cure the same on 
that island), and also on the coasts, bays, and creeks of all other of His Britannic 
Majesty's dominions in America: and that the American fishermen shall have 
liberty to dry and cure fish in any of the unsettled bays, harbors, and creeks 
of Nova Scotia, Magdalen Islands, and Labrador, so long as the same shall re- 
main unsettled, but so soon as the same or either of them shall be settled, it 
shall not be lawful for the said fishermen to dry or cure fish at such settle- 
ments, without a previous agreement for that purpose with the inhabitants, pro- 
prietors, or possessors of the ground. 

ABTICLE iV. It is agreed that creditors on either side shall meet with no 
lawful impediment to the recovery of the full value in sterling money, of all 
bona-fide debts heretofore contracted. 

ABTICLE v. It is agreed that the Congress shall earnestly recommend it to the 
legislatures of the respective States, to provide for the restitution of all estates, 
riffhts, and properties which have been confiscated, belonging to real British 
subjects, and also of the estates, lights, and properties of persons resident in 
districts in the possession of His Majesty's arms, and who have not borne arms 
against the said United States. And that persons of any other description shall 
have free liberty to ^o to any part or parts of any of the thirteen United States, 
and therein to remain twelve months, unmolested in their endeavors to obtain 
the restitution of such of their estates, rights and properties as may have been 
confiscated: and that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several 
States a reconsideration and revision of all acts or laws regarding the premises, 
so as to render the said laws or acts perfectly consistent, not only with justice 
and equity, but with that spirit of conciliation which, on the return of the 
blessings of peace, shall universiJly prevail. And that Congress shall also earn- 
estly recommend to the several States, that the estates, rights, and properties of 
such last mentioned persons, shall be restored to them, they refundins^ to any 
person who may be now in possession, the bona-fide price (where any has been 
given), which such person may have paid on purchasing any of the said lands, 
rights, or properties, since the confiscation. And it is agreed, that all persons 
who have any interest in confiscated lands, either by debts, marriage settlements, 
or otherwise, shall meet with no lawful impediment in the prosecution of their 
just rights. 
ABTICSiB YL That there shall be no further confiscation made, nor any 



1783» Sept. 3 104 Kov^ 1783 

prosecutions commenced against any person or persons for, or hy reason of the 
part which he or they may have taken in the present war: and that no person 
shall, on that account, suffer any further loss or damage, either in his person, 
liberty, or property: and that those who may be in confinement on such charges 
at the time of the ratification of the treaty in America, shall be immediately 
set at liberty, and the prosecutions so commenced be discontinued. 
ABTIGLE VII. There shall be a firm and perpetual peace between His Britannic 
Majesty and the said States, and between tne subjects of the one and the citizens 
of the other, wherefore all hostilities, both by sea and land, shall from hence- 
forth cease. All prisoners on both sides shall be set at liberty, and His Britannic 
Majesty shall, with all convenient speed, and without causing any destruction, 
or carrying away any negroes or other j>roperty of the American inhabitants, 
withdraw all his armies, garrisons, and fleets from the said United States, and 
from every port, place, and harbor, within the same, leaving in all fortifications 
the American artillery that may be therein: And shall also order and cause all 
archives, records, deeds, and papers, belonging to any of the said States, or their 
citizens, which, in the course of the war, may have fallen into the hands of his 
officers, to be forthwith restored and delivered to the proper States and persons 
to whom they belong. 

ARTICLE Vm. The navigation of the river Mississippi, from its source to the 
ocean, shall forever remain free and open to the subjects of Oreat Britain, and 
the citizens of the United States. 

ARTICLE IX. In case it should so happen that any place or territory belong- 
ing to Oreat Britain or to the United States, should have been conquered by the 
arms of either from the other, before the arrival of the said provisional articles 
in America, it is agreed, that the same shall be restored without difficulty, and 
without re(miring any compensation. 

ARTICLE A. The solemn ratification of the present treaty, expedited in good 
and due form, shall be exchanged between the contracting parties, in the space 
of six months, or sooner if possible, to be computed from the day of the signa- 
ture of the present treaty. In witness whereof, we, the undersigned, their Min- 
isters Plenipotentiary, have in their name and in virtue of our full powers, 
signed with our hands the present definitive treaty, and caused the seal of our 
arms to be affixed thereto. Done at Paris, this third day of September, in the 
year of our Lord one thoosand seven hundred and eighty-three. 

(Signed D. Hartley (L. S.) 
John Adams (L. S.) 
B. Franklin (L. S.) 
John Jay (L. S.) 



KoTember 2; Washington issues his "Farewell Address to the Army" from Bocky 
Hill, near Princeton, New Jersey. 

Nov. 3, The Continental Congress chooses Thomas Mifflin, of Pennsylvania, as 
President. 

Not. 3, By general orders of Congress proclaimed Oct. 18, the American army 
is disbanded, a small force to remain at West Point on the Hudson. 
Not. 4, After a session of about one hundred and twenty-seven days the eighth 
Continental Congress adjourns. 

Not. 25^ The British forces evacuate New York City, last military post held by 
the British in America. 

Not. 26, The Continental Congress meets at Annapolis, Maryland, for its ninth 
session, with Thomas Miffiin as President. 

KoT^ Estimated contributions of the states as their quota furnished the Conti- 
nental Army during the Revolutionary War, was 231,771, distributed among the 
states as follows: 

New Hampshire 12,947, Massachusetts 67,907, Rhode Island 5,908, Connecticut 
31,939, New York 17,781, New Jersey 10,726, Pennsylvania 25,678, Delaware 2,386, 
Maryland 13,912, Virginia 26,678, North Carolina 7,263, South Carolina 6,417, 
Georgia 2,679. 



178S» Doc. 4 105 Doc. 24, 1784 

December 4, General Washington, at Frances Tavern, Comer Pearl and Broad 
Streets, New York city, bids farewell to his officers of the Revolutionary Army. 
Dec. 4, The British evacuate Long Island and Staten Island. 
Dec. 23, Washington, in the State House in Annapolis, Maryland, resigns his 
commission as Commander-in-Chief of the American forces and returns to Mount 
Vernon, Virginia, on the Potomac. 

John Cook, Governor of Delaware. 

William Paca, Governor of Maryland, under the Continental Congress. 

L3rman Hall, Colonial Governor of Georgia. 

Benjamin Guerard, Governor of South Carolina. 

Thomas Jefferson, a member of Congress from Virginia. 

John Quincy Adams attends the signing of the definite treaty of peace at Paris. 

James Monroe, a member of Congress £*om Virginia. 

Colonel Devereux's expedition frofn 8t. Augustine, Florida, captures the BiAama 

Islands from Spain. 

Territory east of the Mississippi Biver, with the exception of Florida, ceded 

by England to the* United States. 

Philip F. Barbour, lawyer and judge, bom. 

John Adams, with others, negotiates a commercial treaty preliminary to peace 

and the Independence of America with Great Britain. 

1784 

January 14, Definite Treaty of Peace between the United States and Great Britain 
ratified by Congress. 

Blarcli 1, Virginia's cession of Northwest Territory to the United States accepted 
by Congress. 

Mar., John Jay appointed by Congress to succeed Livingston as Secretary of 
Foreign Affairs. 

April, General Assembly of North Carolina cedes its western lands to the United 
States on condition of acceptance within two years. 

May 3, Anthony Benezth, philanthropist and prominent anti-slavery agitator, 
dies in Philadelphia, Pa. 

June 3, After a session of one hundred and eighty-nine days, the ninth Conti- 
nental Congress adjourns. 

June, The new Spanish government and the arrival of Governor Zespedez at St. 
Augustine, Florida, taking possession in the name of the King. 
Chief of the Creek Indians makes a treaty with the Governor of Florida, in 
behalf of the Seminoles, prohibiting the white men from establishing their 
territory without Spanish permit. 

September, James Bumsey, of Sheppardstown, Virginia, experiments publicly 
with his steamboat in the presence of General Washington on the Potomac Biver. 
October 22, Western lands of North Carolina ceded to the United States condi- 
tionally by the General Assembly. 

Noyember 1, The tenth Continental Congress convenes at Trenton, New Jersey, 
in regular session. 

Not. 13, The Massachusetts Legislature cedes to the United States lands west 
of the Niagara Biver. 
Not. 14, Connecticut colony slaves freed. 

Not. 24, Zachary Taylor, twelfth President of the United States, bom in Orange 
County, Virginia. 

KoT. SO, Bichard Henry Lee, of Virginia, chosen to preside over the Continental 
Congress, succeeding President Thomas Mifflin. 

December 24, After a session of fifty-four days the tenth Continental Congress 
adjourns. 

Tour of the western country made by General Washington to ascertain means 
by which bounds of the Union can most effectually be protected. 
Three commissioners appointed to succeed Bobert Morris, in charge of fiscal 
of the Government. 



1784, Dec. 24 106 Nov., 1785 

The first daily newspaper in America, the "American Daily Advertiser," issued 

by Baehe, at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Matthew Oriswold, Governor of Connecticut. 

Nicholas Van Dyke, Governor of Delaware. 

Patrick Henry, Governor of Virginia. 

Richard Goswell, Governor of North Carolina. 

John Houston, Colonial Governor of Georgia. 

New Haven, Connecticut, established. 

Newport, Bhode Island, established. 

Nashville, Tennessee, established. 

1785 

January 11, Congress meets at New York for its eleventh session, which con- 
tinued as its meeting place from this time on until the adoption of the Constitu- 
tion. Richard H. Lee, President. 

Febmary 11, New Hampshire does not adopt a motto for the state like most of 
the other states at this time. 

Feb. 24, John Adams appointed by Congress as Minister Plenipotentiary to 
Great Britain. 

Mardi 8, Congress appoints General Henry Knoz as Secretary of War, with duties 
also as Secretary of the Navy. 

Mar. 10, Thomas Jefferson appointed Minister to France, succeeding Franklin. 
April 19, The United States takes over lands west of the Niagara River ceded 
by Massachusetts in accordance with her Legislature. 

June 1, John Adams, first United States Ambassador to the Court of St. James, 
England, received by King George III. 

July 2, Congress recognizes Don Diego Gardoqui as Minister from Spain to the 
United States. 

July 6^ The United States Congress adopts the decimal system of money with the 
dollar as a unit. 

July-September, Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the United States and 
Prussia concluded by Franklin and Adams on the part of the American Govern- 
ment. 

August 5, Treaties of Amity and Commerce si^ed on behalf of the United States 
by Jefferson, Franklin and Adams at Paris, Passy and London. 
Siqiteniber IS, After an absence of about nine years in the service of his country, 
Franklin returns to Philadelphia from France. 
October 6» William Burrows, naval officer, born in Pennsylvania. 
KoTsmber 4, After a session of two hundred and ninety-eight days, the eleventh 
Continental Congress adjourns. 

Nov. 7, The Continental Confess meets for its twelfth session at New York. John 
Hancock, of Massachusetts, is President. 

KoT. 23, The Continental Congress receives notice of President Hancock's declina- 
tion to serve longer as its presiding officer on account of failing health. 
Kov^ A portion of the lands of North Carolina set apart from western sections 
forming the state of Franklin. 

James Bowdoin, Governor of the state of Massachusetts. 

John Langdon, Governor of the state of New Hampshire. 

Benjamin Franklin, Presidetit of the state of Pennsylvania. 

William Smallwood, Governor of Maryland, under the Continental Congress. 

Samuel Elbert, Colonial Governor of Georgia. 

William Moultrie, Governor of South Carolina. 

Samuel Adams resigns from the presidency of the Massachusetts State Senate. 

Andrew Jackson begins to read law at Salisbury, North Carolina. 

Arkansas Territory first settled at Arkansas Post. 

John McLean, jurist and statesman, bom. 

Claims of Georgia, to what is now Alabama and Mississippi, Houston County, 

north of the Tennessee River, now a part of the state of Alabama. 

Disputes relative to the navigation of the Mississippi River and to the Florida 

boundaries arise between the United States and Spain, 

The University of Georgia established. 



ITSe, Jan. 8 107 July IS. 1787 

1786 

January 8» Treaty between the Federal Ooyemment and the Ohoektaw Indians 

for the cession of territory concluded. 

March, James Bumsey's steamboat on the Potomac Biver. 

June 6^ The Continental Congress choose Nathaniel Gorham as President. 

Jnne 8, Nicholas Biddle, financier and diplomat, born in Pennsylvania. 

June 19, Death of Oeneral Nathanael Greene at Mulberry Grove, Georgia. 

August, Coinage ordinance passed establishing coinage under the government. 

September 11, Annapolis convention meets at Annapolis, Maryland, to consider 

changes in the Articles of Confederation. 

Sept. 14, Connecticut cedes her lands west of Pennsylvania to the United States, 

retaining space in Ohio, known as the Western Beserve. 

Sept. 14, The French fit out a fleet for scientific exploration under de la P6rouse, 

which enters Monterey Bay, California. 

October 16, Congress passes an ordinance establishing the United States mint. 

November 3^ The twelfth Continental Congress adjourns after a session of three 

hundred and sixty-two days. 

Nov. Bf The thirteenth Continental Congress opens at New York. 

Nov., Shays 's Bebellion breaks out in Massachusetts. 

December 4, Founding of the Mission of Santa Barbara, California. 

John Sullivan, Governor of New Hampshire. 

John Collins, Charter Governor of Bhode Island. 

Samuel Huntington, Governor of Connecticut. 

Thomas Collins, Governor of Delaware. 

Edmund Bandolph, Governor of the State of Virginia. 

Edward Telfair, Governor of the Georgia colony. 

Daniel Jackson, of Bhode Island, introduces the first spinning jenny in the 

United States for operation. 

Thomas Jeflferson succeeds Franklin as Minister to France. 

James Madison appointed by the Virginia Legislature a member of the Annapolis 

convention to advise a system of commercial regulations for all the states. 

John Quincy Adams enters Harvard College. 

1787 

February 2^ The thirteenth Continental Congress selects Arthur St. Clair, of 
Pennsylvania, as its President. 

Feb. 21, States advised by Congress to send delegates to Pennsylvania to attend 
a convention to revise the Articles of Confederation, to convene May 14 fol- 
lowing. 

Jnly IS, Ordinance by Congress providing mode of government for the north- 
west territory of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, viz.: 

OBDINANCE OF 1787. 

An ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States North- 
west of the Ohio Biver. 
(In Congress July 13, 1787.) 

Be it ordained by the United States in Congress assembled. That the said Ter- 
ritory, for the purpose of temporary government, be one district: subject, how- 
ever, to be divided into two districts, as future circumstances may, in the 
opinion of Congress, make it expedient. 

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That the estates both of resident 
and non-resident proprietors in the said Territory, dying intestate, shall descend 
to and be distributed among their children, and the descendants of a deceased 
child, in equal parts: the descendants of a deceased child or grandchild to take 
the share of their deceased parent in equal parts among them, and where there 
shall be no children or descendants, then in equal parts to the next of kin, in 
equal degree: and among collaterals, the children of a deceased brother or sister 
of the intestate shall have, in equal parts among them, their deceased parents 
share: and there shall, in no case, be a distinction between kindred of the whole 
and half blood: saving in all cases to the widow of the intestate, her third part 
of the real estate for life, and one-third part of the personal estate, and this 



1787, July 13 108 July ld» 1787 

law relates to descents and dower shall remain in full force until altered by the 
Legislature of the district. And until the Governor and Judges shall adopt laws 
as hereinafter mentioned, estates in the said Territory may be devised or be- 
queathed by wills in writing, signed and sealed by him or her, in whom the 
estate may be (being of fuU age), and attested by three witnesses: and real 
estates may be conveyed by lease and release, or bargain and sale, signed, sealed, 
and delivered by the person, being of full age, in whom the estate may be and 
attested by two witnesses, provided such wills be duly proved, and such con- 
veyances be acknowledged, or the execution thereof duly proved and be recorded 
within one year, after proper magistrates, courts, and registers shall be appointed 
for that purpose: and personal property may be transferred by delivery, saving, 
however, to the French and Canadian inhabitants, and other settlers of the Kas- 
kaskies. Saint Vincent's, and the neighboring villages, who have heretofore 
professed themselves citizens of Virginia, their laws and customs now in force 
among them, relative to the descent and conveyance of property. 
Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That there shall be appointed, from 
time to time, by Congress, a governor, whose commission shall continue in force 
for the term of three years, unless sooner revoked by Congress, he shall reside 
in the district and have a freehold estate therein, in one thousand acres of land, 
while in the exercise of his office. 

There shall be appointed, from time to time, by Congress, a secretary, whose 
commission shall continue in force for four years, unless sooner revoked: he shall 
reside in the district, and have a freehold estate therein, in five hundred acres 
of land, while in the exercise of his office: it shall be his dutv to keep and pre- 
serve the acts and laws passed by the legislature, and the public records of the 
district, and the proceedings of the governor in his executive department: and 
transmit authentic copies of such acts and proceedings every six months to the 
secretary of Congress. 

There shall be appointed a court, to consist of three judges, any two of whom 
to form a court, who shall have a common law jurisdiction, and reside in 
the district, and have each therein a freehold estate, in five hundred acres of 
land, while in the exercise of their office, and their commissions shall continue 
in force during good behavior. 

The governor and judges, or a majority of them, shall adopt and publish in 
the district such laws of the orignal States, criminal and civil, as may be 
necessary, and best suited to the circumstances of the district, and report 
them to Congress, from time to time, which laws shall be in force in the 
district until the organization of the general assembly therein, unless dis- 
approved of by Congress; but afterwards the Legislature shall have authority 
to alter them as they shall think fit. The governor for the time being shall 
be commander-in-chief of the military: appoint and commission all officers in 
the same below the rank of general officers. All general officers shall be ap- 
pointed and commissioned by Congress. 

Previous to the organization of the General Assembly, the governor shall 
appoint such magistrates and other civil officers in each county or township as he 
shall find necessary for the preservation of the peace and good order in the same. 
After General Assembly shall be organized, the powers and duties of magistrates 
and other civil officers shall be regulated and defined by the said assembly: 
but all magistrates and other civil officers, not herein otherwise directed, shall, 
during the continuance of this temporary government, be appointed by the 
governor. 

For the prevention of crimes and injuries, the laws to be adopted or made 
shall have force in all parts of the district, and for the execution of process, 
criminal and civil, the governor shall make proper divisions thereof, and 
he shall proceed from time to time, as circumstances may require, to lav out 
the parts of the district in which the Indian titles shall have been extinguished, 
into counties and townships, subject, however, to such alteration as may 
thereafter be made by the Legislature. 

As soon as there shall be five thousand free male inhabitants of full age in the 
district, upon giving proof thereof to the governor, they shall receive au- 
thority, with time and place, to elect representatives from their counties or 
townships, to represent them in the General Assembly, Provided, that for 



1787, July 18 109 July IS, 1787 

every five hundred free male inhabitants, there shall be one representative; 
and 80 on, progressively, with the number of free male inhabitants, shall the 
right of representation increase, until the number of representatives shall 
amount to twenty-five: after which the number and proportion of representa- 
tives shall be regulated by the legislature: Provided, that no person be 
eligible or qualified to act as a representative unless he shall have been a 
citizen of one of the United States three years, and be a resident in the 
district, or unless he shall have resided in the district three years: and in 
either case, shall likewise hold in his own right, in fee simple, two hundred 
acres of land within the same, Provided, also, that a freehold in fifty acres 
of land in the district, having been a citizen of one of the States, and being 
resident in the district, or the like freehold and two years resident in the 
district, shall be necessary to qualify a man as an elector of a representative. 
The representatives thus elected shall serve for the term of two years: and in 
case of the death of a representative, or removal from office, the governor 
shall issue a writ to the county or township for which he was a member to 
elect another in his stead, to serve for the residue of the term. 
The General Assembly, or Legislature, shall consist of the governor, legislative 
council, and a house of representatives. The legislative council shall consist 
of five members, to continue in olSce for five years, unless sooner removed by 
Congress, any three of whom to be a quorum: and the number of the council 
shall be nominated and appointed in the following manner, to wit: As soon as 
representatives shall be elected, the governor shall appoint a time and place 
for them to meet together, and when met, they shall nominate ten persons, 
residents in the district, and each possessed of a freehold in five hundred acres 
of land, and return their names to Congress: five of whom Congress shall appoint 
and commission to serve as aforesaid: and whenever a vacancy shall happen 
in the council, by death or removal from office, the house of representatives 
shall nominate two persons, qualified as aforesaid, for each vacancy, and 
return their names to Congress: one of whom Congress shall appoint and 
commission for the residue of the term. And every five years, four months 
at least before the expiration of the term of service of the member of the 
council, the said house shall nominate ten persons, qualified as aforesaid, and 
return their names to Congress, five of whom Congress shall appoint and 
commission to serve as members of the council five years, unless sooner removed. 
And the governor, legislative council, and house of representatives, shall have 
authority to make laws in all cases for the good government of the district, not 
repugnant to the principles and articles in this ordinance established and 
declared, and all bills having passed by a majority in the house, and by a 
majority in the council, shall be referred to the governor, for his assent, but no 
bills or legislative act whatever shall be of any force without his assent. 
The governor shall have power to convene, prorogue, and dissolve the General 
Assembly when in his opinion it shall be expedient. 

The governor, judges, legislative council, secretary, and such other officers as 
Congress shaU appoint in the district, shall take an oath or affirmation of 
fidelity and of office, the governor before the President of Congress, and all 
other officers before the governor. As soon as a legislature shall be formed in 
the district, the council and house assembled, in one room, shall have authority, 
by joint ballot, to elect a delegate to Congress, who shall have a seat in Congress, 
with the right of debating, but not of voting during this temporary govern- 
ment. And for extending the fundamental principles of civil and religious liberty, 
which form the basis whereon these republics, their laws and constitutions, 
are erected, to fix and establish those principles as the basis of all laws, 
constitutions, and governments, which forever hereafter shall be formed in the 
said Territory, to provide, also, for the establishment of States, and permanent 
government therein, and for their admission to a share in the Federal councils 
on an equal footing with the original States, at as early periods as may be 
considered with the general interest. 

It is hereby ordained and declared, by the authority aforesaid, that the follow- 
ing articles shall be considered as articles of compact, between the original 
States and the people and States in the said Territory, and forever remain 
unalterable, unless by common consent, to wit: 



1787, July 18 110 July 18, 1787 

ABTIGLE I. No person, demeaning himself in a peaceful and orderly manner, 
shall ever be molested on account of his mode of worship or religious sentiments, 
in the said Territory. 

ABTIGLE U. The inhabitants of the said Territory shall always be entitled 
to the benefits of the writ of Habeas Corpus, and of the trial by jury, of a 
proportionate representation of the people in the legislature, and of judical pro- 
ceedings according to the course of the common law. All persons shall be 
bailable, unless for capital offenses, where the proof shall be evident, or the 
presumption great. All fines shall be moderate, and no cruel or unusual punish- 
ment shall be inflicted. No man shall be deprived of his liberty or property, 
but by the judgment of his peers, or the law of the land, and should the public 
exigencies make it necessary for the common preservation to take any person's 
property, or to demand his particular services, full compensation shall be 
made for the same. And, in the just preservati6n of rights of property, 
it is understood and declared that no law ought ever to be made, or have 
force in the said Territory, that shall, in any manner whatever, interfere 
with or affect, private contracts or engagements, bona fide and without fraud, 
previously formed. 

ABTIGLE m. Beligion, morality, and knowledge, being necessarv to good 
government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education 
shall forever be encouraged. The utmost good faith shall always be ob- 
served towards the Indians: their lands and property shall never be taken from 
them without their consent, and in their property, rights, and liberty they shall 
never be invaded or disturbed, unless in just and unlawful wars authorized by 
Gongress, but laws founded in justice and humanity shall from time to time, be 
made for preventing wrongs being done to them, and for preserving peace and 
friendship with them. 

ABTIGLE IV. The said Territory, and the States which may be formed 
therein, shall ever remain a part of this confederacy of the United States of 
America, subject to the Articles of Gonfederation and to such alterations therein 
as shall be constitutionally made: and to all the acts and ordinances of the 
United States in Gongress assembled, conformable thereto. The inhabitants and 
the settlers in the Territory shall be subject to pay a part of the Federal 
debts, contracted or to be contracted, and a proportional part of the expenses 
of government, to be apportioned on them by Gongress, according to the same 
common rules and measures by which apportionments thereof shall be made 
on the other States, and the taxes for paying their proportion shall be laid 
and levied by the authority and direction of Legislatures of the district or 
districts, or new States, as in the original States, within the time agreed upon 
by the United States in Gongress assembled. The Legislature of these districts, 
or new States shall never interfere with the primary disposal of the soil 
by the United States in Gongress assembled, nor with any regulations Gongress 
may find necessary for securing the title in such soil to be bona fide purchasers. 
No tax shall be imposed on lands the property of the United States: and in 
no case shall non-residents proprietors be taxed higher than residents. The 
navigable waters leading into the Mississippi and St. Lawrence, and the carry- 
ing places between the same, shall be common highways, and forever free, as well 
to the inhabitants of the said Territory as to the citizens of the United States, 
and those of any other States that may be admitted into the confederacy, 
without any tax, impost, or duty therefor. 

ABTIGLE V. There shall be formed in the said Territory not less than three, 
nor more than five States, and the boundaries of the States, as soon as Virginia 
shall alter her act of cession, and consent to the same, shall become fixed and 
established as follows, to wit: The western States^ in the said territory shall 
be bounded by the Mississippi, the Ohio, and Wabash rivers: a direct line 
drawn from the Wabash and Post Vincents, due north, to the territorial line be- 
tween the United States and Ganada, and by the said territorial line to the Lake 
of the Woods, and Mississippi. The middle states shall be bounded by the 
said direct line the Wabash, from Post Vincents, to the Ohio, by the Ohio, 
by a direct line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami to 
the said territorial line, and by the said territorial line. The eastern States 
shall be bounded by the last mentioned direct line, the Ohio, PennBylvania, and 



1787, July IS 111 Sept 17, 1787 

the said territorial line, Provided, however, and it is farther understood and de- 
clared that the boundaries of these three States shall be subject so far to be 
altered, that, if Congress shall hereafter find it expedient, they shall have author- 
ity to form one or two States in that part of the said territory which lies north of 
an east and west line drawn through the southerly bend of extreme of Lake 
Michigan. And whenever any of the said States shall have sixty thousand free 
inhabitants therein, such State shall be admitted, by its delegates, into the <^on- 
gross of the United States, on an equal footing with the original States in all re- 
spects whatever: and shall be at liberty to form a permanent constitution and 
state government: Provided, the constitution and government so to be formed 
shall be republican, and in conformity to the principles contained in these 
articles: and so far as it can be consistent with the general interests of 
the confederacy, such admission shall be allowed at an earlier period, and when 
there may be a less number of free inhabitants in the State than sixty thousand. 
ABTICLE VI. There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the 
said Territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party 
shall have been duly convicted: Provided always, that any person escaping 
into the same, from whom labor or service is lawfully claimed in any one of 
the original States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed, and conveyed 
to the person claiming his or her labor or service as aforesaid. Be it ordained 
by the authority aforesaid, that the resolutions of the 23rd of April, 1784, 
relative to the subject of this ordinance, be, and the same are hereby repealed 
and declared null and void. 

Done by the United States in Congress assembled the thirteenth day of July, 
in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of 
their sovereignty and independence the twelfth. 

Charles Thompson, 

Secretary. 

July 18, Batification of the treaty between the United States and Morocco 
concluded. 

August 0, The United States accepts claims ceded by North Carolina, of lands 
east of the head of the Tugaboo Biver in that State to its border. 
September 17, Convention delegates sign the Constitution establishing the United 
States Government. 

Sept. 17, Constitution of the United States. The Constitution originally con- 
sisted of a Preamble and seven Articles, and in that form was. Done in Con- 
vention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present on the above date, and 
on the Independence of the United States of America, the 12th, the Constitution 
was declared in effect on Wednesday, March 1, 1789. And the signers of the 
original Constitution, by virtue of their membership in Congress were signed by: 

George Washington, President and Deputy from Virginia. 

John Langdon 

Nicholas Gilman New Hampshire 

Nathan Gorham 

Bufus King Massachusetts 

William Samuel Johnson 

Boger Sherman Connecticut 

Alexander Hamilton New York 

William Livingston 

David Brearley New Jersey 

William Paterson 

Jonathan Dayton 

Benjamin Franklin 

Bobert Morris 

Thomas Fitzsimona 

James Wilson 

Thomas Mifflin 

George Clymer 

Jared Ingersoll 

Oouvemeur Morris P^niylrania 



1787, Sept. 17 112 Sept 17, 1787 

George Bead 

John Dickinson 

Jacob Broom 

Gunning Bedford, Jr. 

Bichard Basset Delaware 

James McHenrj Maryland 

Daniel Carroll Dan of St. Thomai Jenifer 

John Blair 

James Madison, Jr. 

William Blount Virginia 

H. Williamson 

Bichard Dobbs Spaight North Carolina 

J. Butledge 

Charles Pinckney 

Charles C. Pinckney 

Pierce Butler South Carolina 

William Few 

Abraham Baldwin Georgia 

(Attest) William Jackson, Secretary. 

The Constitution was ratified by thirteen States in the following order: 

Delaware Massachusetts Virginia 

Pennsylvania Maryland New York 

New Jersey South Carolina North Carolina 

Georgia New Hampshire Bhode Island 

Connecticut 

(For data see supplement of the States.) 

THE CONSTITUTION OP THE tJNITED STATES OP AMEBICA. 

"PBE AMBLE." 

WE. THE PEOPLE OP THE UNITED STATES. IN OBDEE TO FOBM A MORE 
PEBFECT UNION. ESTABLISH JUSTICE. INSUBE DOMESTIC TBANQUIL- 
ITY. PBOVIDE FOB THE COMMON DEFENCE. PBOMOTE THE GENERAL 
WELFARE. AND SECURE THE BLESSINGS OF LIBERTY TO OURSELVES 
AND OUR POSTERITY. DO ORDAIN AND ESTABLISH THIS CONSTITU- 
TION FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 

CONSTITUTION OP THE UNITED STATES. 

On May 25, 1787, fifty-five delegates from the various States met in Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, to discuss the drawing up of a Constitution for the United States 
of America, to take the place of the Articles of Confederation, General Wash- 
ington presided, and, after a long struggle and many compromises, the re- 
sultant document was referred to the several States on the 28th, of September, 
of the same year, and on June 21st, 1789, the required nine out of the thirteen 
States had ratified same, and consequently the new federal government was 
established at New York, on April 30th, 1789. 

We, the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, 
establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, 
promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves 
and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United 
States of America. 

ARTICLE I. SECTION I. All legislative Power herein granted shall be vested 
in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House 
of Representatives. 

SECTION II. (1) The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members 
chosen every second Year by the People of the several States and the Electors 
in each State shall have the Qualifications required for Electors of the most 
numerous Branch of the State Legislature. 

(2) No person shall be a Bepresentative who shall not have attained to the 
Age of Twenty-five years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, 
and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he 
shall be chosen. 



1787, Sept. 17 113 Sept 17, 1787 

(3) BepresentativeB and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several 
States which may be included within this Union, according to the^r respective 
Nnmbers, which shall be determined b^ adding to the whole Number of free 
Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Tears, and excluding 
Indians not taxed, three fifths of idl other Persons. The actual Enumeration 
shall be made within three Tears after the first Meeting of the Congress of 
the United States, and within every subsequent Term of Ten Tears, in such 
Manner as they shall by law Direct. The Number of Representatives shall not 
exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at Least one 
Bepresentative: and until such enumeration shaU be made, the State of New 
Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Bhode Island 
and Province Plantations one, Connecticut five. New Tork six. New Jersey four, 
Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten. North Carolina 
five, South Carolina five, and Oeorgia three. 

(4) When vacancies happen in the Bepresentation from any State, the Executive 
Authority thereof shaU issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies. 

(5) The House of Bepresentatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers: 
and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment. 

SECTION in. (1) The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two 
Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Tears: 
and each Senator shall have one vote. 

(2) Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first election, 
they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the 
Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Tear, 
of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Tear, and of the third 
Class at the Expiration of the sixth Tear, so that one third may be chosen 
every second Tear: and if Vacancies happen by Besignation, or otherwise, dur- 
ing the Becess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may 
make temporary Appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which 
shall then fill such Vacancies. 

(3) No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of 
thirty Tears, and been nine Tears a Citizen of the United States, and who 
shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall 
be chosen. 

(4) The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but 
shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided. 

(5) The Senate shall chuse their Officers, and also a President pro tempore, 
in the Absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall exercise the Office of 
President of the United States. 

(6) The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When 
sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the 
President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: and no 
Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two-thirds of the Mem- 
bers present. 

(7) Judgment in cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to remove 
from Office, and disc^ualification to hold and enjoy any Office of Honor, Trust or 
Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be 
liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to 
Law. 

SECTION IV. (1) The Times, Place and Manner of holding Elections for 
Senators and Bepresentatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legisla- 
ture thereof, but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such 
Begulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators. 

(2) The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Tear, and such meeting 
shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a 
different Day. 

SECTION V. (1) Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Betums and 
Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a 
Quorum to do Business: but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day 
and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such 
Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide. 
(2) Each House may determine the Bules of its Proceedings, punish its 



1787, Sept. 17 114 Sept. 17, 1787 

Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of two-thirds, 
expel a Member. 

(3) Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proeeedinffs, and from time to 
time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require 
Secrecy: and the Teas and Nays of the Members of each House on any question 
shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those present, be entered on the journal. 

(4) Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent 
of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in 
which the two Houses shall be sitting. 

SECTION VI. (1) The Senators and Bepresentatives shall receive a Compensa- 
tion for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the 
Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, 
Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their At- 
tendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and 
returning from the same: and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they 
shall not be questioned in any other Place. 

(2) No. Senator or Bepresentative shall, during the Time for which he was 
elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, 
which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shidl have been 
increased during such time, and no Person holding any Office under the United 
States, shall be a Member of eiUier House during his Continuance in Office. 
SECTION Vn. (1) All Bills for raising Bevenue shaU originate in the House 
of Bepresentatives: but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments 
as on other Bills. 

(2) Everv bill which shall have passed the House of Bepresentatives and the 
Senate, shall, before it becomes a Law, be presented to the President, of the 
United States: if he approves he shall sign it, but if not he shall reti^m it, 
with his Obiections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall 
enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and to proceed to reconsider 
it. If after such Beconsideration two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass 
the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by 
which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that 
House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses 
shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting 
for and against the Bill shall be entered on the JoumsJ of each House respec- 
tively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days 
(Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall 
be a law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their 
Adjournment prevent its Betum, in which Case it shall not be a law. 

(3) Every Order, Besolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate 
and House of Bepresentatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjourn- 
ment) shall be presented to the President of the United States, and before the 
Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by 
him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Bepresentatives, 
according to the Bules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill. 
SECTION Vin. (1) The Congress shall have Power to lay and collect Taxes, 
Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pat the Debts and provide for the common 
Defence and general Welfare of the United States, but idl Duties, Imposts and 
Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States. 

(2) To borrow money on the credit of the United States. 

(3) To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, 
and with the Indian Tribes. 

(4) To establish an uniform Bule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the 
subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States. 

(5) To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and to 
fix the Standard or Weights and Measures. 

(6) To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and cur- 
rent Coin of the United States. 

(7) To establish Post Offices and post Boads. 

(8) To promote the progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for 
limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Bight to their respective 
Writings and Discoveries. 



1787, Sept. 17 115 Sept 17, 1787 

(9) To constitute TribunalB inferior to the Supreme Court. 

(10) To define and Punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, 
and 0£Pences against the Law of Nations. 

(11) To declare War, gr&nt Letters of Marque and Beprisal, and make Boles 
concerning Captures on Land and Water. 

(12) To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that 
Use shall be for longer Term than two Tears. 

(18) To provide and maintain a Navy. 

(14) To make Bulet for the Government and Begulation of the land and naval 
Forces. 

(15) To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, 
suppress Insurrections and repel Invasion. 

(16) To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for 

governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United 
tates, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, 
and the Authori^ of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by 
Congress. 

(17) To exercise exclusive Legislation in aU Cases whatsoever, over such 
District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of Particular 
States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the seat of Government of the 
United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the 
Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the 
erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Tards, and other needful Buildings. 

(18) To make aU Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into 
Execution the foreign Powers, and all other Powers, vested by this Constitu- 
tion in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or office 
thereof. 

SECTION IX. (1) The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of 
the States now existing shiJl think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited 
by the Congress prior to the Tear one thousand eight hundred and eight, but 
a Tax or Duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars 
for each Person. 

(2) The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended unless 
when in a Case of Bebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it. 

(3) No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed. 

(4) No Capitation, or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the 
Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken. 

(5) No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any fitate. 

(6) No preference shall be given by any Begulation of Commerce or Bevenue 
to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, 
or from, one State, be obliged to enter clear, or pay Duties in another. 

(7) No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Ap- 
propriations made by Law: and a regular Statement and Account of the 
Beceipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time 
to time. 

(8) No title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States, and no person 
holding any office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of 
the Congress, accept of any present. Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind 
whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State. 

SECTION X (1) No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confedera- 
tion; grant Letters of Marque and Beprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; 
make anything but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Pa3rment of Dfebts; pass any 
Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Con- 
tracts, or grant any Title of Nobility. 

(2) No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or 
Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for exe- 
cuting its inspection Laws; and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid 
by any State, on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of 
the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Be vision and 
control of the Congress. 

(3) No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, 
keep Troops, or Ships, of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or 



1787» Sept. 17 116 Btipt. 17» 1787 

Compact with another State, or with a Foreign Power, or engage in War, unless 
actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of Delay. 
ARTICLE II. SECTION I. (1) The executive Power shall be vested in a 
President of the United States of America. He shall Jiold his Office during 
the Term of four Tears, and, together with the Vice-President, chosen for the 
same Term, be elected, as follows: 

(2) Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may 
direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Rep- 
resentatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but no 
Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under 
the United States, shall be appointed an Elector. 

The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for two 
Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with 
themselves, and they shall make a list of all the Persons voted for, and of the 
Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit 
sealed to the Seat of Government of the United States, directed to the Presi- 
dent of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the 
Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the votes shall 
then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be 
the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors 
appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority and have an 
equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately 
chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a Majority, 
then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like manner chuse 
the President. But in chusing the President, the Vote shall be taken by States, 
the Representation from each State having one vote; A quorum for this Purpose 
shall consist of a Member or Members from two-thirds of the States, and a 
Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after 
the Choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of votes of 
the Electors shall be the Vice-President. But & there should remain two or more 
who have equal votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice- 
President. 

(3) The Congress may determine the time of chusing the Electors, and the day 
on which they shall give their Votes, which Day shall be the same throughout 
the United States. 

(4) No Person except a natural bom Citizen, or a (Htizen of the United States, 
at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office 
of President, neither shall any Person be eligible to the Office who shall not 
have attained the Age of thirty-five Tears, and been fourteen Tears a Resident 
within the United States. 

(5) In case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his death, Resigna- 
tion, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the 
same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Congress may by law provide 
for the case of Removal, Death, Resignation, or Inability, both of the President 
and Vice-President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and 
such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President 
shall be elected. 

(6) The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensa- 
tion, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for 
which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period 
any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them. 

(7) Before he enters on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the follow- 
ing Oath or Affirmation; "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully 
execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of 
my Ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States." 
SECTION if. (1) The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army 
and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when 
called into actual Service of the United States he may require the Opinion, in 
writing, of the principal Officers in each of the executive Departments, upon 
any subject relating to the duties of their respective Offices, and he shall 
have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United 
States, except in cases of Impeachment. 



1787, Sept 17 117 Seirt. 17, 1787 

(2) He shall have power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to 
make Treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he 
shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall 
appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Councils, Judges of the 
Supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments 
are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by 
I^w; but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior officers 
as they think proper, in the President alone, m the Courts of Law, or in the 
Heads of Departments. 

(3) The President shall have power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen 
during the Becess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire 
at the End of their next Session. 

SECTION IIL He shall from time to time give to Congress Information of 
the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he 
shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, 
convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between 
them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to 
such time as he shall think proper, he shall receive Ambassadors and other 
public Ministers; he shall take care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and 
shall Commission all the Officers of the United States. 

SECTION IV. The President, Vice-President and all civil Officers of the 
United States, shall be removed from office or Impeachment for Conviction of, 
Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors. 

ABTICLE nL SECTION I. The judicial Power of the United States, shall 
be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress 
may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme 
and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at 
stated Times, receive for their services, a Compensation, which shall not be 
diminished during their Continuance in Office. 

SECTION II. (1) The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and 
Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and 
Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority, — to all Cases 
affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, — ^to all cases of 
admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction, — to Controversies to which the United 
States shall be a party; — ^to Controversies between two or more States, — between 
the State and Citizens of another State, — ^between Citizens of different States; — 
between citizens of the same State claiming lands under Grants or different 
States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens 
or subjects. 

(2) In all cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and 
those in which a State shall be a Party, the Supreme Court shall have original 
Jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court 
shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such Exceptions, 
and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make. 

(3) The Trial of all Crimes, except in case of Impeachment, shall be by a 
jury, and such trial shaU be held in the State where the said Crimes shall 
have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall 
be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by law have directed. 
SECTION m. (1) Treason against the United States, shall consist in levying 
War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and 
Comfort. No person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of 
two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court. 

(2) The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but 

no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except 

during the Life of the Person attained. 

ABTICLE IV. SECTION I. Full faith and Credit shall be given in each 

State to the publi6 Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other 

State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in 

which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof. 

SECTION n. (1) The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges 

and Immunities of Citizens in the several States. 

(2) A person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who 



1787, Sept 17 118 Sept 17, 1787 

shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the 
executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up to be 
removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime. 

(3) No person held to Service or Labor in one State, under the Laws thereof, 
escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, 
be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on Claim 
of the Party to whom such service or labor may be due. 

SECTION m. (1) New States may be admi^tted by the Congress into this 
Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of 
any other State, nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more 
States, or Parts of State, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the 
States concerned as well as of the Congress. 

(2) The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules 
and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the 
United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to 
Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State. 
SECTION IV. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union 
a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against 
Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the 
legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence. 
ARTICLE v. The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it 
necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application 
of the Legislature of two-thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for 
proposing Amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all Intents and 
Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of 
three-fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three-fourths thereof, 
as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; 
Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Tear one thousand 
eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Classes in 
the ninth section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, 
shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate. 

ARTICLE VI. (1) All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, 
before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as vaUd against the United 
States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation. 

(2) This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made 
in pursuance thereto; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under 
the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and 
the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution 
or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding. 

(3) The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of 
the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the 
United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, 
to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a 
qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States. 
ARTICLE Vn. The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be 
sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratify- 
ing the Same. 

Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the 
Seventeenth Da^ of September in the Tear of our Lord one thousand seven 
hundred and eighty seven and the Independence of the United States of 
America the Twelfth. In Witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our 
Names. 

George Washington President and Deputy from Virginia. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

John Langdon Nicholas Oilman 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Nathaniel Gorham Rufus King 

CONNECTICUT 

Wm. Saml. Johnson Roger Sherman 

NEW TORK 

Alexander Hamilton 



1787, Sept 17 



119 



S^pt. 17, 1787 



NEW JEBSEY 

Wil. Livingston 

David Brearlev 

PENNSYLVANIA 

B. Franklin 

Thomas liiifflin 

Bobt. Morris 

Geo. Clymer 

DELAWABE 

Geo. Bead 

jGunning Bedford, Jr. 

John Dickinson 

MABTLAND 

James McHenry 

Ban of St. Thos. Jenifer 

VIBGINIA 

John Blair 

iNOBTH CABOLINA 

jWm. Blonnt 

Bichard Dobbs Spaight 

SOUTH CABOLINA 

J. Butledge 

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 

GEOBGIA 
William Few 
Attest. 

William Jaekson 

Secretary 



|Wm. Patterson 
Jona. Dayton 

Thos. FitzsimoBB 
Jared IngersoU 
James Wilson 
Gonv. Morris 

Bichard Bassett 

Jaeo. Broom 

Danl. Carroll 



James Madison, Jr. 
On. Williamson 



Charles Pinckney 
Pierce Bntler 



Abr. Baldwin 



AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION 

Articles in Addition to, and Amendments of, the Constitution of the United 
States of America, Proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of 
the Several States Persuant to the Fifth Article of the Original Constitution. 
ABTICLE I. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of 
religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom 
of speech, or of the press, or the rights of the people peaceably to assemble, 
and to petition the Gk>vernment for a redress of grievances. 
ABTIClE II. A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free 
State, the £ight of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. 
ABTlCLE in. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, with- 
out the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be 
prescribed by law. 

ABTICLE IV. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, 
papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be 
violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by 
Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, 
and the persons or things to be seized. 

ABTIClE y. No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or other-wise 
infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except 
in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual 
service in time of War, or in public danger; nor shall any person be subject for 
the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be 
compelled in any Criminal Case to be a witness against himself, nor be de- 
prived of life, liberty,- or property, without due process of law; nor shall 
private property be taken for public nse^ without just compensation. 
ABTICLE VI. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right 
to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district 
wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been 
previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause 
of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have 



1787, Sept. 17 120 Sept 17, 1787 

compalsory process for obtaining Witnesses in his favor, and to have the 
Assistance of Counsel for his defence. 

ARTICLE VII. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall 
exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no 
fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the 
United States, than according to the rules of the common law. 
ABTICLE VIII. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, 
nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted. 

ABTICLE IX. The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall 
not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 
ABTICLE X. The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, 
nor prohibited by it to the State, are reserved to the States, respectively, or to 
the people. 

ABTICLE XI. The Judicial power of the United States, shall not be construed to 
extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of 
the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of 
any Foreign State. 

ABTICLE XII. The Electors shall meet in their respective States and vote 
by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be- 
an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their 
ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person 
voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted 
for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the 
number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and x^ertify, and trans- 
mit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the 
President of the Senate; — The President of the Senate shall in the presence 
of the Senate and House of Bepresentatives, open all the certificates and the 
votes shall then be counted; — The person having the greatest number of votes 
for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the 
whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, 
then from the person having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the 
list of those voted for as President, the House of Bepresentatives shall choose 
immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes 
shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one 
vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from 
two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary 
to a choice. And if the House of Bepresentatives shall not choose a President 
whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of 
March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the 
case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The 
person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the 
Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors 
appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest num- 
bers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for 
the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and 
a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no 
person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that 
of Vice-President of the United States. 

ABTICLE Xin. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punish- 
ment for crime whereof the party shall have been convicted, shidl exist within 
the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. (Section 1.) 
Section 2, Congress shall nave power to enforce this article by appropriate 

legislation. 

ABTICLE XrV. Section 1. All persons bom or naturalized in the United 
States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United 
States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any 
law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the 
United States, nor shaU any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, 
without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction 
the equal protection of the laws. 

Section 2. Bepresentatives shall be apportioned among the several States ac- 
cording to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons 



1787, Sept. 17 121 Dec. 18, 1787 

in each State, ezelndixi^ Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at 
any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the 
United States, Bepresentatives in Congress, the Executive and Judical officers of 
a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of 
the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and 
citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation 
in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced 
in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the 
whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. 
Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or 
elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under 
the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, 
as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member 
of any State Legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to sup- 
port the Constitution of the United States shall have engaged in insurrection or 
rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But 
Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. 
Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized 
by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for 
services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But 
neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or 
obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United 
States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such 
debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. 
Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legisla- 
tion, the provisions of this article. 

ARTICLE XV. Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote 
shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account 
of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate 
legislation. 

Oct 16, Captain John Paul Jones awarded a gold medal by Congress for the 
capture of the "Serapis" in 1779. 

Oct. 30, The Continental Congress closes its thirteenth session and adjourns 
after three hundred and fifty-nine days. 
John Hancock, Governor of Massachusetts. 

Koyember 6, The Continental Congress meets at New York for the fourteenth 
and last session. 

I>ecemb6r 7, Delaware ratifies the Constitution of the United States. Area 
2,370 square miles, length 110 miles, breadth 35 miles, Dover the capital of the 
State, population (1910) 202,322, state debt $991,785, term of governor 10 
years, salary $4,000. 

Dec. 12» Pennsylvania ratifies the Constitution of the United States. Area 45,126 
square miles, first settled in 1682, length about 300 miles, width 180 miles, Harris- 
burg the capital, governor's salary $10,000 per annum, term of office four 
years (1910), no state debt, population of the state 7,665,111, estimated valua- 
tion of the state $8,021,904,539. 

Dec. 18^ New Jersey ratifies the Constitution of the United States, Samuel 
Johnston, Governor of North Carolina. 

Thomas Pinckney, Governor of South Carolina. 
George Matthews, Governor of the colony of Georgia. 

The Federal Party formed and composed of the strong government or Con- 
stitutional element. 

Shakers form their fyat complete community at Mount Lebanon, N. Y. 
James Monroe establishes himself at Fredericksburg, Virginia, to practice law. 
James Madison, a member of the Continental Convention at Philadelphia. 
"The Federalist." In the interval between the drawing up of the Constitution 
and its ratification there appeared in numerous New York publications a 
series of articles under the general heading of "The Federalist" devoted 
to expounding and defending the new instrument of government, embodied in 
the Constitution. Most of the articles that appeared there were contributed 



1787, Dec. 18 122 Nor. 25, 1788 

by Hamilton and Madison, whose work the Constitution largely was, and by 
Jay. Together they formed one of the great and most thorough classics on 
government of the times and unquestionably exercised a highly important 
influence in favor of the adoption of the United States Constitution oy the 
States of the Union. 

John Adams returns from England as Minister to that country. 
Washington, President of the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Tlie Anti-Federalists politically opposed to strengthening the National government 
at the expense of the States. Among them are sucb statesmen and patriots 
as Clinton, Mason, and Patrick Henry. 

1788 

January 2, Georgia unanimously ratifies the Constitution of the United States. 

Jan. 9, Connecticut ratifies the Constitution of the United States by a vote of 

128 to 40, thus becoming a State of the Union. 

Jan. 22, The Continental Congress chooses Cyrus Grifiin of Virginia as president 

of that body. 

February 6^ Massachusetts ratifies the Constitution of the United States by 

a vote of 187 to 168. 

April 28, Maryland ratifies the Constitution of the United States by a vote 

of 63 to 12. 

BCay 23, South Carolina ratifies the Constitution of the United States by a vote 

of 149 to 73. 

June 21, New Hampshire ratifies the Constitution of the United States by a 

vote of 57 to 46. 

June 26, Virginia ratifies the Constitution of the United States by a vote 

of 89 to 79. The area of Virginia at the date of ratification was 61,352 

square miles, but a portion of its territory was set off as a free and inde- 

Jendent state under the name of West Virginia during the Civil War. 
nly 26, New York ratifies the Constitution of the United States by a vote of 
30 to «8. 

September IS^ The Committee of Congress reports a method for putting the new 
government into operation under the Constitution. 

October 21, The fourteenth and last session of the Continental Congress ad- 
journs after three hundred and fifty-three days of continuous work. 
Kovember 14, Convention relative to powers of Consuls concluded between the 
United States and France at Versailles. 
Not. 17, Seth Bogden, inventor, bom in Massachusetts. 

Not. 25, The French Minister to the United States, Marquis de Monstier, sent 
here by Louis XVI is requested to be recalled because his conduct is con- 
sidered objectionable to the government of the United States. 
The District of Columbia, Washington City, established under the 17th clause, 
8th section, 1st article of the Constitution of the United States. The territory 
embraced hi the District was ceded to the United States Government in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of the Constitution of the State of Maryland, by 
act of her Legislature of Dec. 23, 1788, and by the State of Virginia, by act of 
her Legislature of Dec. 3, 1789. These cessions were accepted by Congress by 
act of July 16, 1790, and the line and bounds of the District were established by 
a proclamation of the President, George Washington, March 30, 1791. By an 
act of July 9, 1846, Congress restored the county of Alexandria, in the 
District of Columbia, to the State of Virginia. The present government of the 
District is administrated by a board of three commissioners appointed by the 
President of the United States, in pursuance of an act of Congress of June 
20, 1874. 

John Langdon, Governor of New Hampshire. 

Thomas Mifflin, Governor of the State of Pennsvlvania. 

Arthur St. Clair, Governor of the Territory of Ohio. 

Beverly Bandolph, Governor of the State of Virginia. 

George Handley, Governor of the Georna Colony. (From 1782 to 1788, the 

governor of (Georgia was chosen by the Assembly.) 



i 



1788^ NOfT. 25 123 April 30, 1789 



Cineiimati, Ohio, established. 
Marietta, Ohio, settled by the English. 
Spanish intrigues in Kentucky. 

John Quincy Adams graduates from Harvard College. 

Andrew Jackson removes to Nashville, Tennessee, where ha begins to practice 
law. 

France accepts the Declaration of the Bights of Men. 

Joshua Bates, financier and the principal founder of the Boston Public library, 
bom in Massachusetts. 
John J. Alest, military engineer, bom. 
Cotton planted in Georgia. 

James Monroe, a member of the Virginia Batification Convention. 
The Constitution ratified by a majority of the States of the Union, having 
been adopted by Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, South Caro- 
lina, New Hampshire, Virginia, and New York. 

George Washington is elected president and John Adams vice-president of the 
United States of America. 
"Doctors Mob," in New York. 
John Fitch, of Philadelphia, launches his steamboat on the Delaware Biver. 

1788 

February 11, Ethan Allen, Bevolutionary hero, dies. 

Feb., The several electors of the states undor the Constitution meet and cast 
their votes for President and Vice-President of the United States of America 
^Presidential elections under the Constitution as originally adopted, the candidate 
for President and Vice-President, were voted for in the electoral college of each 
state, without designating which the elector intended for first or second place, 
i.e. President or Vice-President, the candidate having the greater number became 
President and the next highest in order became Vice-President, no choice ap 
pearing the election went to the House of Bepresentatives, for a choice, and in 
case of a tie for Vice-President, the United States Senate chose between the 
candidates. In the first election the votes were distributed as indication of 
choice, viz.: y^^ 

George Washington, Virginia .••.. 69 

John Adams, Massachusetts 34 ^ 

John Jay, New York 9 

B. H. Harrison, Maryland 6 

John Butledge, South Carolina 6 

John Hancock, Massachusetts 4 

George Clinton, New York • 3 

Samuel Huntington, Connecticut 2 

John Milton, Geor^a 2 

James Armstrong, Georgia 1 

Benjamin Lincoln, Massachusetts 1 

Edward Telfair, Georgia 1 

Vacancies (votes not cast) 4 votes, and George Washington was chosen first 
President and John Adams, first Vice-President of the United States of America. 
March 4 to Mar. 3, 1793, First Federal Administration of the United States offi- 
cially begun, and the Articles of Confederation cease to be the law of the land 
on the first Wednesday of the month. 

AprH 6, First Congress of the United States under the Federal Constitution. 
Speaker of the House of Bepresentatives, F. A. Muhlenberg, of Pennsylvania. 
Electoral votes of the States counted for President and Vice-President. 
Apr. 28, Thomas Hutchins, of New Jersey, dies at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. 
A|nr. 30, Washington and Adams inaugurated as President and Vice-President of 
the United States. (At the first election held under the Constitution, George 
Washington, who had been chairman of the convention which framed the Con- 
stitution, was unanimously chosen President of the new Bepublic. The inaugural 
address was delivered in Federal Hall, at Wall and Nassau Streets, in New 
York City.) 



1789, Aj^. 30 124 Apr. 30, 1780 

Washington delivers his first inaugural address. 

John Langdon, President pro tern of the United States Senate. 

John Jay, of New York, Secretary of State (until September). 

Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State (commencing in September). 

Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury. 

Henry Knox, Secretary of War. 

WASHINGTON'S FIRST INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

Among the vicissitudes incident to life, no event could have filled me with greater 
. anxieties than that of which the notification was transmitted by your order 
and received on the 14th day of the present month. On the one hand, I was 
summoned by my country, whose voice I can never hear but with veneration 
and love, from a retreat which I had chosen with the fondest predilection, and, 
in my flattering hopes, with an immutable decision as the asylum of my declining 
years, a retreat which was rendered every day more necessary as well as more 
dear to me by the addition of habit to inclination and of frequent interrup- 
tions in my health to the gradual waste committed on it by time. On the other 
hand, the magnitude and difficulty of the trust to which the voice of my country 
called me being sufficient to awaken in the wisest and most experienced of her 
citizens a distrustful scrutiny into his qualifications, could not but overwhelm 
with despondence one, who, inheriting inferior endowments from nature and un- 
practiced in the duties of civil administrations, ought to be peculiarly conscious 
of his own deficiencies. In this conflict of emotions, all I dare aver is that it 
has been my faithful study to collect my duty from a just appreciation of every 
circumstance by which it might be affected. All I dare hope is that, if in exe- 
cuting this task, I have been too much swayed by a fateful remembrance of 
former instances, or by an affectionate sensibility to this transcendent proof of 
the confidence of my fellow-citizens; and have thence too little consulted my in- 
capacity as well as disinclination for the weighty and untried cares before me, 
my error will be palliated by the motives which misled me and its consequences 
be judged by my country with some share of the partiality in which they orig 
inated. 

Such being the impressions under which I have, in obedience to the public 
summons, repaired to the present station, it would be peculiary improper to omit, 
in this first official act, my fervent supplications to that Almighty Being, who 
rules over the universe, who presides in the councils of nations, and whose 
providential aids can supply every human defect, that his benediction may conse- 
crate to the liberties and happiness of the people of the United States a govern- 
ment instituted by themselves for these essential purposes, and may enable 
every instrument empoyed in its administration to execute with success the func- 
tions allotted to his charge. In tendering this homage to the great Author of 
every public and private good, I assure myself that it expresses your sentiments 
not less than my own; nor those of my fellow-citizens at large, less than either. 
No people can be bound to acknowledge and adore the invisible hand, which 
conducts the affairs of men, more than the people of the United States. Every 
step, by which they have advanced to the character of an independent nation, 
seems to have been distinguished by some token of providential agency and, 
in the important revolution just accomplished in the system of their united gov- 
ernment, the tranquil deliberations and voluntary consent of so many distinct 
communities, from which the event has resulted, cannot be compared with the 
means by which most governments have been established, without some return 
of pious gratitude along with an humble anticipation of the future blessings 
which the past seems to presage. These reflections, arising out of the present 
crisis, have forced themselves too strongly on my mind to be suppressed You 
will join with me, I trust, in thinking that there are none under the influence 
of which the proceedings of a new and free government can more auspiciously 
commence. 

By the article establishing the executive department, it is made the duty of the 
President 'Ho recommend to your consideration such measures as he shall judge 
necessary and expedient.'' The circumstances, under which I now meet you, will 
acquit me from entering into that subject farther than to refer you to the 
great constitutional charter under which we are assembled; and which, in de- 



1789, Aj^. 30 125 Apr. 30, 1789 

fining yoar powera, designates the objects to which year attention is to be given. 
It w^l be more consistent with those circumstances and far more congenial with 
the feelings which actuate me, to substitute, in place of a recommendation of 
particular measures, the tribute that is due to the talents, the rectitude, and the 
patriotism, which adorn the characters selected to devise and adopt them. In 
these honorable qualifications I behold the surest pledges, that as, on one side, no 
local prejudices or attachments, no separate views or party animosities, will 
misdirect the comprehensive and equal eye, which ought to watch over this great 
assemblage of communities and interests; so, on another, that the foundations 
of our national policy will be laid in the pure and immutable principles of private 
morality, and the pre-eminence of a free government be exemplified by all the 
attributes, which can win the affections of its citizens and command the respect 
of the world. 

I dwell on this prospect with every satisfaction, which an ardent love for my 
country can inspire, since there is no truth more thoroughly established, than 
that there exists in the economy and course of nature an indissoluble union be- 
tween virtue and happiness, between duty and advantage, between the genuine 
maxims of an honest and magnanimous policy, and the solid rewards of public 
prosperity and felicity; since we ought to be no less persuaded that the pro- 
pitious smiles of Heaven can never be expected on a nation that disregards 
the eternal rules of order and risht, which Heaven itself has ordained; and since 
the preservation of the sacred fire of liberty and the destiny of the republican 
model of government are justly considered as deeply, perhaps as finally, staked 
on the experiment intrusted to the hand of the American people. 
Besides the ordinary objects submitted to vour care, it will remain with your 
judgment to decide how far an exercise oi the occasional power delegated by 
the fifth article of the Constitution is rendered expedient at the present juncture 
by the nature of objections which have been urged against the system, or by the 
degree of inquietude which has given birth to them. Instead of undertaking 
particular recommendations on this subject, in which I could be guided by no 
lights derived from official opportunities, I shall again give way to my entire 
confidence in your discernment and pursuit of the public good; for I assure my- 
self, that, whilst you carefully avoid every alteration, which might endanger 
the benefits of a united and effective government, or which ought to await the 
future lessons of experience, a reverence for the characteristic rights of free- 
men, and a regard for the public harmony, will sufficiently infiuence your de- 
liberations on the question, how far the former can be more impregnably forti- 
fied, or the latter be safely and advantageously promoted. 

To the preceding observations I have one to add, which will be most properly 
addressed to the House of Bepresentatives. It concerns myself and will, there- 
fore, be as brief as possible. When I was first honored with a call into the 
service of my country, then on the eve of an arduous struggle for its liberties, 
the light in which I contemplated my duty required that I should renounce every 
pecuniary compensation. From this resolution I have in no instance departed. 
And being still under the impression which produced it, I must decline as in- 
applicable to myself any share in the personal emoluments, which may be in- 
dispensably included in a permanent provision for the executive department; and 
must accordingly pray, that the pecuniary estimates for the station in which 
I am placed may, during my continuance in it, be limited to such actual ex- 
penditures as the public good may be thought to require. 

Having thus imparted to you my sentiments as they have been awakened by the 
. occasion which brings us together, I shall take my present leave; but not with- 
out resorting once more to the benign Parent of the human race in humble sup- 
plication that, since he has been pleased to favor the American people with 
opportunities for deliberating in perfect tranquillity and dispositions for de- 
ciding with unparalled unanimity on a form of government for the security 
of their union and the advancement of their happiness; so His divine bless- 
ings may be equally conspicuous in the enlarged views, the temperate consul- 
tations, and the wise measures, on which the success of this government must 
depend. 

QeoTge Washington, 
April 30, 1789. President. 



1789, Apr. 30 126 Dec 25, 1780 

Benjamin Stoddert, Secretary of the Navy. 
Samuel Osgood, Postmaster General. 
Edmund Bandolph, Attorney-General. 

John Jay, Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court. 
John Butledge, of South Carolina j William Cushing, of Massachusetts; James 
Wilson, of Pennsylvania; John Blair, of Virginia; Bobert H. Harrison, of Mary- 
land, Associate Justices of the United States Supreme Court. 
July 4, Congress passes its first tariff bill, protective in principle, and it is 
signed by Washington. 

Jidy 27, Department of Foreign Affairs organized by the Government. 
July 31, Acts of Congress passed to regulate the collection of duties. 
August 7, The United States government accepts cession of all light houses. 
Aug. 7, General Arthur St. Clair appointed Governor of the Northwest Terri- 
tory. 

Aug. 7, Act of Congress organizing the Department of War and the Navy of 
the United States. 

September 2, By act of Congress, the Treasury Department of the government 
is organized. 

Sept. 16, The Treasury Department name changed to State Department. 
Sept. 22; Temporary establishment of the Post Office Department by the govern- 
ment. 

Bevt. 24, The establishment by the government of the office of Attorney General. 
Sept. 25, Twelve Amendments to the Constitution of the United States is sub- 
mitted for ratification to the several states of the Union. 

B&gt, 26^ Thomas Jefferson returns from being Minister to France to accept the 
office of Secretary of State tendered by Washington. 

Sept. 29, The first session of Congress under the Federal Constitution, ad- 
journs. 

Sept., The Supreme Court of the United States established by the government 
and John Jay, of New York, Washington's first Secretary of State, is appointed 
first Chief Justice. 

October 15v Northern and Eastern states visited by Washington in his tour of the 
country. 

NoTember 21, The Constitution of the United States ratified by North Carolina. 
December 8, Virginia cedes by act a lot of land ten miles square on the Potomac 
Biver for the seat of government of the United States. 
Dec 25, Incorporation of Georgetown. 

Bowles, with Creeks, at Pensacola captures Fort St. Marks, but is driven out 
by Governor O'Neil, sent to Cuba, and imprisoned. 
John Sullivan, Governor of New Hampshire. 

John Langdon and Paine Wingate, United States Senators from New Hampshire. 
Moses Robinson, Governor of the state of Vermont. 

Tristram Dalton and Caleb Strong, United States Senators from Massachusetts. 
Joseph Stanton and Theodore Foster, United States Senators from the state of 
Rhode Island. 

Oliver Ellsworth and William S. Johnson, United States Senators from the state 
of Connecticut. 

Philip Schuyler and Rufus King, United States Senators from the state of New 
York. 

Jonathan Elmer and William Paterson, United States Senators from the state 
of New Jersey. 

Robert Morris and William Maclay, United States Senators from the state of 
Pennsylvania. 

Joshua Clayton, Governor of the state of Delaware. 

Richard Basset and George Read, United States Senators from the state of 
Delaware. 

John E. Howard, Governor of the state of Maryland. 

Charles Carroll and John Henry, United States Senators from the state of Mary- 
land. 

Richard Henry Lee and William Grayson, United States Senators from the state 
of Virginia. 



1788, Dec. 25 127 Kor. 6^ 1790 

Conititntion of the United States adopted bj North CaroliiUL 
Alexander Martin, Governor of the state of mrth Carolina. 
Benjamin Hawkins and Samuel Johnson, United States Senators from the 
state of North Carolina. 

Pierce Butler and Balph Isard, United States Senators from the state of Sonth 
Carolina. 

George Walton, Governor of the state of Georgia. 

William Few and James Gnnn, United States Senators from the state of Georgia. 
Congressional Apportionment as based on and provided by the United States 
Constitution by the eensos as 30,000. 
Savannah, Georgia, established. 
Levi Woodbury, jurist and statesman, bom. 

John Butledge, of South Carolina, declines appointment to the United States 
Supreme Court. 

First ten Amendments to the Constitution adopted by New Jersey, Maryland and 
North Carolina. 

A number of treaties negotiated with the Indians by the United States Govern- 
ment. 

Alexander Hamilton recommends the first Tariff which is passed and approved 
by the government. 

The District of Columbia ceded to the United States by the states of Maryland 
and Virginia. 

Samuel Adams, lieutenant-Governor of the state of Massachusetts. 
Fisher Ames, of Massachusetts, elected a member of Congress. 
James Monroe appointed United States Senator from the state of Virgiiiia. 
Department of Government organized. 
Washington appoints a national Thanksgiving Day. 

1790 

January I, Second session of the Congress of the United States meets at New 
York. 

Jan. 8^ Washington submits his first annual messMre as President. 
Jan. 14^ Alexander Hamilton, as Secretary of the Treteury, makes report on the 
public debt, proposing $12,000,000 to pav the foreign debt of the Confederacy, 
140,000,000 to meet the government's obligations in paying its domestic debts, 
and $21,000,000 for assuming and paying the war debt of the several states 
incurred during the Bevolutionary War. 

February 26^ western lands ceded by North Carolina to the United States gov- 
ernment. 

ICardi 1, Congress passes an act ordering the taking of the census. 
Mar. 89, John Tyler, tenth President of the United States, bom. 
April 17, Death of Benjamin Franklin at Philade^hia, age 84 years. 
l^y 19, Death of General Israel Putnam at BrookUne, Connecticut. 
May 26» Acts adopted by Congress for the government of the southwestern ter- 
ritory of the Union. 

May 89, The Constitution of the United States ratified by the state of Bhode 
Island by a vote of 34 to 32, being the last of the thirteen states to affirm. 
June 1, Theodore Bland, military officer, dies in New York. 
July 8, Adam Smith, economic writer, dies. 

July 10, Act passed by the House of Bepresentatives authorizing the acquisition 
and establishment of the District of Columbia as the permanent seat for the 
Federal Government. 

July 16^ First act of Congress locating the District of Columbia, as the seat of 
government approved. 

August 1, Enumeration of population under the first national census begun. 
Aug. 7, The government concludes a treaty with the Creek Indians. 
Aug. 10, Congress amends the tariff bin bv increasing duties. 
Aug. 18, Second session of the United States Congress adjourns. 
October 17-80^ Expedition of General Harmer and Colonel Hardin against the 
Indians in northwest Ohio defeated. 
November 6^ James Bowdoin, American patriot, dies. He was a prominent Bevo- 



1790, Nov. 6 128 Dec 15, 1791 

lutionary supporter. Governor of the state, and the suppressor of Shays 's Be- 

bellion. 

December 6^ Seat of government removed from New York to Philadelphia. 

Dec 6^ The third session of the United States Congress opens. 

Dec, The center of population in the United States, about twenty-three miles 

east of Baltimore, Maryland. 

William Short, charg6 d'aifaires to France. 

William Carmichael, charg6 d'affaires to Spain. 

First manufacturing of wooden clocks in Waterbury, Connecticut. 

The first ten amendments to the Constitution adopted by South Carolina, New 

Hampshire, Delaware, Pennsylvania and New York. 

The territory south of the Ohio Biver ceded to the United States. 

Naturalization laws passed by Congress. 

Treason defined and penalty determined by acts of Congress. 

First census — 3,929,326 inhabitants in the United States. 

System of finance adopted. 

The Government assumes the state debts. 

Public debt funded. 

B. T. Archer, Texan patriot, bom in Virginia. 

William Henry Harrison jopraduates from Hampden Sidney College. 

James Iredell, of North Carolina, associate justice of the United States Supreme 

Court. 

1791 

January 18^ Vermont the fourteenth state admitted to the Union. 
Jan. 22, Thomas Johnson and Daniel CarroU, of Maryland, and Daniel Stuart, 
of Virginia, appointed by President Washington as commissioners to survey 
the federal district of the District of Columbia. 

February 8, Congress passes an act incorporating the Bank of the United States, 
located at Philadelphia, capital $10,000,000. 

Marcli 3, Second act of Congress locating the District of Columbia as the seat 
of Government. 

Biarch 3, Adjournment of the first Congress, having established a competent 
revenue system, funded the public debt, meeting its obligations and standing be- 
fore the world as able and respected among all the older nations. 
Mar. 4, Vermont and Virginia adopt the first ten amendments to the Constitu- 
tion. The legislatures of Massachusetts, Connecticut and Georgia, however, do 
not appear by the records to have ratified them. 

Mar. 30, Lines and boundaries for the District of Columbia, proclaimed by Presi- 
dent Washington, comprising one hundred square miles, sixty-four in Maryland 
and thirty-six in Virginia. 

Mar. 30, Lots for public buildings in the District of Columbia, agreed upon 
between the proprietors and the government. 

April 16, First boundary stone marking the District of Columbia set at Jones 
Point Huntington Creek in Virginia. 
Apr. 20, Henry Burden, inventor, bom. 
June 14, Benedict Arnold, traitor to America, dies in England. 
August 7, First Minister of Great Britain to the United States appointed, 
George Hammond. 

Aug. 12, Timothy Pickering, Postmaster-GeneraL 

September 9, Commissioners call the District of Columbia the Territory of 
Columbia and the seat of the Federal Government the cit^ of Washington. 
Sept. 13, Malaspina leaves Cadiz with a Spanish scientific expedition, anchors 
near Monterey, and explores the coast. 

October 24, First session of the second United States Congress assembles at 
Philadelphia. Jonathan Trumbull, of Connecticut, chosen Speaker of the House 
of Bepresentatives. 

November 4, Indians surprise and rout (General Arthur St. Clair's expedition in 
Ohio. 

December 15, Amendments to Articles I to X of the Constitution having been 
ratified, they are declared in force. 



1791, Dec. 15 129 Dec. 20, 1792 

Act passed by Congress tazing imported spirits with new duty also on domestic 

spirits. 

William Henry Harrison commissioned an ensign. 

John Quincy Adams admitted to the Massachusetts bar. 

James Buchanan, fifteenth President of the United States, bom in Cove Gap, 

Franklin County, Pennsylvania. 

Francis P. Blair, journalist and politician, born in Virginia. 

Thomas Johnson, of Maryland, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme 

Court. 

1792 

January 1, Kentucky, the fifteenth state admitted to the Union. 
February 4, James G. Birney, statesman, born in Kentucky. (He was an editor 
of an anti-slavery journal and a Liberal party candidate for the presidency.) 
Feb. 16, Bounty for fishing vessels granted by act of Congress. 
Feb. 18v George Peabody, American banker in London and philanthropist, bom. 
Feb. 20, Beorganization of the Post-Office Department by the Government. 
April 2, Mint established by the United States Government and amendment to 
the tariff bill passed. 

Apr. 6, Washington vetoes the apportionment of Representation Bill. 
May 2, Tariff rates raised to equal 13^ per cent by act of Congress. 
May 8, Congress passes laws for organizing the militia. 

May 8, Duties on spirits distilled within the United States from foreign and 
home material March 3, 1791, followed by an act further regulating these duties 
and imposing a tax on stills. ' 

May 11, Discovery of the Columbia Biver by Captain Gray. 
May, The first session of the second Congress adjourns. 

May, Control of lighthouses in the United States vested in commissioner of 
revenue. 

June 1, Kentucky, formed from a portion of the territory of the state of Vir- 
ginia, admitted into the Union. 

June, New Constitution framed by Delaware, going into operation without 
submission to the people, and changing the name from New Castle to Delaware. 
August 4, General John Burgojme, English general and dramatic writer, dies. 
October 13, Corner-stone ^ of the President's Mansion, the ''White House," in 
Washington, D. C, laid. 

Kovem^r 5, Second session of the second United States Congress assembles at 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Kov. 6^ The second national presidential election in the United States held. Wash- 
ington and Adams re-elected President and Vice-President, the electoral vote 
being: 

Votes 

George Washington, of Virginia, Federalist. 132 

John Adams, of Massachusetts, Federalist 77 

George Clinton, of New York, Bepublican 50 

Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia, Bepublican 4 

Aaron Burr, of New York, Bepublican 1 

Vacancies 3 

Washington and Adams chosen the second President and Vice-President of the 
United States. 

Kov. 6^ Battle of Fort St. Clair. 

Not. 14, Exploring party sent out by Great Britain under Vancouver with his 
vessel, the ** Discovery, ' * visits San Francisco, California. 

December 20, Motto adopted by the state of Kentucky, "United we stand, di- 
vided we fall. ' ' 

Gouvemeur Morris, of New Jersey, Minister to France. 
Thomas Pinckney, of South Carolina, Minister to England. 
John Taylor, United States Senator from the state of Virginia. 
Alexander Martin, Governor of the state of North Carolina. 
Bichard D. Speight, Governor of North Carolina. 



1792, Dec 20 130 Dee^ 1793 

A. Vanderhorsty Governor of the state of South Carolina. 
Isaac Shelby, Qovemor of the state of Kentucky. 

John Brown and John Edwards, United States Senators from the state of Ken- 
tucky. 

United States national debt, $77,227,924.66. 

Connecticut allots land of the western reserves in Ohio to citisens of Dnxbnry, 
Fairfield, Groton, New London and Norwslk, who served in the Bevolution. 
William H. Harrison appointed a lieutenant. 

1793 

January 15, Vancouver visits Monterey and San Carlos and then puts to sea. 
February 8^ Salary of the President of the United States fixed at $25,000 per 
annum. 

Feb. 13, Count of the electoral votes of the country giving Washington, of Vir- 
^ia, 132 for President, and Adams, of Massachusetts, 77 votes for Vice- 
President. 

Biarch 2, The second United States Congress adjourns. 
Mar. 4, Inauguration Day (every fourth year). 

Mar. 4 (to Mar. 3, 1797), Second administration under the Federal Constitution, 
seat of government at Philadelphia; Washington, President, and Adams, Vice- 
President. 

Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State. 
Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury. 
Edmund Randolph, Attomey-GeneraL 
Congress Bepublican. 

ApiU ^ Minister of France, "Citizen Ctonet," to the United States is warmly re- 
ceived upon his arrival at Charleston, Soutn Carolina. 

A|nr. 22, Celebrated proclamation of neutrality issued by President Washington 
severely criticised by political opponents. 

May 9, Some uneasiness caused by the French government directing seizure of 
vessels by belligerents carrying supplies to an enemy's port. 
June 8, British ships of war ordered to stop all vessels laden with French sup- 
plies by turning them into English ports. 
August 19, James Hall, judge, soldier, and author, bom. 
Aug., Becall of Minister Genet asked for by the American Government. 
Sept. 4, Edward Bates, lawyer and politician, bom in Virginia. 
Sept. 18^ Comer-stone of the north wing of the Nationai Capitol building at 
Washington, D. C, laid by President George Washington, with Masonic cere- 
monies. 

October 17, Battle near Fort St. Clair. 

December 2, First session of the third United Statea Congress meets at Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania. 
Dec, Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State, retires. 

Samuel Livermore, United States Senators from the state of New Hampshire. 
Samuel Adams, Governor of the state of Massachusetts. 
William Bradford, United States Senator from Rhode Island. 
8. N. Mitchell, United States Senator from the state of Connecticut. 
Frederick Frelinghuysen, United States Senator from the state of New Jersey. 
Albert Gallatin, united States Senator from the state of Pennsylvania. 
Henry Latimer and John Vining, United States Senators from the state of 
Delaware. 

Thomas Sim Lee, Governor of the state of Maryland. 
Bichard Potts, United States Senator from the state of Manrland. 
Alexander Martin, United States Senator from the state of North Carolina. 
George Matthews, Governor of the state of Florida. 

William Patterson, of New Jersey, Associate Justice of the United States Su- 
preme Court. 

The cotton-gin invented by Eli Whitney, and has marked effect on slave labor 
questions as a labor saving method. 

Jefferson's followers assume the name of Bepublicans, in opposition to the 
Federalists under the leadership of Alexander Hamilton and others. 



1708, Dea 131 Dec. 2^ 1794 

Third United States Congress assembles. 

F. A. Muhlenburg, of Pennsylvania, Speaker of the House of Bepresentatives. 
National debt, $80,352,634.04. 

The Democratic-Bepublican party formed of and composed of Anti-Federal ad- 
herents of the Jeffersonian school of principles. 

Congressional Apportionment as provided by the Constitution, thirty-three 
thousand. 

Washington's policy of strict neutrality adhered to. 
James Madison declines the portfolio of Secretary of State. 
John Quincy Adams advises the people to continue strict neutrality between 
France and Great Britain. 

John Quincy Adams, orator at Boston, Mass., on the anniversary of National 
Independence (July 4). 
Steven F. Austin, pioneer, bom. 

William Henry Harrison joins the army under General Anthony Wayne. 
James Biddle, navid officer, who concluded the first treaty between the United 
States and China, bom in Pennsylvania. 
Benjamin L. £. Bonneville, soldier and explorer, bom. 
William 0. Butler, army officer and politician, bom in Kentucky. 

1794 

January 27, William Bradford, Attorney-General of the United States. 
ICardi 5, The eleventh Amendment to the Constitution approved b^ Congress. 
Mar. 11, Congress passes an act authorizing the construction of six warships, 
being the initial foundation of the United States Navy. 
Mar. 14, The cotton gin patented. 

Mar. 22, Congress passes an act prohibiting American vessels to carry or supply 
slaves to other nations under penalty and £>rfeiture as a fine. 
Mar. 26^ Congress lays an embargo on shipping in retaliation against England 
to continue for sixty days. 

Mar. 27, The United States Senate ceases to sit with closed doors as hereto- 
fore. 

Ainril 16^ John Jay nominated by the President as United States Minister, en- 
voy extraordinary, to Great Britain. 

May 27, James Monroe appointed minister to France, Gouverneur Morris being 
recalled by the President. 

June 6, Congress passes an act relating to neutrality. 

June 5-7, Act passed by Congress levying additional duties on imports, particu- 
larly tobacco, refined sugar, etc. 

June 7, The Tariff of 1792 further amended by Act of Congress increasing the 
ad valorem rates of duty. 

June 9, Duties laid on property sold at auction. 
June 9, Congress adjourns its first session. 

June 19, Jehudi Ashmum, who planted a colony in Liberia, bom in New York. 
June 30, Battle of Fort Becovery. 

Jnly-KoTember, Pennsylvania whiskey insurrection extending over the western 
part of the state. 

August 20, The Indians defeated in the Battle of Maumee Bapids (fallen timber), 
in Ohio, by (General Anthony Wayne. 

November 3» Congress convenes at Philadelphia for second session. 
Nov. 3, William C. Brvant, poet, bom in Massachusetts. 

Nov. 11, Treaty with the six Nations. The confederation of Indian Tribes, known 
as the Iroquois or Six Nations, included the Mohawks tribe, the Oneidas, the 
Onondagas, the Cayugas, the Senecas, and the Tuscaroras. This treaty fixes the 
limits of the territory retained in the possession of these tribes who fought 
against the Colonies in favor of England in the war for American Independence. 
NofV, 19, John Jay, special envoy for the United States, concludes a treaty of 
Amity, Commerce and Navigation for the American Union with Great Britain 
at London. 

December 2, Vancouver returns from the Hawaiian Islands and is coolly re- 
ceived by the Spanish Governor at Monterey. He makes a visit to the Salinaa 
Valley and sails away. 



1794, Dec. 2 132 Oct 27, 1705 



Edmund Randolph, of Virginia, appointed Secretary of State by President 
Washington. 

William Bradford, Attorney-General of the United States. 
The Post-Office Department permanently established by the government. 
Fauchet, the French Minister, is intercepted by the British with dispatches which 
were shown to the United States Governnient designing to compromise Edmund 
Randolph, who resigned in consequence. 

James Monroe, of Virginia, United States Minister to France. 
William Short, Minister to Spain. 

Thomas Pinckney, of South Carolina, United States Minister to Spain, suc- 
ceeding Monroe. 

John Quincy Adams, United States Minister to Holland. 
John T. Gilman, Governor of the state of New Hampshire. 
Samuel Adams, Governor of the state of Massachusetts. 
Bichard Howell, Governor of the state of New Jersey. 
James Boss, United States Senator from the state of Pennsylvania. 
Bobert Brooke, Governor of the state of Virginia. 
Henry Tazewell, United States Senator from the state of Virginia. 
William Moultrie, Governor of the state of South Carolina. 
James Jackson, United States Senator from the state of Georgia. 
William Henry Harrison fought with Wayne in his victory over the Indians. 
Act prohibiting the carrying of slaves from one country to another by American 
citizens. 

General Mcintosh, after imprisonment in Cuba, returns to Florida, destroys a 
Spanish fort at Jacksonville in retribution agfkinst Governor Quesada, and re- 
turns to Georgia. 

Joseph B. Angell, lawyer and author, bom. 
Knoxville, Tennessee, established. 
University of Tennessee established. 

1795 

January 2, Timothy Pickering, Secretary of War. 

Jan. 29, Eli W. Blake, inventor, born in Massachusetts. i 

Jan. 29, Naturalization laws passed amending clause requiring all renunciation 

of title or nobility before admission. 

Jan., Secretary of the United States Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, resigns the 

portfolio. 

February 2, Oliver Wolcott, Jr., Secretary of the Treasury. 

Fdb. 26, Joseph Habersham, Postmaster General. 

March 3, The third United States Congress adjourns. 

April IS, George E. Badger, statesman, born in North Carolina. He was a staunch 

Unionist during the Civil War. 

Apr. 29, Lorrin Anderson, Hawaiian judge, bom. 

May 19, John Hopkins born. 

June 8, Session of the United States Senate called by the President to consider 

the treaty with England, which John Jay negotiated. 

June 24, Jay's treaty with Great Britain ratified by the Senate^ 

July 28, Zebulon Butler, military officer who served in the Bevolutionary War, 

dies in Pennsylvania. 

August 3, Indians at Greenville, Ohio, cede twenty-five thousand square miles of 

territory by treaty negotiated by General Anthony Wayne, on behidf of the 

Government. 

Aug. 14, Jay's treaty with England signed by President Washington. 

September 1, James Gordon Bennett, journalist and founder of the New York 

Herald, bom. 

Sept. 5, Treaty to pay annual tribute of $23,000 to the Dey by the United 

States to ransom prisoners in Algiers taken by Corsairs. 

October 20, Boundaries established and the Mississippi opened by treaty with 

Spain. 

Oct 27, Treaty of Friendship, Navigation, etc., between the United States and 

Spain concluded at San Lorenzo el Beal« 



1795, Dec 7 133 Sept. 17, 1796 

December 7, The first Bession of the fourth United States Congress assembles at 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Dec. 10, Timothy Pickering, Secretary of State for the United States. 

Charles Lee, Attorney-General of the United States. 

Dec. 17, Benjamin £. Butler, lawyer and politician (served as acting Secretary 

of War and United States Attorney), bom in New York. 

Arsenal established at Harper's Ferry, West Virginia. 

Treaty of Madrid. 

James Knox Polk bom near Pineville, Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. 

Second naturalization law passed by Congress. 

Hewisy Brown, army officer who served in the Black Hawk expedition, the Semi- 

nolo Indian campaign, in the army of occupation in Mexico and the Civil War, 

bom in New Jersey. 

Stewart, Wright, Porter, Vigol and Mitchell, Western insurgents, tried and 

found guilty. 

West Florida, lying west of the Biver Perdido, receded by Spain to France. 

The Connecticut Land Company purchases from the state of Connecticut many 

acres bordering on Lake Erie. The proceeds are donated for school purposes. 

Congress passes an act for gradual redemption of the United States public debt. 

National debt, $80,747,587.39. 

Taxes on snuff repealed and duty laid on snuff-mills. 

Jonathan Dayton, of New Jersey, Speaker of the House of Bepresentatives. 

John Butledge, of South Carolina, appointed but not confirmed Chief Justice 

of the United States Supreme Court. 

Northwestern Indian War ended. 

University of North Carolina established. 

Elijah Paine, United States Senator from the state of Vermont. 

Jonathan Trumbull, United States Senator from the state of Connecticut. 

John Jay, Governor of the state of New York. 

William Bingham, United States Senator from the state of Pennsylvania. 

John H. Stone, Governor of the state of Maryland. 

S. T. Mason, United States Senator from the state of Virginia. 

George Watson, United States Senator from the state of Georgia. 

Samuel Ashe, Governor of the state of North Carolina. 

Timothy Bloodworth, United States Senator from the state of North Carolina. 

Jacob Bead, United States Senator from the state of South Carolina. 

H. Marshall, United States Senator from the state of Kentucky. 

1796 

January 27, James McHenry, Secretary of War. 

March 1, Proclamation by the President of the United States of the Jay Treaty 

with England. 

Contest between the President and House of Bepresentatives over the British 

treaty. Papers relating to the Jay treaty with England demanded by the House 

in Congress and refused by the President. 

Mar. SO, John Sevier, Governor of the state of Tennessee. 

April 21, The famous Mazzei Letter written by Thomas Jefferson about this 

time, which severs the friendly relations between Washington and himself. 

Apr. 28, Jay's treaty with England discussed in the House of Bepresentatives. 

The speech by Fisher Ames relative to the treaty attracts favorable attention. 

Apr. SO, House of Bepresentatives, after extended discussion, agrees by vote to 

sustain Jay's treaty with England. 

May 21, Beverdy Johnson, lawyer and statesman, born. 

ICay 28, Duties on carriages increased by act of Congress. 

June 1, The sixteenth state, Tennessee, which was formed from territory ceded 

to the United States bv the state of North Carolina, admitted to the Union. 

June 1, First session of the fourth United States Congress adjourns. 

June 20, New treaty with the Creek Indians concluded by the United States. 

September 17, General George Washington issues his Farewell Address to the 

people of the United 8t»t«8. 



1796^ Sept 17 134 Sept 17, 1796 

(Washington refused to be a candidate for a third term for the Pre8idenc7y 
which has see^iinglj become since the unwritten law of the Nation. In Ma7i 
3*^96, he sent to Hamilton a rough draft of his farewell address asking for his 
unbiased criticism, and after much revision b7 both the document was published 
and read to the members of the House of Bepresentatives. It is but fair to pre- 
sume toda7 that the advice in it has ever since exercised a deep and profoundi 
if not lasting, influence upon public sentiment.) 

WASHINGTON'S FABEWELL ADDBE8S TO THE PEOPLE OF THE 

UNITED STATES. 
The unitv of ffovernment ifhich constitutes 70U one people, is also now dear 
to 70U. It is justl7 so, for it is a main pilliur in the edifice of your real inde- 
pendence, the support of 70ur tranquillitv at home^ vour peace abroad, of 70ur 
saf et7^ of 70ur prosperit7, of that ver7 libert7 which 70U so hi^l7 prize. But 
as it is eas7 to foresee that, from different causes and from different quarters, 
much pains will be taken, many artifices emplo7ed, to weaken in 70ur minds 
the conviction of this truth, as this is the point in 70ur political fortress against 
which the batteries of internal and eztemid enemies will be most con8tantl7 and 
activel7 (though often covertl7 and in8idiousl7) directed. It is of infinite mo- 
ment that 70U should properl7 estimate the immense value of 70ur national union 
to 70ur collective and individual happiness, that 70U should cherish a cordial, 
habitual and immovable attachment to it, accustoming 70ur8elf to think and speak 
of it as of the palladium of 70ur political safet7 and pro8perit7, watching for its 
preservation with jealous anxiet7, discountenancing whatever ma7 suggest even 
a suspicion that it can in an7 event be abandoned, and indignantl7 frowning 
upon the first dawning of ever7 attempt to alienate an7 portion of our countr7 
from the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various 
parts. For this 70U have ever7 inducement of S7mpath7 and interest. Citizens 
07 birth or choice of a common countr7, that countr7 has a right to consecrate 
70ur affections. The name of America, which belongs to 70U, in 70ur national ca- 
pacit7, must alwa7s exalt the just pride of patriotism, more than an7 appellation 
derived from local discriminations. With slight shades of difference you have 
the same religion, manners, habits, and political principles. Tou have, m a com- 
mon cause, &ught and triumphed together, the independence and libert7 vou 
possess are the work of joint counsels and joint efforts, of common dangers, suffer- 
ings, and successes. It is important, likewise, that the habits of thinking in a 
free country should inspire caution in those intrusted with its administration 
to confine themselves within their respective constitutional spheres, avoiding, in 
the exercise of the powers of one department, to encroach upon another. The 
spirit of encroachment tends to consolidate the powers of all the departments in 
one, and thus to create, whatever the form of government, a real despotism. A 
just estimate of that love of power, and proneness to abuse it which predominates 
in the human heart, is sufficient to satisfy us of the truth of this position. The 
necessit7 of reciprocal checks in the exercise of political power, b7 dividing and 
distributing it into different depositories, and constituting each the guardian of 
the public weal, against invasion b7 the others, has been evinced b7 experiments, 
ancient and modem, some of them in our countr7 and under our own ejes. To 
preserve them must be as necessar7 as to institute them. If, in the opinion of the 
people, the distribution or modification of the constitutional powers be, in an7 

Particular, wrong, let it be corrected by an amendment in the wa7 which the 
lonstitution designates. But let there be no change b7 usurpation, for though 
this, in one instance, ma7 be the instrument of good, it is the cuBtomar7 weapon 
b7 which free governments are destro7ed. The precedent must alwaTS ffreatl7 
overbalance, in permanent evil, an7 partial or transient benefit which ue use 
can, at an7 time, yield. 

Observe ffood faith and justice towards all nations, cultivate peace and har- 
mon7 with alL Beligion and morality enjoin this conduct, and can it be that 
good polic7 does not equall7 enjoin itf It will be worth7 of a free, enlightened, 
and, at no distant period, a great nation, to give to mankind the magnanimous and 
too novel example of a people alwa7s guided b7 an exalted justice and benevo- 
lence. Who can doubt that, in the course of time and things, the fruits of 
auch a plan would richly tej^j any temporary advantages which might be lost 



1796^ Sept 17 136 Sept. 17, 1796 

bj a steady adherence to itf Can it be that Providenee has not connected the 
permanent felicity of a nation with its virtue f The experiment, at least, is 
recommended by every sentiment which ennobles human nature. Alas, is it ren- 
dered impossible by its vices f . • . Against the insidious wiles of foreign influ- 
ence, I conjure you to believe me, feUow-citizens, the jealousy of a free people 
ouffht to constMitly awake, since history and enerience prove that foreign 
influence is one of the most baneful foes of republican government. But that 
jealousy, to be useful, must be impartial, else it becomes the instrument of the 
very influence to be avoided, instead of a defence against it. Excessive partiality 
for one foreign nation and excessive dislike of another, cause those whom they 
actuate to see danger only on one side, and serve to veil and even second the 
arts of influence on the other. Beal patriots, who may resist the intrigues of 
the favorite, are liable to become suroected and odious, while its tools and dupes 
usurp the applause and confidence of the people, to surrender their interests. 
The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is, in extending our 
commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible, 
8o far as we have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect 
good faith. Here let us stop. 

Europe has a set of primarv interests, which to us have no, or a very remote, 
relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the cause of 
which are essentiallv foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefor, it must be 
unwise in us to implicate ourselves, by artificial ties, in the ordinanr vicissitudes 
of her politics, or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or 
enmities. 

Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue a different 
course. If we remain one people under an efficient government, the period is not 
far off when we may defy material injury from external annoyance, when we 
may take such an attitude as will cause the neutrality we may at any time resolve 
upon to be scrupulously respected when belligerent nations, under the impossi- 
bility of making acquisitions upon us, will not lightly hazard the giving us provo- 
cation, when we may choose peace or war, as our interests, guided by justice, 
shall counsel. 

Why forego the advantages of so peculiar a situation f Why quit our own to 
stand upon foreign grounds f Why, by interweaving our destiny with that of 
any part of Europe, entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of European 
ambition, rivalship, interest, humor, or caprice f 

'TIS our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances, with any portion of 
the foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are now at liberty to do it; for let me 
not be understood as capable of patronizing infidelity to existing engagements. 
(I hold the masim no less applicable to public than to private affairs, that 
honesty is alwavs the best policy.) I repeat it, therefore, let those engagements 
be observed in their genuine sense. But in my opinion it is unnecessary and would 
be unwise to extend them. 

Taking care always to keep ourselves, by suitable establishments, on a respect- 
able defensive posture, we may safely trust to temporary alliances for extraordi- 
nary emergencies. 

Harmony, liberal intercourse with all nations are recommended by policy, hu- 
manity and interest. But even our commercial policy should hold an equal and 
important hand; neither seeking nor granting exclusive favors or preferences; 
consulting the natural course of things; diffusing and diversifying by gentle means 
the streams of commerce, but forcing nothing; establishing with Powers so 
disposed in order to ffive trade a stable course, to define the rights of our 
merchants, and to enable the Government to support them, conventional rules 
of intercourse, the best that present circumstances and mutual opinion will per- 
mit; but temporary and liable to be from time to time abandoned or varied, as 
experience and circumstances shall direct; constantly keeping in view, that 'tis 
folly in one nation to look for disinterested favors from another, that it must 
pay with a portion of its independence for whatever it may accept under that 
charter, that by such acceptance, it mi^y place itself in the condition of having 
given equivalent for nominal favors, and yet of being reproached with in- 
gratitude for not giving more. There can be no greater error than to expect 
or oalculate upon real favors from Nation to Nation, ^Tis an illusion, which ez< 



1796, Sept. 17 136 KOT. 6^ 1796 

perience must cure, which a just pride ought to discard. In offering to 70Q, my 
Countrymen, these counsels of an old and affectionate friend, I dare not hope 
they Will make the strong and lasting impression, I could wish that they will 
control the usual current of the passions, or prevent our Nation from running 
the course which has hitherto marked the destiny of Nations. But if I may 
even flatter myself that they may be productive of some partial benefit, some 
occasional good; that they may now and then recur to moderate the fury of 
party spirit, to warn against the mischiefs of foreign intrigue, to guard against 
the impostures of pretended patriotism, this hope will be a full recompense for 
the solicitude for your welfare by which they have been dictated. 
How far in the discharge of my official duties, I have been guided by the prin- 
ciples which have been delineated, the public Becords and other evidences 01 my 
conduct must witness to Tou and to the world. To Myself the assurance of my 
own conscience is that I have at least believed myself to be guided by them. 
In relation to the still subsisting War in Europe, my Proclamation of the 22 of 
April, 1793, is the index to my plan. Sanctioned by your approving voice and 
by that of your Bepresentatives in both Houses of Congress, the spirit of that 
measure has continually governed me, uninfluenced by any attempt to deter or 
divert me from it. 

After deliberate examination with the aid of the best lights I could obtain, 
I was well satisfied that our country, under all the circumstances of the case, 
had a right to take and was bound in duty and interest to take a neutral posi- 
tion. Having taken it, I determined, as far as should depend upon me, to main- 
tain it with moderation, perseverance and firmness. 

The considerations which respect the right to hold this conduct, it is not neces- 
sary on this occasion to detail. I will only observe, that, according to my under- 
standing of the matter, that right, so far from being denied by any of the 
Belligerent Powers, has been virtually admitted by all. 

The duty of holding a neutral conduct may be inferred, without anything more, 
from the obligation which justice and humanity impose on anv Nation, in cases 
in which it is free to act, to maintain inviolate the relations 01 Peace and Amity 
towards other Nations. 

The inducement of interest for observing that conduct will best be referred to 
your own reflections and experience. With me, a predominant motive has been 
to endeavor to gain time to our country to settle and mature its yet recent 
institutions, and to progress without interruption to that degree of strength 
and consistency, which is necessary to give it, humanly speaking, the command 
of its own fortunes. 

Though, in reviewing the incidents of my Administration, I am unconscious of 
intentional errors, I am nevertheless too sensible of my defects not to think 
it probable that I may have committed many errors. Whatever they may be, I 
fervently beseech the Almighty to avert or mitigate the evils to which they may 
tend. I shall also carry with me the hope that my country will never cease to 
view them with indulgence; and that, after forty five years of my life dedi- 
cated to its service with an upright zeal, the faults of incompetent abiUties 
will be consigned to oblivion, as myself must soon be to the mansions of rest. 
Belying on its kindness in this as in other things, and actuated by that fervent 
love towards it, which is so natural to a man, who views in it the native soil 
of himself and his progenitors for several generations, I anticipate with pleas- 
ing expectation that retreat, in which I promise myself to realize, without alloy, 
the sweet enjoyment of partaking, in the midst of my fellow-citizens, the benign 
influence of good laws under a free Government, the ever favorite object of my 
heart, and the happy reward, as I trust, of our mutual cares, labors, and dangers. 
September 17, 1796. George Washington. 

Sefitember, James Monroe succeeded by Charles C. Pinckney as Minister to 

France. 

November 4, Treaty of Peace and Friendship between the United States and 

Tripoli concluded at Tripoli. 

Not. 6, The ''Otter,'' from Boston, Mass., the first vessel from the United States 

to visit California ports. Arriving at Monterey under Captain Ebenezer Dorr, it 

obtains suppliea and laili away. 



1796, Not. 8 137 Dec. 6, 1796 

Not. 8, Third presidential election of the United States under the Federal Con- 
stitution. 

December 6^ Second session of the fourth Congress convenes at Philadelphiai 
Pennsylvania. 

Samuel Chase, of Maryland, Justice of the United States Supreme Court. 

Oliver Ellsworth, of Connecticut, Chief Justice of the United States Supreme 

Court. 

Election returns in the national presidential election show electoral votes cast 

as follows: y^^^ 

John AdamSy of Massachusetts, Federalist 71 

Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia, Bepublican 68 

Thomas Pinckney, of South Carolina, Federalist 59 

Aaron Burr, of New York, Bepublican 30 

Samuel Adams, of Massachusetts, Bepublican 15 

Oliver Ellsworth, of Connecticut, Independent 11 

George Clinton, of New York, Bepublican 7 

John Jay, of New York, Federalist 5 

James Iredell, of North Carolina, Federalist 3 

George Washington, of Virginia, Federalist 2 

John Henry, of Maryland, Federalist 2 

S. Johnson, of North Carolina, Federalist 2 

Charles C. Pinckney, of South Carolina, Federalist 1 

John Adams chosen President and Thomas Jefferson, Vice-President of the United 

States of America. 

Whiskey Insurrection in Pennsylvania. Washington called out the militia of 

Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Virginia, and for a while it looked like Civil 

War. Washington left the Capital and was about to take charge of the Federal 

troops. Sixteen thousand mountaineers had threatened to take Pittsburg and 

form an independent state west of the mountains, but the trouble was nnally 

averted without bloodshed and peace and tranquillity resumed. 

Bufus King, of New York, United States Minister to the court of St. James, 

England. 

David Humphreys, of Connecticut, United States Minister to Spain. 

Charles C. Pinckney, of South Carolina, United States Minister to France. 

Isaac Tichenor, United States Senator from the state of Vermont. 

Theodore Sedgwick, United States Senator from the state of Massachusetts. 

Benjamin Goodhue, United States Senator from the state of Massachusetts. 

Oliver Wolcott, Governor of the state of Connecticut. 

Uriah Tracy and James- Hillhouse, United States Senators from the state of 

Connecticut. 

John Lawrence, United States Senator from the state of New York. 

Bichard Stockton, United States Senator from the state of New Jersey. 

Gunning Bedford, Governor of the state of Delaware. 

John E. Howard, United States Senator from the state of Maryland. 

James Wood, Governor of the state of Virginia. 

Charles Pinckney, Governor of the state of South Carolina. 

John Hunter, United States Senator from the state of South Carolina. 

Jared Irwin, Governor of the state of Georgia. 

Josiah Tattnall, United States Senator from the state of Georgia. 

James Garrard, Governor of the state of Kentucky. 

William Blount and William Cocke, United States Senators from the state of 

Tennessee 

National debt, $83,762,172.07. 

Andrew Jackson, a member of Congress from Tennessee, also a member of the 

Convention which framed the Constitution of his state. (While a member of 

Congress, Tennessee was entitled to only one member or Bepresentative.) 

James Monroe recalled as American Minister to France. 

James McHenry, Secretary of War. 

John Adams and Thomas Jefferson form the opposition leaders of the two parties 

contending for supremacy in the country. 



1797, Feb. 8 138 Oct 21, 1797 

1797 

February 8, Congress assembles for the purpose of easting and eonnting the elec- 
toral votes for President and Vice-President in the House of Bepresentatives. 
Adams, a strong FederaJisti is elected President, and JefPerson, a Bepublican, 
Vice-President. These two men were directly opposed in their political views. 
Feb. 18, John Bell, statesman, born in Tennessee. He was a Speaker in Con- 
gress, Secretary of War, and an ardent free trader. Later he became a staunch 
protectionist, and the Constitutional Union Party candidate for President, 
t'eb. 28, Washington vetoes the reduction of the army biU. 
Feb., The French government refuses to receive Charles C. Pinckney, United 
States Minister, and he leaves France. 

Mardi 3, Act of Congress increasing the tariff imposed on brown sugar, molasses 
and tea. 

Mar. 3, Last session of the fourth United States Congress adjourns. 
Mar. 4 (to Mar. 3, 1801), The third Federal Administration be^run at the seat of 
government in Philadelphia. John Adams, of Massachusetts, uaugurated Presi- 
dent, and Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia, Vice-President of the United States. 
General George Washington, after having served two terms, declines a third 
nomination for the presidency. 

Timothy Pickering, Secretary of State for the United States. 
Oliver Wolcott, Jr., Secretary of the Treasury. 
James McHenry, Secretary of War. 
Joseph Habersham, Postmaster-GeneraL 
Charles Lee, Attomev-General. 

Mar. 25, President Adams calls a special session of Congress to consider the 
threatening relations between the United States and France. 
ICay 15, Fifth United States Congress, first session (extra), assembles at Phila- 
delphia. Jonathan Dayton, of New Jersey, Speaker of the House of Bepresenta- 
tives. 

President Adams's message on the threatening attitude of France sent to the 
Congress. 

June 14, Congress, by act, subjects any person concerned in privateering against 
a friendly nation to a fine of $10,000 with a term of a year's imprisonment. 
July 6, Jbuties laid on stamped vellum, parchment, and paper by act of Con- 
gress. 

July 8, By act of Congress, the duty on salt increased from 12 to 20 per cent. 
July 17, William Cobbett tried before the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania for 
libelling; the King of Spain and his ambassador and for writing as "Peter Porcu- 
pine'' in Porcupine's Uaeette and acquitted. 

Oct. 21, The fri^te "Constitution," the most famous vessel in the United States, 
launched from Hart's shipyard (now Constitution Wharf). This ship the first to 
enter the old stone dry dock at the Navy Yard. 

The President authorized by Congress to raise a militia of 80,000 men for three 
months' service, the quota ranging from 806 for Tennessee as the smallest, to 
11,836 for Massachusetts as the largest quota. 

Congress empowers the President to employ the frigates, "Constitution," "Con- 
stellation" and the "United States" for service. 

By act of Congress, duties imposed on bonds, bills, insurance, and other small 
articles. 

Bv act of Congress, duty levied on salt. 

The President appoints a commission to treat with France, composed of John 
Marshall, of Virginia, Elbridge Gerry, of Massachusetts, and Charles C. Pinckney, 
of North Carolina. They go to Paris, where complications with the French gov- 
ernment lead to the expulsion of Marshall and fhnckne^, the latter declaring in 
memorable language that "the United States has millions for defence but not 
one cent for tribute." 

Charles C. Pinckney, of South Carolina, Minister to France. 
William Blount, United States Senator, impeached for misdemeanor, tried and 
found guilty. 



1797, Oct 21 139 June 25, 1798 

National debt, $82,064,479.33. 

Paul Brigham and Isaac Tichenor, Goyemon of the state of Vermont. 

Nathaniel Chipman, United States Senator from the state of Vermont. 

Increase Sumner^ Governor of the state of Massachusetts. 

Ba^ Greene, United States Senator from the state of Bhode Island. 

Philip Schujler, United States Senator from the state of New York. 

Daniel Bogers, Governor of the state of Delaware. 

Motto adopted by the state of Tennessee, " Agriculture, Commerce.'' 

Joseph Anderson and Andrew Jackson, United States Senators from the state of 

Tennessee. 

William Henry Harrison made a captain and given the command of Fort Wash* 

ington. 

Privateering against friendly nations forbidden. 

Congress declares the treaties with France annulled. 

James Madison retires as a member of Congress from Viiginia* 

1798 

The eleventh Amendment to the Constitution adopted. 
Alien and sedition laws passed by Congress. 

Washington appointed Lieutenant-Genend of the American anny in anticipation 
of a war with France. 

James Madison draws up the Virginia Besolution and accepts a seat in the 
Assembly. 

January 8, The eleventh Amendment to the Constitution of the United States de- 
clared in force by the President, guaranteeing security of the states against 
suits in the United States Courts. 

February 12-15, The first personal encounter recorded in the United States Con- 
gress takes place between Lyon, of Vermont, and Griswold, of Connecticut. It 
was passed over by the House, it is said, without censure or punishment. 
Marrh, West Florida claimed by Spain. Territory later reunquished after ex- 
tended from tedious negotiations. 

April 3, Organization of the Mississippi Territory concluded. 
Apr. 7, By act of Congress provisions made for the government of the Mississippi 
Territory. 

Apr. SO, By act of Congress the Navy Department organized. 
May 8, The. President appointed a Secretary of the Navy. 

May 4, A site selected oy the government at Harper's Ferry for an armory and 
manufactory of implements of war. 

Bffay 10, Winthrop Sargent appointed i^ovemor of the Mississippi Territory by 
the President. 

May 21, Benjamin Stoddert, Secretary of the Navy. 

May 28, A provisional armv authorized by act of Congress and the President 
being empowered in case of a declaration of war or invasion of the country's 
domain to enlist 10,000 men for the service. 

May 28, By act of Congress President authorized and empowered to instruct 
commanders of ships-of-war to seize armed French vessels preying upon or at' 
tackinff American merchantmen about the coast. 
Bffay, The song, "Hail Columbia," is said to have first appeared. 
Juno 8^ By act of Congress imprisonment in the United States for debt abolished. 
June 12; All commercial intercourse by the United States with France ordered 
suspended. 

Juno 17, Washington accepts from the Congress of the United States the ap- 
pointment as Commander-in-Chief, with rank as Lieutenant-General, of all the 
American forces in anticipation of trouble with France. 

June 18, By act of Congress a uniform rule of naturalization adopted through- 
out the United States. 

June 21, Failure of the commission sent to France in the interest of peace an- 
nounced by the President. 

June 25, The Alien and Sedition Act passed by the government of the United 
States. 



1798, Jnly 6 140 Mar. 2, 1790 

July 6, All French treaties with the United States declared null and void. (Al- 
though naval engagements ensued, the tenor of judicial opinion has been that 
the United States and France were not actually at war.) 
July 9, Naval warfare with France commences. 

July 11, First organization of the Marine corps in the United States by act of 
Congress. 

July 14, Sedition Act passed by Congress, making up the Alien and Sedition laws 
of the country. 

July 14, Direct taxes of $2,000,000 laid proportionately among the several states 
of the Union. 

July 16, Adjournment of the second session of the fifth United States Congress 
under jthe Federal Government. 

October 2, The Cherokee Indians, by treaty with the United States, allow a free 
passage through Tennessee lands to travellers en route to Kentucky, passing 
through Cumberland Gap, etc. 

Oct. S, Bobert Baird, historian, bom in Pennsylvania. 

Oct. 7, Matthew Lyon, of Vermont, tried under the Sedition Act before United 
States Judge Patterson. 

Oct. 9, Samuel D. Bell, jurist, bom in New Hampshire. 

December 3, The third session of the fifth Congress of the United States as- 
sembles at Philadelphia. 

Bushrod Washington, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. 
Region of territory between the Mississippi and the Chattahoochee is formed into 
the Mississippi Territory by act of Congress. 

President John Adams appoints Winthrop Sargent, of Massachusetts, first Gov- 
ernor of the Mississippi Territory with seat of government located at Natchez on 
the Mississippi River. 

Jonathan TmmbuU, Governor of the state of Connecticut. 

John S. Hobart and William North, United Stateis Senators from the state of 
New York. 

Franklin Devenport, United States Senator from the state of New Jersey. 
Richard Bassett, Governor of the state of Delaware. 
Joshua Clayton, United States Senator from the state of Delaware. 
John Henry, Governor of the state of Maryland. 
James Lloyd, United States Senator from the state of Maryland. 
William R. Davis, Governor of the state of North Carolina. 
Edward Rutledge, Governor of the state of South Carolina. 
Charles Pinckney, United States Senator from the state of South Carolina. 
James Jackson, Governor of the state of Georgia. 
Daniel Smith, United States Senator from the state of Tennessee. 
William Henry Harrison becomes secretary of the Northwest Territory, having 
resigned his command at Fort Washington when peace was concluded with the 
Indians. 

Andrew Jackson, Justice of the Supreme Court of the state of Tennessee, resigned 
from the United States Senate. 

John Quincy Adams sent as a commissioner to negotiate a treaty of commerce 
with Sweden. 
The Kentucky resolutions. 
The Virginia Resolutions. 
National debt, $79,228,529.12. 
John W. Barber, author and historian, bom in Connecticut. 

1799 

Fobmary 9, The United States frigate ''Constellation,'' under Commander Tmx- 

ton, captures the French ship " L 'Insurgente, " off St. Kitt's Island. 

Feb. 9, Trial and conviction of Matthew Lynn, of Vermont, for publishing a 

letter calculated to stir up sedition by bringing the President and the government 

into contempt. 

Ifardi 2, By act of Congress, General Post Office established by the government. 

Ifar. 2, Act of Congress to regulate collection of duties and to establish ports 

of entry becomes a law. 



1799, Ifar. 3 141 Itoc 26, 1799 

Mar. 3, The fifth Federal Congress of the United States adjourns. 
Mar. i, Henry Knox, Secretary of War. 

Mar. 8, Simon Cameron, statesman, bom in Maytown, Lancaster County, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Mar. 26, Treaty of Peace and Friendship between the United States and Tunis 
concluded at Tunis. 

Mar. 30, The United States sends representatives to France upon assurance from 
that country that they will be received with the respect due the nation. The 
President selects Van Murray, as Minister, and Chief Justice Ellsworth, of Con- 
necticut, and Governor Davie, of North Carolina, as associates. Napoleon, as 
first consul of France, receives them properly. 

May 18, Pierre B. B. de Beaumarchais, veteran of the American Revolutionary 
War, dies. 

May, Federal troops relieve the Spanish garrison located at Fort Stephens, 
Alabama. 

July 11, Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the United States and Prussia 
concluded at Berlin. 

September 24, Major Henry Lee awarded a gold medal by Congress for the sur- 
prise on Paulus Hook. 

October 26, Thomas Cooper, of Northumberland, Pennsylvania, tried and eon- 
victed under the Sedition Act of libel against the administration of President 
Adams. 

Oct., Motto adopted by the state of Virginia, "Sic Semper Tyrannis" (Thus 
Always to Tyrants). 

November 9, Ames B. Alcott, founder of the transcendent school of philosophy, 
bom. 

December 2, The first session of the sixth Congress assembles at Philadelphia, 
with Theodore Sedgwick, of Massachusetts, as Speaker of the House of Bepre- 
sentatives. 

Dec. 5, Motto adopted by the state of Georgia, "Wisdom, Justice, Moderation.'' 
Dec. 14, General George Washington, first President of the United States of 
America, dies at Mt. Vernon, Virginia, on the Potomac. Mourned and beloved 
by the people of a nation and honored throughout the land. 
I>ec. 26, Henry Lee, of Virginia, delivers a eulogy before Congress on Washin|;- 
ton, calling him ''First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his 
countrymen. ' ' 

Alfred Moore, of North Carolina, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme 
Court. 

Samuel Dexter, United States Senator from the state of Massachusetts. 
Moses Gill, Governor of the state of Massachusetts. 
James Watson, United States Senator from the state of New York. 
James Schurmen and Jonathan Dayton, United States Senators from the state 
of New Jersey. 

Thomas McKean, Governor of the state of Pennsylvania. 
William Hill, United States Senator of the state of Delaware. 
Benjamin Ogle, Governor of the state of Maryland. 
James Monroe, Governor of the state of Virginia. 
Benjamin Williams, Governor of the state of North Carolina. 
Jesse Franklin, United States Senator from the state of North Carolina. 
Abraham Baldwin, United States Senator from the state of Georgia. 
Joseph Anderson, United States Senator from the state of Tennessee. 
Winthrop Sargent, Governor of the territory of Mississippi. 
National debt, $78,408,669.77. 
Sixth United States Congress assembled. 

Duane, Beynolds, Moore, and Cunningham tried and acquitted for seditious riots 
in Pennsylvania. 

Bevenue duties collected for the year amount to over $13,000,000. 
The Bussian-American Fur Company granted the territory of Alaska by Em- 
peror Paul of Russia. 

Alien and Sedition Acts in restraint of sympathizers with France more rigidly 
enforced. 



1799, Dec 26 142 Oet 1, 1800 

Pennsylvania seat of goyemment removed to Laneaster. 

Matthew Appleton, founder of the eit^ of Lowell, Maesaehiisetts, bora. 

William Henry Harrison, representatiTe of the Northwest Tenitory in Ckm- 

^S8. 

The Ameriean navy consitte of 42 vessels and 950 guns. 
Oongress votes to raise an army of 40,000 men. 
James Madison, author of the Virginia Beport. 

1800 

January 7, Millard Fillmore, President of the United States, bora at Summer Hill, 

New York. 

Fobruaxy 1, The United States frigate ''Constellation'' defeats the French ship 

"La Vengeance." 

March 29^ Captain Thomas Truzton awarded a gold medal by Congress for action 

with the "Vengeance." 

April 4, GeneriS Bankruptcy Act passed by Congress. 

Ai»r. 28, Act to establish a general stamp office at the seat of government. 

May 7, Western reserve lands divided into the Northwest Territory (now Ohio). 

May 7, Michigan partly included by act of Congress in establishing the Indian 

Territory. 

May 7, Portion of Wisconsin included in the territory of Indiana as created 

and approved by act of Congress. 

May 10, Strict laws enacted to suppress the slave trade. 

ICay 10, Congress establishes offices for the sale and distribution of public land 

Sants in the Northwest Ohio Territory. 
ay 10, Public land offices established at Steubenville, Marietta, Cincinnati, and 
in Chillicothe, Ohio. 

May 10, Act allowing United States warships to seise vessels engage4 in slave 
traffic. 

May 13, Western Beserve under the jurisdiction of the state of Connecticut re- 
signed to the government. 

May 13^ Additional duty of ten per cent imposed on wines, sugar, molasses, etc. 
May IS, William Henry Harrison appointed Governor of the new Indian Terri- 
tory with government headquarters at Vincennes. 

May 14, The last session of the Federal Congress to meet in Philadelphia this year, 
adjourns. 

May, Part of the state of Minnesota included in the Indian Territory by act 
of Congress. 

May 30, Governor Trumbull, of Connecticut, executes the surrender of the juris- 
diction of the Western Beserve in Ohio to the United States Government. 
May, Secretary of State Pickering and Secretary of War McHenry removed from 
office by President John Adams. 

June 6^ J. T. Callender tried at Bichmond, Virginia, for libel of President Adams 
in a pamphlet, "The Prospect Before Us." Found guilty, fined and imprisoned. 
June^ Washington County, Alabama, comprising all land east of the Pearl Biver 
to the Chattahoochee, formed for establishment by Governor Sargent. 
Population of the United States, 5,308,483 inhabitants. 
Interest bearing debt of the United States, $82,976,294.35. 

Center of pop^tion of the United States, eighteen miles west of Baltimore, 
Maryland. 

July, The seat of government of the United States removed from Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, to the new capitol at Washington, D. 0. 
July, Great religious revival spreads throu^out Kentucky. 
September 30, Naval warfare with France practically ended. 
8^>t. 30, Envoys to France to negotiate a convention for the prevention of war 
with the United States for a term of years. 

September, The United States frigate "George Washington" despatched to the 
Algiers with tribute money for the Dey^ being required also to call and transport 
that country's ambassador to Constantinople. 

October 1, Liouisiana ceded by the government of Spain to France by a secret 
treaty. 



1800, Nov. 11 143 Nov. 21, 1800 

November 11, Date of the fourth Federal presidential election under the United 
States government held. 

John Adams defeated for re-election as the Federalist candidate for the presi- 
dency. 

Thomas Jefferson chosen President by the House of Bepresentatives, there being 
no choice by the people in the election. , 

Nation^ presidential election vote: 

Votes 

Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, President, Bepublican 73 

Aaron Burr, of New York (Vice-President), Bepublican 73 

John Adams, of Massachusetts, Federalist 65 

Charles C. Pickering, of South Carolina, Federalist 64 

John Jay, of New York, Federalist 1 

There being a tie vote for Jefferson and Burr, the choice developed upon the 
House of Bepresentatives. Jefferson received the votes of ten states. Burr re- 
ceived the votes of four states, and there were two blank votes. Thomas Jeffer- 
son, therefore, was chosen President and Aaron Burr Vice-President of the 
United States. 

Nov. 17, Second session of the Federal Congress opens (first meeting at the new 
capitol in Washington, D. C.)* 

Nov. 21, Congress, under the new government, meets in the city of Washingtoui 
Jefferson being the first President at the new capitol. 

Legislative government provided for ^abama Territory by act of Congress. 
Mobile, Alabama, under Spanish rule. 
Washington City, D. C, established. 
St. Louis. Missouri, established. 
The provisional army disbanded. 

The government of the District of Columbia placed in the hands of a board 
of commissioners, comprising three members, appointed by the President of the 
United States. 

Caleb Strong, Governor of the state of Massachusetts. 

Dwight Foster and Jonathan Mason, United States Senators from the state of 
Massachusetts. 

Gouverneur Morris, United States Senator from the state of New York. 
William Hindmen, United States Senator from the state of Maryland. 
William C. Nichols, United States Senator from the state of Virginia. 
John Drayton, Acting Governor of the state of South Carolina. 
William H. Harrison, Territorial Governor of Indiana. 
John Gilson, Acting Governor of Indiana Territory. 
Thomas Daniel tried for opening letters of a foreign minister. 
Chillicothe, Ohio, made the seat of government of that territory under Governor 
St. Clair. 

Population of the state of New York, 589,651. 

Negro insurrection in Virginia under the leadership of a slave named Gabriel, 
belonging to a planter near Bichmond. 
State University of Vermont, at Burlington, opened. 

The Santa Bita mines near Silver City, New Mexico, discovered by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Carrisco. 

Women permitted to vote in the Elizabethtown, New Jersey, municipal election. 
Daniel Boone appointed by Delassus, comman^Ent of the District of Femme Osage, 
Missouri. 

Supplementary act of Congress regarding the government of the Mississippi Ter- 
ritory, providing also for the settlement of claims with Georgia. 
T^ jkatityMX Intelligencer, first newspaper published in Washuigton, D. 0. 
General law of bankruptcy approved. 

George Bancroft, historian, bom in Worcester, Massachusetts. 
John Marshall, Secretary of State. 
Samuel Dexter, Secretary of War. 



1801, Jan. 20 144 Dee. 7, 1801 

1801 

January 20, John Marshall appointed Chief Justice of the United States Supreme 
Court by Washington. 

February 11, Electoral vote counted at Washington. 

Feb. 27, Congress assumes jurisdiction over the city of Washington in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. 

March 3, Reduction of the United States Navy to thirteen vessels ordered, the 
remainder to be disarmed and sold. Among those reserved were the "United 
States," "Constitution," "President," "Chesapeake," "PhUadelphia," "Con- 
stellation," and "The Congress." 

Mar. S, The sixth session of the United States Congress under the Federal gov- 
ernment adjourns. 

Biar. 4 (to Mar. 3, 1805), The fourth Presidential Administration inaugurated at 
Washington, Democratia-Bepublican, President Thomas Jefferson, Vice-President 
Aaron Burr. 

James Madison, Secretary of State. 
Albert Gallatin, Secretary of thfs Treasury. 
Samuel Dexter, Secretary of the Treasury. 
Theodore Parsons, Attorney-General of the United States. 
Gideon Granger, Postmaster General 

Bobert Smith, Secretary of the Navy. ^ 

Henry Dearborn and Boger Griswold, Secretaries of War. 
Levi Lincoln, Attorney General. 

John Adams retires to private life at Quincy, Massachusetts. 
May 20, Three United States frigates and one sloop of war under command of 
Commodore Bichard Dale sent to the Barbary coast to protect American interests 
and commerce. 

June 10, War declared by Tripoli against the United States. 
June 14, Benedict Arnold, traitor, dies in England. 

July 6v David Glascow Farragut, first Admiral of the United States Navy, born. 
July 10, William C. C. Claibom appointed territorial Governor of Mississippi. 
Angoat 10, Bobert W. Barnwell, statesman, bom. 
September, Archibald Boane, Governor of the State of Tennessee. 
I>eoember 6, Kinsley S. Brigham, legislator, bom. 

Dec 7, The first session of the seventh Congress of the United States convenes 
at Washington, D. C, Nathanel Macon, of North Carolina, speaker of the 
House of Bepresentatives. (President Jefferson sent a written message to 
Congress, a custom continued thereafter until the advent of Wilson to the 
Presidency, who addressed Congress orally.) 

Simon Olcott and James Sheafe, United States Senators from the State of 

New Hampshire. 

Stephen B. Bradley, United States Senator from the State of Vermont. 

Christopher Elleiy, United States Senator from the State of Bhode Island. 

George Clinton, Governor of the State of New York. 

John Armstrong, United States Senator from the State of New York. 

Joseph Bloomfield, Governor of the State of New Jersey. 

Aaron Ogden, United States Senator from the State of New Jersey. 

George Logan and J. P. G. Muhlenberg, United States Senators from the 

State of Pennsylvania. 

James Skyles, Governor of the State of Delaware. 

Samuel White, United States Senator from the State of Delaware. 

Bobert Bowie, Governor of the State of Maryland. 

Bobert Wright, United States Senator from the State of Maryland. 

John Breckinridge, United States Senator from the State of Kentucky. 

David Stone, United States Senator from the State of North Carolina. 

Thomas Sumter and John Ewing Calhoun, United States Senators from the State 

of South Carolina. 

Josiah Tattnall, Governor of the State of Georgia. 

James Jackson, United States Senator from the State of Georgia. 

National debt, $83,038,050.80. 

John Quincy Adams recalled by the President as Minister to Prussia. 



1802, JazL 8 145 Apr. 30, 1803 



1802 

January 8^ Convention regarding the treaty of 1794, between the United States 
and Great Britain, concluded at London, England. 

Jan. 26, John Beckley, of Virginia, appointed by Congress librarian at the capitol. 
February 6^ War with Tripoli recognized by Congress. 
March 8^ The new Circuit Act repealed by Congress. 
Mar. 11, George W. Blunt, hydrographer, bom in Massachusetts. 
Mar. 16, The army of the United States reduced by Congress to the peace 
establishment of 1796, with one regiment of artillery, two regiments of infantry 
and organized military academy at West Point to be maintained by the 
Government. 

Mar. 16^ The excise tax laws repealed by Congress. 

April 6, Lighthouse service restored to the Secretary of the Treasury of the 
United States. 

Apr. 6, Bepeal of the act taxing stills and domestic distilled spirits, refined 
sugar, licenses to retailers, sales at auction, carriages, parchment, paper, etc. 
Apr. 14, Congress repeals the naturalization laws of 1798, substituting those 
of 1795. 

Apr. 24, Georgia cedes to the United States her western territory lands for 
the common good. 

Apr., The catalog of the Library of Congress reports 964 volumes and numer- 
ous maps. 

May 3, First session of the seventh Congress adjourns. 
May, Washington, D. C, incorporated as a city. 

Angost 11, Convention for Indemnification between the United States and 
Spain concluded at Madrid. 

September 16, John H. Botts, legislator, bom in Virginia. (He was one of 
Jefferson Davis's bondsmen when he was captured at the dose of the Civil 
War.) 

October 6, Albert J. Beveridge, lawyer and politician, bom in the State of Ohio. 
November 29, State Constitution adopted by Ohio, formed from territory ceded 
to the United States by the State of Virginia. 

December 6, Second session of the seventh United States Congress convenes 
at Washington. 

Samuel Adams, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, patriot, 

and statesmen, dies in Massachusetts. 

James Monroe, appointed Minister Envoy Extraordinary to France. 

William Plumer, United States Senator from the State of New Hampshire. 

John Quincy Adams, United States Senator from the State of Massachusetts. 

John Lambert, Acting Governor of the State of New Jersey. 

David Hull, Governor of the State of Delaware. 

John F. Mercer, Governor of the State of Maryland. 

John Page, Governor of the State of Virginia. 

James Turner, Governor of the State of North Carolina. 

James B. Bichardson, Governor of the State of South Carolina. 

John Milledge, Governor of the State of Georgia. 

Charles W. Byrd, Governor of the Territory of Ohio. 

National debt, $80,712,632.25. 

One hundred and forty-one representatives from all the States in Congress. 

Act prohibiting the introduction of slavery into States which had prohibited 

the slave traffic and slavery within its borders. 

Dr. Edward Jenner discovers vaccination. 

Martin Van Buren studies law with William P. Van Ness, a friend of Aaron 

Burr in New York. 

John I. Blair, philanthropist and railroad magnate who loaned the United 

States Government more than $1,000,000 in the early part of the Civil War, born 

in New York. 

1808 

February 19, Ohio admitted as the seventeenth state to the Union. 

April 30, Treaty with France and the purchase of Louisiana by the United 



1803, Apr. 30 146 Apr. SO, 1808 

States for $15,000,000, the territory consistiDg of 875,025 square miles. Spain 
had agreed to allow the United States the use of New Orleans or an equivalent 
port on the Mississippi Biver, but in 1802 she violated this agreement by closing 
the Mississippi and ceding all Louisiana to France. The United States realized 
the danger of having such a power as France holding the key to her natural 
outlet for a large proportion of the commerce and produce of the country and 
Congress consequently appropriated the sum of $2,000,000 to purchase New 
Orleans. Livingston and Monroe were sent to conclude a treaty for the 
acquisition of New Orleans, but instead they concluded with Napoleon a 
treaty for the purchase of the whole of the Louisiana Territory. Their action 
was ratified and the United States took possession on Dec. 20, 1805. The 
Senate advised ratification of the treaty Oct. 20, 1803. It was ratified by the 
President of the United States on Oct. 21, and on the same date ratifications 
were exchanged by the Washington Government Proclamation by the President 
followed on even date. 

TREATY WITH FRANCE. 

Treaty with France for the Cession of Louisiana concluded at Paris, April 30. 
Ratification advised by the Senate of the United States October 20. Ratified 
by the President, October 21. Ratifications exchanged at Washington, October 
21, and Proclaimed October 21, same year. 

The President of the United States of America and the First Consul of the 
French Republic, in the name of the French people, desiring to remove all 
source of misunderstanding relative to objects of discussion mentioned in the 
second and fifth articles of the convention of the 8th, Vendemiaire, an 9 (30th 
September, 1800), relative to the rights claimed by the United States, in virtue 
of the treaty concluded at Madrid, the 27th of October, 1795, between His 
Catholic Majesty and the said United States, and willing to strengthen the union 
and friendship which at the time of the said convention was happily re- 
established between the two nations, have respectively named their Plenipo- 
tentiaries, to wit: the President of the United States of America, by and with 
the advice and consent of the Senate of the said States, Robert R. Livingston, 
Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States, and James Monroe, Minister 
Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary of the said States, near the Govern- 
ment of the French Republic; and the First Consul, in the name of the French 
people, citizen Francis Barbe Marbois, Minister of the Public Treasury, who, 
after having respectively exchanged their full powers, have agreed to the 
following articles: 

ARTICLE I. Whereas by the article of the third of the treaty concluded at St. 
Idelfonso, the 9th, Vendemiaire, an 9 (1st October, 1800), between the First 
Consul of the French Republic and His Catholic Majesty, it was agreed as fol- 
lows: ''His Catholic Majesty promises and engages on his part to cede to the 
French Republic, six months after the full and entire execution of the conditions 
and stipulations herein relative to His Royal Highness the Duke of Parma, the 
colony or province of Louisiana, with the same extent that it now has in the 
hands of Spain, and that it had when France possessed it, and such as it 
should be after the treaties subsequently entered into between Spain and other 
States.'' And whereas, in pursuance of the treaty, and particularly of the 
third article, the French Republic has an incontestable title to the domain 
and to the possession of the said territory. The First Consul of the French 
Republic, desiring to give to the United States a strong proof of his friend- 
ship, doth hereby cede to the said United States, in the name of the French 
Republic, forever and in full sovereignty, the said territory, with all its 
rights and appurtenances, as fully and in the same manner as they have been 
acquired by the French Republic, in virtue of the above-mentioned treaty, 
concluded with His Catholic Majesty. 

ARTICLE II. In the cession made by the preceding article are included the 
adjacent islands belonging to Louisiana, all public lots and squares, vacant 
lands, and all public buildings, fortifications, barracks, and other edifices which 
are not private property. The archives, papers, and documents, relative to the 
domain and sovereignty of Louisiana and its dependences, will be left in the 
possession of the commissaries of the United States, and copies will be after- 



1803, Apr. SO 147 Apr. SO, 1803 

wards given in due form to the magistrates and municipal officers of such 
of the said papers and documents as may be necessary to them. 
ABTIGLE III. The inhabitants of the ceded territory shall be incorporated 
in the Union of the United States, and admitted as soon as possible, according 
to the principles of the Federal constitution, to the enjoyment of all the 
rights, advantages, and immunities of citizens of the United States, and in 
the mean time they shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of 
their liberties, property, and the religion which they profess. 
ABTIOLE IV. There shall be sent by the government of France a commissary 
to Louisiana, to the end that he do every act necessary, as well to receive from 
the officers of His Catholic Majesty the said country and its dependence, in 
the name of the French Bepublic, if it has not been already done, as to trans- 
mit it in the name of the French Bepublic to the commissary or agent of 
the United States. 

ABTIGLE V. Immediately after the ratification of the present treaty by the 
President of the United States, and in case that of the First Consul shall 
have been previously obtained, the commissary of the French Bepublic shall 
remit all military posts of New Orleans, and other parts of the ceded territory, 
to the commissary or commissaries named by the President to take possession; 
the troops, whether of France or Spain, who may be there shall cease to 
occupy any military post from the time of taking possession, and shall be 
embarked as soon as possible, in the course of three months after the ratifica- 
tion of this treaty. 

ABTIGLE VI. The United States promises to execute such treaties and articles 
as may have been agreed between Spain and the tribes and nations of Indians, 
until, by mutual consent of the United States, and the said tribes or nations, 
other suitable articles shall have been agreed upon. 

ABTIGLE Vn. As it is reciprocally advantageous to the commerce of France 
and the United States, to encouraee the communication of both nations for a 
limited time in the country ceded oy the present treaty, until general arrange- 
ments relative to the commerce of both nations may be agreed on; it has been 
agreed between the contracting parties, that the French ships coming directly 
from France or any of her colonies, loaded only with the produce and manufac- 
tures of France or her said colonies; and the ships of Spain coming directly from 
Spain or any of her colonies, loaded only with the produce or manufactures of 
Spain or her colonies, shall be admitted during the space of twelve years in the 
port of New Orleans, and in all other legal ports of entry within the ceded territory, 
in the same manner as the ships of the United States coming directly from France 
or Spain, or any of their colonies, without being subject to any other or 
greater duty on merchandise, or other or greater tonnage than that paid by 
the citizens of the United States. During the space of time above mentioned, 
no other nation shall have a right to the same privileges in the ports of the 
ceded territory; the twelve years shall commence three months after the exchange 
of ratifications, if it shall take place in France, or three months after it 
shall have been notified at Paris to the French Government, if it shall take 
place in the United States; it is, however, well understood that the object of the 
above article is to favor the manufactures, commerce, freight, and navigation 
of France and of Spain, so far as relates to the importations that the French 
and Spanish shall make into the said ports of the United States, without in any 
sort affectinff the regulations that the United States may make concerning the ex- 
portation of the produce and merchandise of the United States, or any 
right they may have to make such regulations. 

ABTIGLE VIII. In future and forever after the expiration of the twelve 
years, the ships of France shall be treated upon the footing of the most 
favored nations in the ports above mentioned. 

ABTIGLE IX. The particular convention signed this day by the respective 
ministers, having for its object to provide for the payment of debts due to 
the citizens of the United States by the French Bepublic prior to the 30th 
September, 1800 (8th Vendemiaire, an 9), IS Approved, and to have its exe- 
cution in the same manner as if it had been inserted in this present treaty; 
and it shall be ratified in the same form and in the same time, so that 
the one shaU not be ratified distinct from the other. 



1803, Apr. 30 148 Dec 20, 1803 



Another particular convention signed at the same date as the present treaty 

relative to a definitive rule between the contracting parties is in the like 

manner approved, and will be ratified in the same form, and in the same time, and 

jointly. 

ABTICLE X. The present treaty shall be ratified in good and due form, 

and the ratifications shall be exchanged in the space of six months after the date 

of the signature by the Ministers Plenipotentiary, or sooner if possible. 

In faith whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed these articles 

in the French and English languages; declaring nevertheless that the present 

treaty was originally agreed to in the French language; and have thereunto 

affixed their seals. 

Done at Paris the tenth day of Floreal, in the eleventh year of the French 

Bepublic, and the 30th of April, 1803. 

Bobt. B. Livingston. (L. 8.) 
James Monroe. *' 

F. Barbe' Marbois. ** 

BCardi 3, Second session of the seventh Gonffress of the United States adjourns. 
BCar. 3, Judge John Pickering impeached before the United States Senate, for 
malfeasance in the New Hampshire district court in October and November and 
for restoring to its owners the ship, ''Eliza," which had been seized for 
smuggling. 

Aaguit 9, ''Bobert Fulton," sixty foot steamboat, tried out on the Seine. 
8epteinb«ar 13, John Barry, naval officer, dies. (He was selected to convey 
Lafayette and Neailles back to France after their visit to America.) 
John Seviers, Governor of Tennessee. 

October 17, First session of the eighth United States Congress convenes at 
Washington^ Nathaniel Macon, of North Carolina, speaker of the House of 
Bepresentatives. 

Oct 20, Treaty with Franoe ratified by the United States Congress by a 
favorable vote of 24 to 7. 

Oct. 30, Congress authorizes the President of the United States to take pos- 
session of the Louisiana Territory. 

Oct. 31, Captain Bainbridge, in the frigate '' Philadelphia, " strikes a rock in 
the Tripolitan Harbor whOe pursuing a Tripolitan ship-of-war and is captured. 
Norember 20, Haiti proclaimed as independent. 

December 2; Senate passes the twelfth Amendment to the Constitution relative 
to election of President and Vice-President of the United States by a vote of 
22 to 10. 

Dec 12, The House of Bepresentatives passes the bill for the twelfth Amend- 
ment to the Constitution relative to the election of President and Vice-President 
by a vote of 83 to 42. 

Dec. 20, Delivery of New Orleans, Louisiana, to the United States. The twelfth 
Article for Amendment to the Constitution submitted to the several State 
Legislatures approved. 

Israel Smith, United States Senator from the State of Vermont. 

John Quincy Adams, United States Senator from the State of Massachusetts. 

Timothy Pickering, Governor of the State of Massachusetts. 

Samuel J. Potter, United States Senator from the State of Bhode Island. 

John Smith and Theodorus Bailey, United States Senators from the State of 

New York. 

John Condit, United States Senator from the State of New Jersey. 

Samuel Maclay, United States Senator from the State of Pennsylvania. 

Samuel Smith, United States Senator from the State of Maryland. 

John Taylor and A. B. Venable, United States Senators from the State of 

Virginia. 

Pierce Butler, United States Senator from the State of South Carolina. 

Edward Tiffin, Governor of the State of Ohio. 

John Smith and Thomas Worthington, United States Senators from the State of 

Ohio. 

Samuel Adams, statesman and patriot, diei. 



1803, Dea 80 149 Nor. 14, 1804 



Conffressional apportionment $33,000. 

National debt, $77,054,686.39. 

Martin Van Buren admitted to the bar. 

Arista Don Mariano, Mexican statesman, and Major-Gteneral in the war against 

the United States, bom. 

1804 

January 4, Gapen Nahnm, historian, born in Canton, Massachusetts. 
February 16, The Frigate <' Philadelphia " stranded in Tripoli Harbor and 
is destroyed by Lieutenant Stephen Decatur in the '< Intrepid,'' under the guns 
of the Dey's castle, without the loss of a man. 

Feb., Impeachment proceedings begun against Samuel Chase, associated justice 
of the Supreme Court of the United States. 

March 4, Judge John Pickering, though doubtless insane, is convicted and re- 
moved from office. 

BCar. 26^ Territory of the Louisiana Purchase divided into the Districts of New 
Orleans and the Territory of Louisiana. 
Mar. 27, The first session of the eighth Congress adjourns. 
Mar. 27, Two and one-half per cent ad vdhrem imposed on all importations 
in American vessels and ten per cent additional in foreign vessels. 
Biay 14, The Lewis and Clarke expedition. 

Biay 28, William A. Buckingham, statesman, bom in Connecticut. 
June 22, Sidney Edgeston, Territorial Governor of Montana. 
July 11, Alexander Hamilton, mortally wounded by Vice-President Burr in a 
duel at Weehawken, New Jersey, on the Hudson. 

September 25, Batification of the twelfth Amendment to the Constitution by 
two-thirds of the States, with Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Delaware dis- 
senting. 

Noyember 4, Second session of the eighth Congress convenes at Washington. 
Not. 13, The fifth presidential election held in the United States under the 
Federal Constitution. 

Nov. 14, The Constitution of the United States by amendment provided that the 
electors at this election cast their votes for a President and Vice-President 
separatelv, designating choice instead of voting for two candidates for Presi- 
dent as formerly. The result follows: 
For President, viz.: 

Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia, Bepublican, 162 votes. 
Charles C. Pinckney, South Carolina, Federalist, 14 votes. 
Total votes cast for I^esident, 176. 
For Vice-President: 

George Clinton, of New York, Bepublican, 162 votes. 
Buf us King, of New York, Federalist, 14 votes. 
Total votes cast for Vice-President, 176. 

Jefferson chosen President and Clinton Vice-President of the United States. 
Benjamin Howland, United States Senator from the State of New York. 
Morgan Lewis, Governor of the State of New York. 

Samuel L. Mitchell, United States Senator from the State of New York. 
Bobert Bowie, Governor of the State of Maryland. 
Andrew Moore, United States Senator from tl^e State of Virginia. 
Christopher Greenup, Governor of the State of Kentucky. 
Paul Hamilton, Governor of the State of South Carolina. 
William C. Claiborne, Territorial Governor of Louisiana. 
Bobert Williams, Territorial Governor of Mississippi. 

William Johnson, of South Carolina, Justice of the United States Supreme 
Court. 

National debt of the United States, $86,427,120.88. 

John Stevens, of Hoboken, New Jersey, builds a steamboat with twin-screw 

propellers. 

Treaty of peace concluded with Tripoli. 

George Calwalader, lawyer, born in Philadelphia. 

John Lothrop Motley, historian and American diplomat, bom in Dorchester, 

Massachusetts. 



1804, Not. U 150 Dea 2, 1805 

The thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution Ratified and 

adopted. 

John Armstrong, Bepresentative of the United States to France. 

Franklin Pierce, bom in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire. 

The Harmonists settle in Pennsylvania. 

1806 

Janiuury 11, Michigan formed from the territory of Indiana. 

February IS, Electoral vote for President and Vice-President counted before 

the House of Bepresentatives at Washington, D. C. 

Feb. 20, Act authorizing the registration of trade-marks in the United States 

passed. 

MBXch 2, Large number of gunboats ordered for the protection of coast ports 

and harbors of the United States. Measure urged by President Jefferson 

without success. 

Mar. 3, By government orders, Genesee and Buffalo Creek, New York, are 

made ports of entry. 

The adjournment of the second session of the eighth United States Congress. 

This marks the end of the political career of Aaron Burr, who killed the 

Seat statesman, Alexander Hamilton, in a duel on account of political jealousy. 
ar. 3, Commodore £dward Preble awarded a gold medal by Congress for his 
service at Tripoli. 

Mar. 4 (to Mar. 3, 1809) » The fifth Federal Administration begun, Democratic- 
Bepublican politically. 
Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia, President. 
George Clinton, of New York, Vice-President. 
James Madison, Secretary of State. ^ 
Albert Gallatin, Secretary of the Treasury. 
J. Croninshield, Secretary of the Navy. 

Bobert Smith, Attorney-General of the United States. (John Breckinridge 
later appointed.) 

Gideon Granger, Postmaster-General of the United States. 
Henry Dearborn, Secretary of War. 

Macon and Varnum, speakers of the House of Bepresentatives. 
Mar., Samuel Chase, associated justice of the United States Court, acquitted 
on impeachment charges. 

April 12, Theodore Bailey, naval officer, bom in New York. 
June 3, Treaty of peace declared between the United States and Tripoli. 
June 4, Treaty of Peace and Amity between the United States and Tripoli con- 
cluded at Tripoli. 

June 14, Bobert Anderson, military officer, bom. 

AugUBt 7, John Breckinridge appointed Attorney-General of the United States. 
Aug. 29, William G. Brownlow, politician, born in Virginia. He was a Union 
champion during the Civil War and was banished from the Confederate lines 
on that account. 

October 23, John B. Bartlett, author and politican, bom in Bhode Island. (He 
was appointed one of the commissioners to fix the Mexican boundary.) 
December 2, The first session of the ninth United States Congress convenes at 
Washington, D. C. Macon, of North Carolina, speaker of the House of 
Bepresentatives. 

Joseph Anderson, President pro tem of the United States Senate. 

John Langdon, Governor of the State of New Hampshire. 

N. Gilman, United States Senator from the State of New Hampshire. 

James Fenner, United States Senator from the State of Bhode Island. 

Aaron Kitchel, United States Senator from the State of New Jersey. 

Nathaniel Mitchell, Governor of the State of Delaware. 

James S. Bayard, United States Senator from the State of Delaware. 

William H. Cabell, Governor of the State of Virginia. 

Nathaniel Alexander, Governor of the State of North Carolina. 

James Turner, United States Senator from the State of North Carolina. 



1805^ Dea 2 151 Feb. 7, 1807 

John Gaillard. United States Senator from the State of South Carolina. 
John Adair, United States Senator from the State of Kentucky. 
Daniel Smith, United States Senator from the State of Tennessee. 
William Huse, Territorial Governor of Michigan. 
Bobert Williams, Territorial Governor of Mississippi. 
National debt, $82,312,150.50. 
Trouble with Great Britain begnn.^ 

The Spanish Minister Marquis of Gasa Yrujo is handed his passport for attempt- 
ing to bribe a Philadelphia editor to favor Spain in a controversy with the 
United States. 

New Orleans, Louisiana, established under American rule. 
William H. Harrison organizes the legislature at Vincennes. 
Aaron Burr's mTsterious expedition in the Mississippi Valley. 
John Quincy Adams appointed professor at Harvard College. 
Act of Congress provides the importation of certain goods. 
James Monroe sent on a diplomatic mission to Spain relative to the Louisiana 
boundary. 
Holmes American Annals published. 

1806 

BCaxdi 0, Authorization by Congress for a commission to build a national road 

from Cumberland, Maryland, to the Ohio Biver. 

April 9, L K. Brunei, bom. He was resident engineer of the tunnel under 

the Thames, designer of the ''Great Western," the first steamship built to 

cross the Atlantic, and constructor of the magnificent iron steamship, "Great 

Eastern. ' ' 

Apr. 21, First session of the ninth Congress adjourns. 

Apr. 25, The British naval vessel ''Leander" fires upon the American coaster 

''Bichard" off Sandy Hook and kills the pUot. 

ICay 16^ "Order in Council" issued by Great Britain, declaring the coast of 

Europe from the Elbe to Brest, France, under blockade. 

NoYember 21, The Berlin Decree issued by Emperor Napoleon. 

December 1, Second session of the ninth Congress convenes at Washington, D. C. 

Dec 3, The President refuses to send to the Senate the treaty concluded with 

Great Britain, as signed by the commissioners. 

Bobert Wright, Governor of the State of Maryland. 
Philip Beed, United States Senator from the State of Maryland. 
Jared Irwin, Governor of the State of Georgia. 
John Milledge, United States Senator from the State of Georgia. 
Charles Pinckne^, Governor of the State of South Carolina. 
Henry Clay, United States Senator from the State of Kentucky. 
John B. Thornton, United States Senator from the State of Kentucky. 
National debt, $75,723,270.66. 
Detroit, Michigan, established. 
Attempted conspiracy of Aaron Burr culminates. 
Partial non-intercourse with Great Britain adopted. 

Brockholst Livingston, of New York, associate justice of the United States Su- 
preme Court. 

John L. Austin, Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 
Dispute with England and France respecting neutral rights. England plainly 
claims the right to search American vessels. for deserting seamen. Jefferson 
disputes it. 

Samuel Webber, President of Harvard College. 

William W. Campbell, lawyer and historian, bom in Cherry Valley. New York. 
He settled in New York and was a judge of the State Supreme Court. 

1807 

January 19, General Bobert E. Lee, noted Confederate leader, bom at Westmore- 
land, Virginia. 

February 7, Act prohibiting the importation of slaves passed by the House of 
Bepresentatives by a vote of 113 to 5, and approved by the President. 



1807, Fob. 19 152 De<x, 1807 

Feb. 19, Lieutenant Games, U. S. A., arrests Aaron Burr, near Fort Stoddart, 

Alabama, in connection with Burr's supposed conspiracy a^nst the government. 

Feb. 27, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, poet, bom. 

BCardi 2, Act passed by Congress in restraint of slave importations coinciding 

with the House bill of the previous month approved. 

Mar. 3, Congress repeals the duty on salt. 

Mar. 3, Second session of the ninth United States Congress adjourns. 

Iffar., Aaron Burr taken to Richmond, Virginia, for trial. 

Biay 1, Charles Campbell, historian, bom in Petersburg, Virginia. 

Biay 22, Aaron Burr 's trial for treason begun at Bichmond, Virginia. 

June 22, The British ship ''Leopard" fires upon the United States frigate 

''Chesapeake" in Chesapeake Bay, killing and wounding a number of the 

latter 's crew and claiming others as British citizens. For this, the American 

Commander Barron is court-martialled and suspended from the service in 

consequence of surrendering his ship without making a proper resistance to 

the attack. 

July, British ships ordered from all American waters and American ports closed 

to British shipping and commerce. 

August 11, David B. Atchinson, lawyer and statesman, bom in Frogtown, 

Kentucky. (As president pro tem of the United States Senate, during Sunday 

March 4, 1849, he was the legal president of the United States in consequence of 

General Taylor, the President-elect, failing to assume the office until the 

following day, March fifth, when he was sworn in.) 

Aug. 18, Charles Francis Adams, statesman, born. 

Seiptember 1, Samuel Blodgett, inventor, dies. 

Sept 14, Fulton's first steamboat the "Clermont" plies the Hudson Biver making 

the trip from New York City to Albany, New York. 

Sept Aaron Burr acquitted of conspiracy charges against the United States 

Government at Bichmond, Virginia. 

October 26, First session* of the tenth United States Congress convenes at 

Washington. 

HforeaiSn 11, "Order in Council" by Great Britain, forbidding neutral nations 

and her allies to trade with France except under tribute to England. 

Nov. 29, Joseph Brant, a Mohawk Indian Chief, dies. 

December 3, G. Bailey, journalist and anti-slavery leader, bom in New York. 

(In 1847, he established the Washington "National Era" in which the famous 

novel, "Uncle Tom's Cabin," first appeared. 

Dec. 17, The Milan Decree promulgated by Napoleon forbidding trade with 

England or her colonies under penalty of confiscation for any vessel paying 

tribute or submitting to search by Great Britain. 

Dec 18, A large number of gunboats authorized by Congress at a cost of over 

$852,000. 

Dec 22; Foreign commerce prohibited under the Embargo Act. 

Dec, William H. Aspinwall, promoter of the Panama Bailroad, born. 

Tenth United States Congress assembles. 

Joseph B. Varnum, speaker of the Massachusetts House of Bepresentatives. 

Thomas Todd, of Kentucky, Justice of the United States Supreme Court. 

Nahum Parker, United States Senator from the State of New Hampshire. 

Israel Smith, Governor of the State of Vermont. 

Jonathan Bobinson, United States Senator from the State of Vermont. 

James Sullivan, Governor of the State of Massachusetts. 

James Fenner, Charter Governor of Bhode Island. 

Elisha Matthewson, United States Senator from the State of Bhode Island. 

Chauncey Goodrich, United States Senator from the State of Connecticut. 

Daniel D. Thompkins, Governor of the State of New York. 

Andrew Gregg, United States Senator from the State of Pennsylvania. 

Benjamin WiUiams, Governor of the State of North Carolina. 

Jesse Franklin, United States Senator from the State of North Carolina. 

George Jones and William H. Crawford, United States Senators from the State 

of Georgia. 

John Pope, United States Senator from the State of Kentucky. 



1807, Dec 153 Vov. 8, 1808 

Thomas Kirker, Governor of the State of Ohio. 

Edward Tiffin, United States Senator from the State of Ohio. 

National debt, $69,218,398.64. 

Madison and Clinton, re-elected President and Vice-President of the United 

States. 

John Qoincy Adams offends the Federalists hj supporting Jefferson's Embargo 

Act. 

OaBsar Bodney, United States Attorney-General. 

John Tyler graduates from William and Mary College. 

United States Coast Survey authorized. 

Conspiracy of Aaron Burr to divide the Union fails. 

1808 

January 9, Second Embarffo Act enacted. This is more stringent than the first 

and familiarly known as the "O grab me Act." 

Jan. 11, Henry H. Bell, naval officer, born. 

ICardi 12, The Embargo Act modified and authorized by the President to permit 

vessels to transport American goods from foreign ports. 

April 12; United States Army regulations for five years to consist of five 

regiments of infantry, one regiment of rifiemen, one regiment of light artillery, 

and one regiment of light dragoons. 

Apr. 25, First session of the tenth United States Congress adjourns. 

November 7, Second session of the tenth United States Congress at Washington, 

D. C, convenes. 

Nov. 8, The sixth presidential election in the United States under the Federal 

Government held. 

For President: 

James Madison, of Virginia, Bepublican, receives 122 Electoral votes. 

Charles C. Pinckney, South Carolina, Federalist, receives 47 Electorid votes. 

George Clinton, of New York, Bepublican, receives 6 Electoral votes. 

Total Electoral votes cast for Presideiit 175. 

For Vice-President: 

George Clinton, of New York, Bepublican, receives 113 Electoral votes. 

Bufus Kiuff, of New York, Federalist, receives 47 Electoral votes. 

John Langdon, of New Hampshire, Federalist, receives 9 Electoral votes. 

James Madison, of Virginia, Bepublican, receives 3 Electoral votes. 

James Monroe, of Virginia, Bepublican, receives 3 Electortd votes. 

Total number of votes cast for Vice-President, 175. Vacancy 1. 

Madison chosen President and Clinton, Vice-President, of the United States of 

America. 

Isaac Tichenor, Governor of the State of Vermont. 

Levi Lincoln, Governor of the State of Massachusetts. 

James Lloyd, United States Senator from the State of Massachusetts. 

Joseph Bloomfield, Governor of the State of New Jersey. 

Simon Snyder, Governor of the State of Pennsylvania. 

George Truitt, Governor of the State of Delaware. 

John l^ler, Governor of the State of Virginia, 

David Stone, Governor of the State of North Carolina. 

John Drayton, Governor of the State of South Carolina. 

Charles Scott, Governor of the State of Kentucky. 

Samuel Huntington, Governor of the State of Ohio. 

National debt, $65,196,317.97. 

Henry d. Bell, naval officer, who served in the Civil War, bom in North Carolina. 

Fisher Ames, orator and statesman, dies in Boston. 

James Monroe returns to the United States from his mission to Europe. 

John Quincy Adams resigns his seat in the Senate. 

Martin Van Buren becomes surrogate of Columbia Countv. 

Zachary Taylor enters the United States Army as nnt lieutenant of the 

Seventh Infantry. 

Andrew Johnson, bom in Baleigh, Wake County, North Carolina. 

The slave trade abolished by act of Congress. 



1808» Vov. 8 154 Not. 27, 1809 

Charles Adams, historian, bom. 

John Stevens, ''Pheonix" makes the first steam sea voyage by vessel from 

New York to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Samuel P. Chase, born, statesman. 

William Strong, born, statesman. 

1809 

Febmary 3, Illinois established as a territory. 

Feb. 8, Electoral vote of the country for President and Vice-President counted 
in the House of Bepresentatives. 

Feb. 12, Abraham Lincoln, born in Harden Co., Kentucky. 
Majncb 1, Congress appeals the Embargo Act. 

Mar. 1, Commercial intercourse with Great Britain and their dependencies pro- 
hibited after may 20, under the Non-Intercourse Act. 

Mar. 2, Motto adopted by the State of Pennsylvania, "Virtue, Liberty, and 
Independence.'' 

Mar. 3, Last session of the tenth United States Congress adjourns. 
Mar. 4 (to Mar. 3, 1813), Sixth Federal Presidential Administration, Democratic- 
Bepublican, James Madison, of Virginia, inaugurated President and George 
Clinton, of New York, Vice-President of the United States. 
Bobert Smith, Secretary of State, later acting Vice-President of the United 
States. 

James Monroe, Secretary of State. 
Albert Gallatin, Secretary of the Treasury. 
William Eustis, Secretary of War. 
Paul Hamilton, Secretary of the Navy. 
Gideon Granger, Postmaster-General. 
Caesar A. Bodney, Attorney-General of the United States. 
Varnum and Clay, speakers of the House of Bepresentatives. 
ICay 22; First session of the eleventh United States Congress convenes at Wash- 
ington. D. C. 

June 14, Failure of the expedition fitted out by Francisco Miranda, a native of 
South America, in New York, who, in the "Leander," with a force of men, 
aimed to overthrow the Spanish power in Caracas. 

June 28, First session of the eleventh United States Congress (extra) at Wash- 
ington, D. C, adjourns. 

AogiiBt 9, The Non-Intercourse Act proclaimed by the President of the United 
States as still in force. Great Britain not having revoked her Orders in 
Council of the year 1807. 

September, The British minister to the United States, David M. Erskine, re- 
called and Francis J. Jackson appointed in his stead. The latter soon asked 
his passport, his relations with this government being most unsatisfactory 
from the first. 

November 27, Second session of the eleventh United States Congress convenes 
at Washington, D. C. 

Act revising the copyright laws of the United States by Congress. 

Jeremiah Smith, Governor of the State of New Hampshire. 

Jonas Galusha, Governor of the State of Vermont. 

Christopher Gore, Governor of the State of Massachusetts. 

Francis Malbone, United States Senator from the State of Bhode Island. 

John Treadwell, Governor of the State of Connecticut. 

Obadiah German, United States Senator from the State of New York. 

John Lambert, United States Senator from the State of New Jersey. 

Michael Leib, United States Senator from the State of Pennsylvania. 

Edward Lloyd, Governor of the State of Maryland. 

Bichard Brent, United States Senator from the State of Virginia. 

David B. Mitchell, Governor of the State of Georgia. 

Charles Tait, United States Senator from the State of Georgia. 

William Blount, Governor of the State of Tennessee. 

Jenkin Whiteside. United States Senator from the State of Tennessee. 

David Holmes, Governor of the Territory of MississippL 



1809, Not. 27 155 Fab. 21, 1811 

Beturn J. Meigs and Stanley Griswold, United States Senators from the 

State of Ohio. 

Ninian Edwards, Governor of the Territory of Illinois. 

National debt, $57,023,192.09. 

James Buchanan graduates from Dickinson College, Carlisle, Penn. 

John Tyler adnutted to the bar. 

William Henry Harrison concludes a treaty of peace with several Indian tribes 

on the Wabash and White rivers. 

John Quincy Adams, Minister to Bussia. 

Motto adopted by the State of New York, "Excelsior" (higher, more elevated). 

First steamboat on the St. Lawrence Biver, the "Accommodation," runs 

from Montreal to Quebec. 

Benjamin B. Curtis, jurist, bom. 

B. M. T. Hunter, statesman, bom. 

Bobert C. Winthrop, statesman and orator, bom. 

1810 

Janiuury 10, J. S. Black, lawyer and politician, bom in Glades, Pa. 
ApxU 3, Committee appointed by the House of Bepresentatives to inquire 
into the alleged charge of bribe received by Brigadier-General James Wilkinson, 
from the Spanish Government and as to being in any way concerned as an ac- 
complice of any foreign power or of Aaron Burr against the government 
of the United States. 

Apr. 30, The establishment of a General Post Office under the Postmaster-General 
at Washington, D. C. 

Biay 1, Second session of the eleventh United States Congress adjourns. 
May 1, Armed vessels of England and France excluded from American waters 
by act of Congress and approved by the President of the United States. 
May, Napoleon's BambouUet Decree ordering the sale of American vessels 
with cargoes worth about $8,000,000 issued and dated March 23. 
July 5, P. T. Baraum, showman and politician, bora at Bethel, Connecticut. 
October 29, Samuel Barron, naval ofScer, dies. 

November 1, Proclamation of revocation by France of the Berlin and Milan 
decrees effective on this date. 

December 3, Third session of the eleventh United States Congress convenes at 
Washington, D. C. 

Third census of seventeen States, jpopulation 7^39,814. 

Center of population in the United States, 49 miles north-west of Washington, D. C. 

National debt, $53,173,217.52. 

John Langdon, Governor of the State of New Hampshire. 

Charles Cutter, United States Senator from the State of New Hampshire. 

Elbridge Gerry, Governor of the State of Massachusetts. 

C. G. Chapman, United States Senator from the state of Bhode Island. 
Samuel W. Dana, United States Senator from the State of Connecticut. 
O. Horsey, United States Senator from the State of Delaware. 
Benjamin Smith, Governor of the State of North Carolina. 

Henry Middleton, Goveraor of the State of South Carolina. 

John Taylor, United States Senator from the State of South Carolina. 

Henry Clay, United States Senator from the State of Kentucky. 

Beturn Jonathan. Meigs^ Governor of the State of Ohio. 

Alexander Campbell, United States Senator from the State of Ohio. 

John T. Kirkland, President of Harvard College. 

Oregon founded. 

18U 

Febmary 2, The United States Bank rechartered by the House of Bepresenta- 
tives and rejected by the Senate by the casting vote of the Vice-President, 
George Clinton. 

Feb. 21, Madison vetoes the bill for the incorporation of the church at Alexandria, 
Virginia. 



1811, Feb. 28 158 Kar. 10, 1812 

Feb. 28, President vetoes the Belief Bill. 

Majrcb 3, Third session of the eleventh United States Congress adjourns. 
May 18^ The United SUtes frigate <' President" defeats the British ship "lattle 
Belt" in a naval engagement off Cape Charles. 
May, William Jones, Charter Governor of Bhode Island. 

August 11, Judah F. Benjamin, bom. He served in the cabinet of Jefferson 
Davis during the Civil War under the Confederacy. 

September 2, Court-martial proceedings at FredMcktown, Maryland, for the 
trial of Brigadier-General James WiUunson. 

Sept 11, Tecumseh Indian War commenced with General Harrison in command 
of the American forces. 

Novsmber 4, First session of the twelfth United States Congress at Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Not. 7, Battle of Tippecanoe, General Harrison defeats the Indians under 
Tecumseh. 

NbY. 11, Tecumseh Indian War ended. 

Dooember 25, Br^adier-General James Wilkinson acquitted at trial by a general 
court-martial at Fredericktown, Maryland. 

Dec 28^ Theater at Bichmond, Virginia, burned. In this fire the governor 
and many others among the leading citizens of the State perislL 

Edward D. Baker, soldier and statesman, bom in England. 
Charles S. Boggs, naval officer who served with Farragut, bom. 
Twelfth United States Congress assembles. 
Population of the United States 7,209,903. 
Batio of Bepresentation fixed at 35,000. 
National debt, $48,005,587.76. 

Henry Clay, of Kentucky, speaker of the House of Bepresentatives. 
Joseph Stoiy, of Massachusetts, and Gabriel Duval, oi Maryland, Justices of the 
United States Supreme Court. 
James Monroe, Secretary of State. 

William Pinckney, Attorney-General of the United States. 
Joseph B. Varnum, United States Senator from the State of Massachusetts. 
J. B. Howell and William Hunter, United States Senators from the State of 
Bhode Island. 

Boger Griswold, Governor of the State of Connecticut. 
Joseph Hazlet, Governor of the State of Delaware. 

James Monroe and (George W. Smith, Governors of the State of Virginia. 
William Hawkins, Governor of the State of North Carolina. 
George M. Babb, United States Senator from the State of Kentucky. 
George W. Campbell, United States Senator from the State of Tennessee. 
Thomas Worthington, United States Senator from the state of Ohio. 
Horace Greeley, journalist and politician, bom. 

Besentment against Great Britain increased in the United States because of 
her conduct on the sea and her assertion of her right to search American 
ships. 

The United States ship '< President ' ' and the British ship ''Little Belt'' ex- 
change shots. Friction between the two countries increased. 
The United States seizes West Florida and British protests ignored. 
Astoria, Oregon, settled by Americans. 

First steamboat on the western rivers built by Fulton at Pittsburgh. 
Jacob W. Bailey, American scientist and graduate of the United States Military 
Academy, born. 

Jonathan Blanehard, vice-president of the world's Anti-Slavery Convention in 
London in 1843, born in Bockingham, Vermont. 
Asa Biggs, jurist, bom in Williamstown, North Carolina. 

1812 

Mardi 9, The President of the United States lays the case of John Henry 

before the Senate and the Federalists of New England. 

Mar. 10, The Senate requests the President to submit to that body all informa- 



1812, Blar. 10 157 8epi. 4, 1812 

tion which may be commanicated in the ease of John Henry without prejudice 

to the public interest. 

April 3, Madison vetoes the bill for trial in District Courts. 

Apr. 4, By act, embargo on all vessels in the United States imposed for ninety 

days. 

Apr. 8, Louisiana admitted into the Union as a State. It was the eighteenth 

State of the Union and was formed from territory ceded to the United States by 

France under the Treaty of Paris. 

Apr. 14, Louisiana annexes that part of Florida west of Pearl Biver. 

Apr. 20, Death of Vice-President George Clinton, at Washington, D. C, aged 

73 years. 

Biay 18, President James Madison renominated for the presidency by the Demo- 

cratic-Bepublican party, in favor of a declaration of War with England. 

June 1, President Madison sends a war message to Congress. 

June 3, Majority report against the war presented to the House of Bepresenta- 

tives, and a motion to make the debate public lost. 

June 4, Missouri established as a Territory under territorial government. 

June 12; The arrival in Boston of seamen taken from the "Chesapeake" by the 

British ship "Leopard," in 1807, and delivered over to the United States. 

June 12 and July 27, The Federal Bepublican publishing office at Baltimore, 

Maryland, attacked by a vicious mob for denouncing the declaration of war with 

England. 

June 17, England abandons the "Orders in CounciL" 

June 18, The United States declares war against Great Britain. 

June 10, War begun between America and Great Brit&in. The first contest is 

between the American ship "President" and the British ship "Blandina," 

the latter escaping. 

June 28, Naval engagement between the "President" and " Belvidera." 

June 28, The United States army raised to twenty-five regiments of infantry, 

four regiments of artillery, two regiments of dragoons, and one regiment of 

riflemen, a total force of 36,700 men on paper. 

July 1, by act of Congress, import duties doubled on goods imported in foreign 

ships. 

Jui^r 6, First session of the twelfth United States Congress adjourns. This session 

of two hundred and forty-five days, in which about one hundred acts were passed, 

had been a stormy session. Debate had waged keenly between Josiah Quincy, 

of Massachusetts, and John Randolph, of Boanoke, in opposition to the war, 

with Henry Clay, of Kentucky, and John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina, in 

favor of immediate war with England. 

July 12, General Hull leads the iSnericans into Canada. 

July 17, General Hull defeated at Mackinaw. 

July 27, Offices of the Federal Bepublican, at Baltimore, Maryland, attacked by 

a mob for denouncing the war with England. On promise of protection by the 

militia, they surrender and are taken to jail. The mob later reassemble, 

break the jail, kill General Lingan, an officer of the Revolution, and mangle and 

kill several others. Arrests followed, but no one of the number of offenders were 

ever convicted or punished. 

August 4, Battle of Brownstown: 

Aug. 6, Action at Brownstown, Michigan, ended. 

Aug. 9, Action at Maguaga below Detroit, Michigan. 

Aug. 13, The "Essex" defeats the "Alert" in a naval engaffement. 

Aug. 15^ Surrender of Fort Dearborn. Chicago, and massacre of the inhabitants. 

Aug. 18^ General Hull surrenders Detroit to Brock, British Governor of Upper 

Canada, who had formed an alliance with the Indians. 

Aug. 16, Chicago massacre. 

Aug. 10, The United States frigate "Constitution" sinks the British frigate 

"Guerridre," but the British "Poictiers" captures the American ship of 

war "Wasp." Other naval duels ended in favor of Americans. 

Aug. 19, Great meetin|r in New York City in opposition to the war is attended 

by John Jay, Rufus Kmff, Gouvemeur Morris and other prominent citizens. 

September 4, Defence of Fort Harrison, Indiana, with Captain Zachary Taylor 

in command. 



181% Sept. 4-6 158 Dec. SO, 1812 

Sept. 4-6, Battle of Fort Madison. 

Sept 8, Samuel D. Burchard, clergTiiian, who gained notoriety in the campaign 

of 1884, born. 

Sept. 21, Battle of Oananoqui. 

October 13, Battle of Queenstown Heights. 

Oct 13, General Brock killed in a battle near Fort QeorgOi but the Americans 

forced to retreat. 

Oct 18, Sloop-of-war ''Wasp" captured by the British sloop ''Frolic." 

Oct 18, Julian W. Adams, Civil War Colonel, bom. 

Oct 23, Action at St. Begis, New York. 

Oct 25, The "United States" defeats the "Macedonian" in a naval engagement. 

November, 2, Second session of the twelfth United States Congress convenes at 

Washington, D. G. 

Nov. 10, Presidential election held throughout the States of the Union. 

Nov. 18, Madison vetoes the Naturalization Bill passed by Congress. 

Nov. 21, Battle of Fort Niagara. 

Nov. 28^ Affairs at Black Bock, New York, and the attempted invasion of 

Canada by the Americans under General Alexander Smyth. 

December 22; Joel Barlow, diplomat, dies at Cracow, Bussia. 

Dec 29, Frigate "Constitution" captures the British frigate "Java" off the 

coast of Brazil. 

Dec 30, Schooner "Patriot" sails from Charleston, South Carolina, for New 

York. This vessel, having on board Theodosia, the wife of Governor Alston, and 

only child of Aaron Burr, is never heard of afterwards. 

William Plumer, Governor of the State of New Hampshire. 

CsJeb Strong, Governor of the State of Massachusetts. 

Aaron Ogden, Governor of the State of New Jersey. 

Mob uprising in Baltimore, Maryland. 

James Barbour, Governor of the State of Virginia. 

Joseph Alston, Governor of the State of South Carolina. 

Isaac Shelby, Governor of the State of Kentucky. 

William C. C. Claiborne, Governor of the State of Louisiana. 

A. B. Magruder and Thomas Posey, United States Senatora from the State 

of Louisiana. 

National debt, $45,209,737.90. 

Besults of the presidential election: 

James Madison, of Virginia, Bepublican, 128 Electoral votes. 

De Witt Clinton, of New York, Federalist, 89 Electoral votes. 

Total 217 Electoral votes cast for the two presidential candidates. 

For Vice-President: 

Elbridge Gerry, of Massachusetts, Bepublican, 131 Electoral votes. 

Jared IngersoU, of Pennsylvania, Federalist, 86 Electorid votes. 

Vacancy, 1 Electoral vote. 

Madison chosen President, and Gerry, Vice-President, of the United States. 

When the President of the United States proclaimed war against Great Britain 

on July 19, the navy consisted only of the following vessels, exclusive of a 

few gunboats: 

Constitution, Captain HulL 

United States, Captain Decatur. 

President, Commodore Bodgem. 

Chesapeake, Captain Smith. 

New York, Ordinary. 

Constellation, Ordinary. 

Congress, Ordinary. 

Boston, Ordinary. 

Essex, Captain Porter. 

Adams. Ordinary. 

John Adams, Captain Ludlow. 

Wasp, Captain Jones. 

Hornet, Captain Lawrence. 

Siren, Lieutenant CarroIL 



1812; Dec 80 159 Mar. 8, 1818 

Argus, Lieutenant Crane. 

Oneida, Lieutenant Woolsey. 

Vixen, Lieutenant Qadsden. 

Nautilus, Lieutenant Sinclair. 

Enterprise, Captain Blakeley. 

Viper, Captain Bainbridge. 

Peace Party, composed principally of Democratie-Bepublicans and Federalists 

in New England, opposed to tne war. 

" Clintonians, " an off-shoot of the disgruntled element of the Democratic- 

Bepublican party. 

Algonquin Indians take part with the British during the war of 1812. 

Academy of Natural Science founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Advocates for abolition of the African slave trade in the United States become 

stronger. 

Dearborn makes a fruitless attempt to invade Canada. 

Fort Dearborn, Chicago, burned by the Indians and settlers massacred. 

President Madison refuses the service of General Andrew Jackson. Jackson 

thereupon organizes an independent corps, which was reluctantly accepted when 

reverses came. 

Decatur, commanding the frigate ''United States,'' takes the ''Macedonian" 

while the "Constitution" captures the "Java." 

The "Essex," commanded by Captain David Porter, with his midshipman, 

David 6. Farragut (aged thirteen years) on board, capture a British transport 

with two hundred solders and force the "Alert" to surrender. 

American privateers begin to prey on British commerce. 

Congress lays an embargo on American shipping. 

General land office established and more than 6000 cases of impressions recorded. 

William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips, Charles Sumner, with others become 

the leading anti-Slavery agitators following the war of 1812. 

Steam ferry established between New York and Jersey City. 

Siege of Forts Wabash and Wayne in Indiana. 

1818 

January 2, Congress appropriates $2,500,000 for building warships. 
Jan. 18, Battle of Frenchtown, Biver Baisin, Michigan, in which 800 Americans 
are captured. 

Jan. 22, Defeat and capture of General Winchester at Biver Baisin, Michigan. 
Jan. 29, Captain Isaac Hull awarded a gold medal by Congress for his services 
in capturing the "Guerridre." 

Captain Jacob Jones awarded a gold medal by Congress for services in cap- 
turing the "Frolic." 

Captain Stephen Decatur awarded a gold medal by Congress for services in 
capturing the "Macedonian." 

Jan., The British fleet under Vice-Admiral Cockbum attempts to blockade the 
Atlantic coast. 

Febmary 7, Battle, of Elizabethtown, Canada. 

Feb. 10, Electoral vote for president and vice-president counted in the Senate 
chamber. 

Feb. 18, Congress limits the strength of the United States army according to 
the report of the Adjutant-General to 68,000 men, including staff and regimental 
officers. 

Feb. 22, Battle of Ogdensburg. 

Feb. 24, Sloop-of-war "Hornet" captures and sinks the British sloop "Pea- 
cock, ' ' near the mouth of the Demerara Biver, South America. 
Feb. 24, The Governor of Bermuda issues a proclamation reciting a British "Order 
in Council," providing for Colonial trade with instructions imparting special 
privileges to the Eastern New England States, which is laid before Congress by 
the President. 

Feb. 27, Vaccination encouraged by act of Congress. 

BCardi 8, William Bainbridge awarded a gold medal by Congress for services 
in capturing the "Java." 



1813, Mar. 3 160 Sflpt 10, 1813 

BCar. 3, Congress invests the President with power of retaliation on British 
subjects, soldiers, or Indians. 

BCar. 3| Thomas Fosey, Territorial Governor of Indiana. 
Mar. Sv The last session of the twelfth United States Congress adjonms. 
Mar. 4-9 (to Mar. 3, 1817), Seventh Federal Administration Demoeratic-Bepab- 
lican, James Madison, of Virnnia, President and Elbridge Gerry, of Massa- 
chusetts, vice-president of the United States. 

BCar., Russia offers mediation between the United States and Great Britain for 
ending the war. 

Mar. 19, Division into nine military districts of the United States. 
April 15, General Wilkinson takes possession at Mobile. 
Apr. 27, York (now Toronto), Upper Canada captured. 
Apr. 28-]da7 9, Defence of Fort Meigs, OhiO| by General Harrison. 
Apr., William H. Crawford, of Georgia, appointed by President Madison to 
succeed Joel Barlow, as Minister to France. 
May 1, Siege of Fort Meigs. 

ICay 6, General Green Clay is cheeked in attempting to re-enforce Fort Meigs. 
ICay 9, Albert Gallatin, of Pennsylvania, and James A. Bayard, appointed as 
peace commissioners by President Madison. With John Quincy Adams they 
leave for the Bussian eourt to negotiate a peace treaty. 
BCay 24, First session of the thirteenth Federal Congress convenes at Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

ICay 27, Fort George, on the west side of Niagara Biver near its mouth, is 
captured by the American troops under General Dearborn. 
BCay 29, Battle of Sacketts Harbor on Lake Ontario. 

June 1, At sea the American ship "Hornet," commanded by Captain Lawrence, 
sank the British ship "Peacock.'' The "Hazard" eaptures the English frig- 
ate "Albion," but* the American ship "Chesapeake" is taken by the "Shan- 
non." Captain Lawrence is killed, saying as he diet: "Don't j^ve up the 
ship. ' ' 

June 6^ Action at Stony Creek, Upper Canada. 
June IS, Defence of Hampton. 
June 22, Battle of Carney Island. 
June 23, Battle of Beaver Dam. 
July 8, Battle near Fort George. 
Jn^ 11, Second battle of Black Bock. 

July li, Bemonstration by the Massachusetts State Legislature against the 
continuance of the war. 
July 17, Defence of outworks at Fort George. 

July V 24, Coast lights vested again in the commissioner of revenue. 
July 24, Act passed bv Congress imposing duties on sales at auction of mer- 
chandise, on ships and vessels, on licenses to distillers of spirituous liquors, 
and on suear renned within the United States. 
William Clark, Territorial Governor of MissourL 
August 2, Battle of Fort Stephenson, Ohio. 
Aug. 2, A loan of $7,500,000 authorized by Congress. 
Aug. 2, Major-Generai Croghan makes gallant defence of Fort Stephenson. 
Aug. 2, A direct tax of $3,000,000 assessed by act of Congress upon the States. 
Aug. 2, First session of the thirteenth Federal Congress at Washington adjourns. 
Aug. 2, Act passed by Congress imposing duties on licenses to retailers of wine 
and foreign merchandise, on notes of banks and obligations discounted by banks, 
and on certain bills of exchange, etc. 
Aug. 9-11, Bombardment of Stonington. 

Aug. 14, The "Argus" defeated by the "Pelican," in a naval engagement. 
Aug. 15, William Allen, naval officer, dies. 

Aug. 24, The "Hornet" defeats the "Peacock" in a naval engagement. 
Aug. 26, James L. Cabell, sanitarian, bom in Nelson County, Virffinia. 
Aug. 29, Massacre at Fort Mimms, Alabama, by the Creek Incuans. 
September 5, William Barrows, naval officer, killed. 

Sept. 6, Brig "Enterprise" captures the British brig "Bo^er" oif the coast 
of Maine. 
Sept. 10, On Lake Erie, Commodore Perry fights the famous battle which he 



1813, Sept. 10 161 Jan. 3, 1814 

thus reports: "We have met the enemy and thej are ours.'' Two brigs, one 

schooner, two ships, and one sloop. 

dept 28, Detroit, Michigan, reoccupied by the United States forces. 

October 6, Battle of the Thames, Upper Canada. Harrison defeats Proctor and 

Tecumseh dies. 

November 1-2^ Battle of French Creek. 

Nov. 3, Battle of Tallahatchie. 

Nov. 9, Battle of Talladega. 

Nov. 11, Action at Chrysler's Field on the northern shores of the St. Lawrence 

above Montreal, Canada. 

mofsr. 18, Battle of Hillabee Town. 

Nov. 29, Battle of Anttose. 

Nov., Jackson's campaign against the Creek Indians. 

December 8, Second session of the thirteenth Federal Congress convenes at 

Washington, D. C. 

Dec 10, General George McClue, commanding a brigade on the Niagara frontier, 

bums the village of Newark, Canada, and evacuates Fort George, opposite Fort 

Niagara. He Mmself is severely wounded. 

Dec. 17, Embargo established until Jan. 18, 1815, by act of Congress. 

Dec 19, Fort Nia^ra captured by the British. 

Dec 23, Battle of Econochaca. 

Dec 24, "Peace of Ghent," between Great Britain and the United States. 

Dec 27, New Orleans, Louisiana, attacked by Sir Edward Pakenham. 

Dec. 30, Buffalo and Black Bock burned bv the British and Indian allies. 

Congressional apportionment to the House of Eepresentatives by the States one to 

thirty-five thousand population. 

John T. Gilman, Governor of the State of New Hampshire. 

Jeremiah Mason, United States Senator from the State of New Hampshire. 

Martin Chittenden, Governor of the State of Vermont. 

Dudley Chase, United States Senator from the State of Vermont. 

Christopher Gore, United States Senator from the State of Massachusetts. 

John C. Smith, Governor of the State of Connecticut. 

David Daggett, United States Senator from the State of Connecticut. 

Bufus Kin^ United States Senator from the State of New York. 

William S. Pennin^on, Governor of the State of New Jersey. 

Abner Lacock, United States Senator from the State of Pennsylvania. 

William Hill Wells, United States Senator from the State of Delaware. 

B. H. Goldsborough, United States Senator from the State of Maryland. 

Levin Winder, Governor of the State of Maryland. 

David Stone, United States Senator from the State of North Carolina. 

Peter Early, Governor of the State of Georgia. 

William B. Bullock and William W. Bibb, United States Senators from the 

State of Georgia. 

E. Fromentin and James Brown, United States Senators from the State of 

Louisiana. 

Jesse Bledsoe, United States Senator from the State of Kentucky. 

Jeremiah Morrow, United States Senator from the State of Ohio. 

Joseph P. Bradley, bom. 

National debt, $55,692,827.57. 

Thirteenth United States Congress convenes. 

Montgomery Blair, lawyer who acted as counsel for the widely known ''Dred 

Scott '' case, bom. 

George Stephenson builds his first locomotive. 

General Harrison puts an end to the Creek Bebellion by his victory at Fort 

Maiden. 

The "Enterprise*' captures the British brig, "Boxer." 

18U 

January 2; John B. Brodhead, historian, born in Pennsylvania. 

Jan. 3, General court martial ordered by President Madison at Albany, New 

York, upon Brigadier-General William Hull for the surrender of Detroit. 



1814, Jan. 6 162 June 28, 1814 

Jan. 6^ Commodore Oliver H. Periy awarded a gold medal for service and 
victory on Lake Erie. 

JaxL 6, Lieutenant Edward B. McCall awarded a gold medal for services in 
capturing the * * Boxer. ' ' 

Jan. 6, Captain Jesse D. Elliott awarded a gold medal for services at the 
victory on Lake Erie. 

JaxL 6, The English vessel ''Bramble/' nnder flag of truce, arrives at Annapolis, 
Maryland, with offers of peace. 

Jan. 11, Captain James Lawrence awarded a gold medal by Congress for 
services in capturing the ' 'Peacock. '• 

Jan. 14, First speech on the Enlistment bill by Daniel Webster made in the 
House of Representatives. 

Jan. 19, Henry Clay, speaker of the House of Bepresentatives, appointed 
as one of the peace commissioners to meet at Ghent. 

Langdon Cheves, of South Carolina, elected speaker on the same date to fill, 
vacancy. 

Jan. 22, Battle of Emuefan, Alabama. 
Jan. 24, Battle of Enotochopco, Alabama. 

Jan. 24, Congress votes to table the resolution for the creation of a committee 
to investigate the Blue Lights. 
Jan. 27, Battle of Camp Defiance. 

January, The United States Army increased to 63,000 regulars for five years by 
act of Congress. 

February 2, President Madison transmits to the House of Bepresentatives a re- 
port from the Secretary of War explaining causes of failure on the northern 
frontier by the army. 

Feb. 7, Confinement in Massachusetts jails of persons not committed by her 
judicial authorities forbidden. The object is to free herself from confining 
persons as prisoners of war or British captives. 
Feb. 9, George W. Campbell, Secretary of the Treasury. 
Feb. 10, Bichard Bush, Attorney-General of the United States. 
Marcli 4, Battle of Longwoods. 
Mar. 4-5, Battle of Fort Oswego. 

Mar. 17, Beturn J. Meigs, Jr., Postmaster-General of the United States. 
Mar. 24, $25,000,000 loan and an issue of treasury notes for $10,000,000 au- 
thorized by act of Congress. 

Mar. 26, At Albany, New York, Brigadier-General William Hull, under court- 
martial for the surrender of Detroit, is found guilty on the second and third 
counts of the charge and sentenced to be shot. The sentence is approved by 
President Madison, but execution remitted. 

Mar. 27, General Jackson defeats and crushes the Creek Indians at Great Horse 
Shoe Bend on the Tallapoosa. 

Mar. 28, Frigate "Essex," under Captain David Porter, surrenders to the 
British ships "Phoebe*' and "Cherub" in the harbor of Valparaiso, ChOe. 
Mar. 30, General Wilkinson, with a force of troops, attacks a party of British 
fortified in a stone mill at La Colle, Lower Canada, near the north end of 
Lake Champlain, and is repulsed. 
April 14, The Embargo Act repealed. 

Apr. 18, Collection and preservation of flags, standards, and colors captured 
by the United States land and naval forces authorized by act of Congress. 
Apr. 18, Authorization by Congress that British vessels captured on Lake Erie 
be distributed as prize-money among the crews of the captors, with an addi- 
tional $5,000 to be paid to Commodore Oliver H. Perry. The sum amounts to 
approximately $260,000. 

Apr. 23, British blockade extends to the whole coast of the United States. 
Apr. 29, Sloop-of war "Peacock" captures the British brig "Epervier," off 
the coast of Florida, with $118,000 in specie. 

Apr., Second session of the thirteenth United States Congress adjourns. 
May 6, British attack and destroy the forts at Oswego, New York. 
May 29, Action at Big Sandy Creek, New York. 
June 28, Battle of Odell Town. 



1814, June 28 163 Oct 6, 1814 

JanA 28, Sloop-of-war ''Wasp" captures the British sloop "Beindeer" in the 
British channel. 

Jnne^ The Americans under Brown seize Fort Erie, and fight indecisive actions 
with the British at Chippewa and Lundy's Lane. 
Jnne^ Johnson Blakelej, naval officer, lost at sea. 

Jnly 3» Fort Erie, with a small force of British soldiers, surrendered to Ctoneral 
Winfield Scott and General E. W. Bipley. 
July 6, Battle of Chippewa in Upper Canada. 
July 18-19, Battle of Champlain. 

July 25, Battle of Lundy's Lane or Bridgewater, Upper Canada. 
July, Congress appropriates $320,000 for one or more floating batteries, designed 
by Bobert Fulton. Only one is finished. This was the first steam war vessel 
built. 

August 4, Expedition from Detroit against Fort Mackinaw fails. 
British troops land at Pensacola, Florida. 
British troops under Qeneral Drummond invest Fort Erie. 

Aug. 8» John Quincy Adams and Jonathan Bussell, of Massachusetts, Albert 
OaUatin, of Pennsylvania, James A. Bayard, of Delaware, and Henry Clay, of 
Kentucky, American commissioners to negotiate a peace with Great Britain, 
meet the British commissioners. Admiral Lord Gambler, Henry Goulboum and 
William Adams, at Ghent, Belgium. 

Aug. 9, Creek Indian War ended and a great part of the Indians' territory sur- 
rendered to the United States. 

Aug. 9-12, Stonington, Connecticut, bombarded by the British fieet under Com- 
modore Hardy. 

Aug. 13-15, Battle of Fort Erie. 

Aug. 14, British fleet from Wellington's army under Ctoneral Boss appears in 
Chesapeake Bay. 

Aug. 16, Midnight assault by the British on Fort Erie repulsed. 
Aug. 24, Battle of Bladensburg, in which the Capitol at Washington, D. C, is 
burned. 

Aug. 27, Suspension of the banks in the District of Columbia. 
Aug. 31, Nantucket Island stipulates with the British fleet to remain neutral. 
Aug., The British forces under Boss and Cockbum land in Maryland, defeat the 
Americans at Bladensburg, and advance to Washington. Madison and his cabinet 
flee the defenceless city as the enemy enter. 

September 1, Sloop-of-war "Wasp" sinks the British sloop "Avon." 
General Prevost with British forces cross the Canadian border frontier towards 
Plattsburg, New York. 

Sept. 3, Secretary of War, John Armstrong, resigns, having been blamed for the 
capture of Washington, D. C, by the British. 
Sept. 11, Battle of Plattsb^irg. 

The American fleet defeats the British fleet on Lake Champlain. 
Sept. 12, The British approach Baltimore, Maryland, under General Boss, who is 
killed at North Point. 

Sept. 13, The British, finding Baltimore, Maryland, too well fortified to attack, 
retire. 

The British fleet bombard Fort McHenry. It was during this attack that Francis 
Scott Key is said to have written, on board of the British ship "Meriden," the 
"Star-Spangled Banner." 

Sept. 15, British attack Fort Bowyer, Mobile Bay, and are repulsed. 
Sept 16, The "President" defeated in a naval engagement by the "Endymion," 
"Majestic" and two other British ships of war. 
Sept. 17, Garrison at Fort Erie break up the siege by a sortie. 
Sept. 19, Third session of the thirteenth United States Congress convenes. 
Sept. 21, General Drummond raises the siese of Fort Erie. 
The "Wasp" captures the British brig "Atlanta." 

Sept. 26, Gallant fight of the privateer "General Armstrong" with the British 
ship-of-the-line, the " Plantagenet, " in the harbor of Fayal, one of the Azores. 
Sept 27, James Monroe, Secretary of State. 
October 6» Alexander J. Dallas, Secretary of the Treasury. 



1814, Oct 13 164 Dee. 15, 1814 

Oct. 13| General Georg^e Izard, on the Niagara frontier, moves on Chippewa with 
a large force of men. 
Oct. 16, Second battle of Chippewa. 

Oct. 16^ Pirates and smogglers reported at Barataria Bay and broken up without 
serious resistance by Commodore Patterson. 
Oct. 19, Battle of Lyons Creek. 

Oct. 19, General Izard, near Chippewa, has a skirmish with the British. 
Oct. 20, Commodore Thomas Macdonough, Captain Robert Henley and Lieutenant 
Stephen Cassin awarded gold medals by Congress for services at the victory on 
Lake Champlain. 

Oct. 21, Captain Lewis Warrington awarded a gold medal by Congress for the 
capture of the "Epervier." 

Oct. 21, General Izard, after a skirmish with the British, retires to the Niagara 
Biver, opposite Black Bock. 

Oct., The ''Star Spangled Banner'' first sung in Baltimore, Maryland, at the 
HolHday Street Theatre, it is said. 

November 3, Major-General Jacob Brown, Major-General Peter B. Porter, Briga- 
dier-General E. W. Bipley, Brigadier-General James Miller, Major-General Winfield 
Scott, all awarded gold medals by the Congress of the United States for services 
at the victory of Chippewa. 

Nov. 3, Captain Johnson Blakeley awarded a gold medal by Congress for services 
in capturing the "Beindeer." The medal is given to the widow. 
Nov. 3, Major-General Edmund P. Gaines awarded a gold medal by Congress for 
the victory at the battle of Erie. 

KoT. 3, Major-General Alexander Macomb awarded a gold medal for services 
at the victory of Plattsburg. 

Not. 5, Fort Erie abandoned and blown up by the United States troops. 
Nov. 6^ Pensacola, Florida, captured by the American forces under command of 
General Jackson. 

Nov. 23, Fifth Vice-President of the United States, Elbridge Gerry, of Massa- 
chusetts, dies at Washington, D. C, at the age of 70 years. 

December 15, Duty laid by act of Congress on carriages and harnesses except 
those exclusively employed in the husbandry business. 
Dec. 16, General Jackson proclaims martial law in New Orleans, Louisiana. 
Dec. 15, The Hartford Convention meets at Hartford, Connecticut. There were 
twenty-six delegates, namely: 
George Cabot, of Boston, Massachusetts, President. 
Nathan Dane, Massachusetts. 
William Prescott, Massachusetts. 
Harrison Gray Otis, Massachusetts. 
Timothy Bigelow, Massachusetts. 
Joshua Thomas, Massachusetts. 
Joseph Lyman, Massachusetts. 
George Bliss, Massachusetts. 
Daniel Waldo, Massachusetts. 
Samuel S. Wilde, Massachusetts. 
Hodijah Baylies, Massachusetts. 
Stephen Longfellow, Jr., Maine. 
Chauncey Goodrich, Connecticut. 
John Treadwell, Connecticut. 
James Hillhouse, Connecticut. 
Lachaniab Swift, Connecticut. 
Nathaniel Smith, Connecticut. 
Calvin Goddard, Connecticut. 
Boger Minot Sherman, Connecticut. 
Daniel Lyman, Bhode Island. 
Samuel Ward, Bhode Island. 
Benjamin Hazard, Bhode Island. 
Edward Manton, Bhode Island. 
Benjamin West, New Hampshire, 
Milton Olcott, New Hampshire. 
William HalOi Jr., Vermont, 



1814, Dec. 28 165 Dec. 2A, 1814 

Dee. 29^ The Britiali forces approach New Orleans, Louisiana. 
Dec. 23, Addition^ duties imposed by act of Congress upon licenses to retailers of 
winCi etc. 

Dec. 23, Battle of Villeries Plantation, New Orleans. 

Dec 23, General Jackson attacks the command of General Keane on Louisiana 
plantations. 

I>ea 29, General Jackson intrenches in New Orleans, his line extending at right 
angles to the river, reaching to a cypress swamp and prote<;ted by rudely con- 
structed breastwork of cotton bales and earth with a small ditch in front. 
Dec. 24, Treaty of peace signed at Ghent by the commissioners from the United 
States, via.: 

TEBATT WITH GBEAT BRITAIN. 

This treaty brought to a close the "War of 1812" between England and 
America. 

Treaty of Peace and Amity between His Britannic Majesty and the United 
States of America concluded at Ghent. 

Batifiealion advised by the United States Senate, Feb. 16, 1815. 
Batified by the President of the United States, Feb. 17. 

Batifications exchanged at Washington between the countries involved Feb. 17. 
And proclaimed effective Feb. 18 of same year. 

His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America, desirous of terminat- 
ing the war which has unhappily subsisted between the two countries, and of 
restoring, upon principles of perfect reciprocity, peace, friendship, and good 
understanding between them, have, for that purpose, appointed their respective 
plenipotentiaries, that is to say: 

His Britannic Majesty, on his part, has appointed the Bight Honourable James 
Lord Gambler, late Admiral of the White, now Admiral of the Bed Squadron of 
His Majesty's fleet, Henry Goulbum, Esquire, a member of the Imperial Parlia- 
ment and Under Secretary of State, and William Adams, Esquire, Doctor of 
Oivil Laws; and the President of the United States, by and with the advice 
and consent of the Senate thereof, has appointed John Quincy Adams, James A. 
Bayard, Henry Clay, Jonathan Bussell and Albert Gallatin, citizens of the United 
States; 

Who, after a reciprocal communication of their respective full powers, have 
a^eed upon the foUowing articles: 

i^TIGLE I. There shall be a firm and universal peace between His Britannic 
Majesty and the United States, and between their respective countries, terri- 
tories, cities, towns, and people of every degree, without exception of places or 
persons. All hostilities, both by sea and land, snail cease as soon as this treaty 
shall have been ratified by both parties, as hereinafter mentioned. All terri- 
tory, places and possessions whatsoever, taken by either party from the other 
during the war, or which may be taken after the signing of this treaty, ex- 
cepting only the islands hereinafter mentioned^ shall be restored without delay, 
and without causing any destruction or carrying away any of the artillery or 
other public property originally captured in the said forts or places, and which 
shall remain therein upon the exchange of the ratifications of this treaty, or 
any slaves or other private property. And all archives, records, deeds, and 
papers, either of a public nature or belonging to private persons, which, in the 
course of the war, may have fallen into the hands of the officers of either party, 
shall be, as far as may be practicable, forthwith restored and delivered to the 
proper authorities and persons to whom they respectivelv belong, such as the 
islands in the Bay of Passamaquoddy as are claimed by both parties, shall 
remain in the possession of the party in whose occupation they may be at the 
time of the excnange of the ratification of this treaty, until the decision respect- 
ing the title to the said islands shall have been made in conformity with the 
fourth article of this treaty. No disposition made by this treaty as to such 
possession of the islands and territories claimed by both parties shall, in any 
manner whatsoever, be construed to effect the rights of either. 
ABTICLE II. Immediately after the ratifications of this treaty by both parties, 
as hereinafter mentioned, orders shall be sent to the armies, squadrons, officers, 
•ubjecti and citiseAS of the two Powers to cease from all hostilities, and to 



1814, Dec 24 166 Dec. 24, 1814 

prevent all causes of complaint which might arise on account of the prizes 
which may be taken at sea after the said ratifications of this treaty, it is 
reciprocally agreed that all vessels and effects which may be taken after the 
space of twelve days from the said ratifications, upon all parts of the coast 
of North America, from the latitude of twenty-three degrees north to the lati- 
tude of fifty degrees north, and as far eastward in the Atlantic Ocean as the 
thirty-sixth degree of west longitude from the meridian of Qreenwich, shall be 
restored on each side; that the time shall be thirty days in all other parts of 
the Atlantic Ocean north of the equinoctial line or equator, and the same time 
for the British and Irish Channels, for the Gulf of Mexico, and all parts of 
the West Indies; forty days for the North Seas, for the Baltic, and for all parts 
of the Mediterranean; sixty days for the Atlantic Ocean south of the equator, 
as far as the latitude of the Cape of Qood Hope; ninety days for every other 
part of the world south of the equator; and one hundred and twenty days for all 
other parts of the world, without exception. 

ARTICLE m. All prisoners of war taken on either side, as well bv land as by 
sea, shall be restored as soon as practicable after the ratification of this treaty, 
as hereinafter mentioned, on their paying the debts which they may have 
contracted during their captivity. The two contracting parties respectively en- 
gage to discharge, in specie, the advances which may have been made by the 
other for the sustenance and maintenance of such prisoners. 
ABTICLE IV. Whereas it was stipulated by the second article in the treaty 
of peace of one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three, between His Britannic 
Majesty and the United States of America, that the boundary of the United 
States should comprehend all islands within twenty leagues of any part of the 
shores of the United States, and lying between lines to be drawn due east from 
the points where the aforesaid boundaries, between Nova Scotia on the one part, 
and East Florida on the other, shall respectively touch the Bay of Fundy and the 
Atlantic Ocean, excepting such islands as now are, or heretofore have been, within 
the limits of Nova Scotia; and whereas the several islands in the Bay of Passama- 
quoddy, which is part of the Bay of Fundy, and the Island of Grand Menan, 
in the said Bay of Fundy, are claimed by the United States as being compre- 
hended within their aforesaid boundaries, which said islands are claimed as be- 
longing to His Britannic Majestv, as having been, at the time of and previous 
to the aforesaid treaty of one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three, within 
the limits of the Province of Nova Scotia. In order, therefore, finally to decide 
upon these claims, it is agreed that they shall be referred to two Commissioners 
to be appointed in the following manner, viz.: One commissioner shall be ap- 
pointed by His Britannic Majesty, and one by the President of the United States, 
by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof; and the said two 
commissioners so appointed shall be sworn impartially to examine and decide 
upon the said claims according to such evidence as shall be laid before them on 
the part of His Britannic Majesty and of the United States respectively. The 
said Commissioners shall meet at St. Andrews, in the Province of New Bruns- 
wick, and shall have power to adjourn to such other place or places as they shall 
think fit. The said Commissioners shall, by a declaration or report under their 
hands and seals, decide to which of the two contracting parties the several 
islands aforesaid do respectively belong, in conformity with the true intent of 
the said treaty of peace of one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three. And 
if the said Commissioners shall agree in their decision, both parties shall con- 
sider such decision as final and conclusive. It is further agreed that, in the 
event of the two Commissioners differing upon all or any of the matters so re- 
ferred to them, or in the event of both or either of the said Commissioners re- 
fusing, or declining, or wilfully omitting to act as such, they shall make, jointly 
or separately, a report or reports, as well to the Government of His Britannic 
Majesty as to that of the United States, stating in detail the points on which 
they differ, and the grounds upon which their respective opinions have been 
formed, or the grounds upon which they, or either of them, have so refused, 
declined, or omitted to act. And His Britannic Majesty and the Government of 
the United States hereby agree to refer the report or reports of the said Com- 
missioners to some friendly sovereign or State, to be then named for that pur- 
pose, and who shall be requested to decide on the differences which may be 



1814» Dec 84 167 Dec 2i, 1814 



stated in the said report or reports, or upon the report of one Commissioner, 
together with the grounds upon which the other Commissioner shall have re- 
fused, declined, or omitted to act, as the case may be. And if the Commissioner 
so refusing, declining, or omitting to act, shall also wilfully omit to state the 
grounds upon which he has so done, in such manner that the said statement may 
be referred to such friendly sovereign or State, together with the report of 
such other Commissioner, then such sovereign or State shall decide ex parte upon 
the said report alone. And His Britannic Majesty and the government of the 
United States engaee to consider the decision of such friendly sovereign or State 
to be final and conclusive on all the matters so referred. 

ABTICLE v. Whereas neither that point of the highlands lying due north 
from the source of the river St. Croix, and designated in the former treaty of 
peace between the two Powers as the northwest angle of Nova Scotia, nor the 
north westernmost head of the Connecticut Biver, has yet been ascertained; and 
whereas that part of the boundarv line between the dominions of the two Powers 
which extends from the source of the river St. Croix directly north to the above 
mentioned northwest angle of Nova Scotia, thence along the said highlands which 
divide those rivers that empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence from 
those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean to the northwestemmost head of Con- 
necticut Biver, thence down along the middle of that river to the forty-fifth de- 
gree of north latitude; thence by a line due west on said latitude until it strikes 
the river Iroquois or Cataraquy, has not yet been surveyed; it is agreed that 
for these several purposes two Commissioners shall be appointed, sworn, and 
authorized to act exactly in the manner directed with respect to those mentioned 
in the next preceding article, unless otherwise specified in the present article. 
The said Commissioners shall meet at St. Andrews, in the Province of New 
Brunswick, and shall have power to adjourn to such other place or places as they 
shall think fit. The said Commissioners shall have power to ascertain and de- 
termine the points above mentioned, in conformity with the provisions of the 
said treaty of peace of one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three, and shall 
cause the boundary aforesaid, from the source of the river St. Croix to the river 
Iroquois or Cataraquy, to be surveyed and marked according to the said provi- 
sions. The said Commissioners shall make a map of the said boundary, and 
annex to it a declaration under their hands and seals, certifying it to be the 
true map of the said boundary, and particularizing the latitude and longitude of 
the northwest angle of Nova Scotia, of the northwestemmost head of Connecti- 
cut Biver, and of such other points of the said boundary as they may deem 
proper. And both parties agree to consider such map and declaration as finally 
and conclusively fixing the said boundary. And in the event of the said two 
Commissioners differing, or both or either of them refusing, declining, or wil- 
fully omitting to act, such reports, declarations, or statements shall be made by 
them, or either of them, and such reference to a friendly sovereign or State 
shall be made in all respects as in the latter part of the fourth article is con- 
tained, and in as full a manner as if the same was herein repeated. 
ABTICLE VI. Whereas by the former treaty of peace that portion of the 
boundary of the United States from the point where the forty-fifth degree of 
north latitude strikes the river Iroquois or Cataraquy to the Lake Superior, was 
declared to be along the middle of said river into Lake Ontario, through the 
middle of said lake, until it strikes the communication by water between that 
lake and Lake Erie, thence along the middle of said communication into Lake 
Erie, through the middle of said lake until it arrives at the water communica- 
tion into Lake Huron, thence through the middle of said lake to the water com- 
munication between that lake and Lake Superior; and whereas doubts have 
arisen what was the middle of the said river, lakes, and water communications, 
and whether certain islands lying in the same were within the dominions of His 
Britannic Majesty or of the United States. In order, therefore, finally to de- 
cide these doubts, they shall be referred to two Commissioners, to be appointed, 
sworn, and authorized to act exactly in the manner directed with respect to 
those mentioned in the next preceding article, unless otherwise specified in this 
present article. The said Commissioners shall meet in the first instance at Al- 
bany, in the State of New York, and shall have power to adjourn to such other 
place or places as they shall think fit. The said Commissioners shall, by a re- 



1814» Dec. 24 168 Dec. 24, 1814 

port or declaration, under their hands and seals, designate the boundary through 
the said river, liUces, and water communications, and decide to which of the two 
contracting parties the several islands lying within the said rivers, lakes, and 
water communications, do respectively belong, in conformity with the true in- 
tent of the said treaty of one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three. And 
both parties a^ee to consider such designation and decision as final and con- 
clusive. And in the event of the said two Commissioners differing, or both or 
either of them refusing, declining, or wilfullv omitting to act, such reports, 
declarations, or statements shall be made by them, or either of them, and such 
reference to a friendlv soverei|^ or State shall be made in all respects as in 
the latter part of the fourth article is contained and in as full a manner as if the 
same was nerein repeated. 

ABTIGLE VII. It is further agreed that the said two last-mentioned Commis- 
sioners, after they shall have executed the duties assigned to them in the pre- 
ceding article, shall be and they are hereby, authorized upon their oaths impar- 
tially to fix and determine, according to the true intent of the said treaty of 
peace of one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three, that part of the boundary 
between the dominions of the two Powers which extends from the water com- 
munication between Lake Huron and Lake Superior, to the most northwestern 
point of the Lake of the Woods, to decide to which of the two parties the sev- 
eral islands lying in the lakes, water communications, and rivers, forming the 
said boundary, do respectively belong, in conformity with the true intent of the 
said treaty of peace of one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three; and to 
cause such parts of the said boundary as require it to be surveyed and marked. 
The said Commissioners shall, bv a report or declaration under their hands and 
seals, designate the boundary aforesaid, state their decisions on the points thus 
referred to them, and particularize the latitude and longitude of the most north- 
western point of the Lake of the Woods, and of such other parts of said boun- 
dary as diey may deem proper. And both parties agree to consider such designa- 
tion and decision as final and conclusive. And in the event of the said two Com- 
missioners differing, or both or either of them refusing, declining, or wilfully 
omitting to act, such reports, declarations, or statements shall be made by them, 
or either of them, and such reference to a friendly sovereign or State shall be 
made in all respects as in the latter part of the fourth article is contained, and 
in as full a manner as if the same was herein repeated. 

ABTICLE Vni. The several boards of two Commissioners mentioned in the 
four preceding articles shall respectively have power to appoint a secretary, and 
to employ such surveyors or other persons as they shaU judge necessary. Dupli- 
cates of aU their respective reports, declarations, statements and decisions, and 
of their accounts, and of the journal of their proceedings, shall be delivered by 
them to the agents of His Britannic Majesty and to the agents of the United 
States, who may be respectively appointed and authorized to manage the 
business on behalf of their respective Qovemments. The said Commissioners 
shall be respectively paid in such manner as shall be agreed between the two 
contracting parties, such agreement being to be settled at the time of the ex- 
change of the ratification of this treaty. And all other expenses attending the 
said commissioners shall be defrayed equally by the two parties. And in the 
case of death, sickness, resignation, or necessary absence, the place of every such 
Commissioner, respectively, shall be supplied in the same manner as such Commis- 
sioner was first appointed, and the new Commissioner shall take the same oath 
or aifirmation, and do the same duties. It is further agreed between the two 
contracting parties, that in case of any of the islands mentioned in any of the 
preceding articles, which were in the possession of one of the parties prior to 
the commencement of the present war between the two countries, should, by 
the decision of any of the boards of Commissioners aforesaid, or of the sovereign 
or State so referred to, as in the four next preceding articles contained, fall within 
the dominions of the other party, all grants of land made previous to the com- 
mencement of the war, by the party having had such possession, shall be as 
valid as if such island or islands had, by such decision or decisions, been ad- 
judged to be within the dominions of the party having had such possession. 
ABTICLE IX. The United States of America engage to put an end, immediately 
liter the ratification of the present treaty, to hostilities with all the tribes 



1814» Dec. ai 169 Dec 28» 1814 

or nations of Indians with whom they may be at war at the time of such ratifica- 
tion; and forthwith to restore to such tribes or nations, respectively, all the pos- 
sessions, rig^hts and privileges which they may have enjoyed or been entitled to in 
one thousand eight hundred and eleven, previous to such hostilities, provided 
always that such tribes or nations shall agree to desist from all hostilities against 
the United States of America, their citizens and subjects, upon the ratification 
of the present treaty being notified to such tribes or nations, and shall so desist 
accordingly. And His Britannic Majesty engages, on his part, to put an end 
immediately after the ratification of the present treaty, to hostilities with all 
the tribes or nations of Indians with whom he may be at war at the time of 
such ratification, and forthwith to restore to such tribes or nations respectively 
all the possessions, rights, and privileges which they may have enjoyed or been 
entitled to in one thousand eight hundred and eleven, previous to such hostili- 
ties; Provided always that sucn tribes or nations shall agree to desist from all 
hostilities against His Britannic Majesty, and his subjects, upon ratification of 
the present treaty, being notified to such tribes or nations, and shall so desist 
accordingly. 

ABTICLIj X. Whereas the traffic in slaves is irreconcilable with the principles of 
humanity and justice, and whereas both His Majesty and the United States are 
desirous of continuing their efforts to promote its entire abolition, it is hereby 
agreed that both the contracting parties shall use their best endeavours to ac- 
complish so desirable an object. 

ABTIGLE XI. This treaty, when the same shall have been ratified on both 
sides, without alteration by either of the contracting parties, and the ratifications 
mutually exchanged, shall be binding on both parties, and the ratifications shall 
be exchanged at Washington, in the space of four months from this date, or 
sooner if practicable. 

In faith whereof we, the respective Plenipotentiaries, have signed this treaty, 
and have thereunto affixed our seals. 

Done, in triplicate, at Ghent, the twenty-fourth day of December, one thousand 
eight hundred and fourteen. 

Gambler (LB.) 
Henry Goulboum (L.8.) 
William Adams (L.S.} 
John Quincy Adams (L.S.) 
J. A. Bayard (LuS.) 
H. Clay (L.S.) 
Jona. Kussell (L.B.) 
Albert Gallatin (L.8.) 

Dec 28, The British attack Ctoneral Jackson with artillery at New Orleans, 
but are forced to retire. 

Langdon Cheves, of South Carolina, Speaker of the House of Bepresentativee. 

Mobile, AlabamtL established. 

Daniel Bodney, Governor of the state of Delaware. 

Jonathan Boberts, United States Senator from the state of Pennsylvania. 

Wilson C. Nicholas, Governor of the state of Virginia. 

William B. Giles, United States Senator from the state of Virginia. 

William Miller, Governor of the state of North Carolina. 

George Walker, United States Senator from the state of Kentucky. 

Jesse Wharton, United States Senator from the state of Tennessee. 

Othniel Looker, Governor of the state of Ohio. 

Thomas Worthin^on, Governor of the state of Ohio. 

Joseph Kerr, United States Senator from the state of Ohio. 

Lewis Cass, Territorial Governor of Michigan. 

National debt, $81,487,846.24. 

On Christmas day the treaty of peace between England and the United States 

signed at Ghent. 

James H. Beard, portrait painter and politician, bom in New York. 

On Lake Champlain Macdonough captures four vessels of a British squadron 

and pata the rest to flight. 



1814» De& 28 170 May 2» 1815 

General Jackson takes Florida, killing hundreds of Creeks for their massacre 
of the inhabitants of Fort Mimms and finally breaking the power of the Indians 
by his victories. During this time New England held practically aloof from the 
war with the British, giving little assistance to the other states. 

1815 

Jaimaiy 1, Battle of Bodriffuez Canal, New Orleans. 

Jan. 1, The British make their second attempt at New Orleans, but are checked 
by General Jackson. 

JaxL 8, The news of peace not having yet reached the United States, the British 
are defeated at the battle of New Orleans by the Americans under General Jack- 
son, resulting in a loss of over 2000 men to the British and a loss of only 21 
men to the Americans. 
JaiL 9, Battle of Fort St. Philip. 

JaxL 9, District tax of $6,000,000 laid by act of Congress upon the United States 
annually. 

JaxL 13, Battle of Point Peter, Georgia. 

Jan. 15, Frigate "President," with Commodore Decatur commanding, is cap- 
tured by the British frigates **Endymion," "Pomone Tenedor" and ** Mystic." 
Jan. 18» Internal revenue tax by act of Congress imposed on pig-iron, nails, 
candles, paper, hats, umbrellas, playing cards, boots, tobacco, leather, etc., and 
an annual duty on household furniture, also on gold and silver watches. 
Jan. 22; The "Hornet" defeats the "Penguin" in a naval engagement. 
Jan. 26, Jefferson's library consisting of over 7000 volumes purchased for the 
use of Congress by the United States. 

Jan. 30, President Madison vetoes the bill to incorporate the Bank of the United 
States. 

February 11, Treaty of peace between the United States and England reaches 
New York in the British ship of war "Favorite." 
Feb. 12; Fort Boweer invested by the British fleet and surrenders. 
Feb. 15, Madison 's message to Congress on the Treaty of Peace. 
Feb. 17, War with Great Britain formally ended. 

Feb. 17, The Treaty of Peace between the United States and Great Britain rati- 
fied by Congress. 

Feb. 27, Major-General Andrew Jackson awarded a gold medal by Congress for 
services at the victory of New Orleans, Louisiana. 

Feb. 27, Internal revenue tax imposed on gold and silver plated ware, jewelry, 
manufactured within the United States. 

Direct tax of $19,998.40 laid on the District of Columbia annually by act of 
Congress. 

Feb., The frigate "Constitution" captures the British sloops-of-war "Cyane" 
and the "Levant." 

Maxell 3, Third session of the thirteenth United States Congress adjourns. 
Mar. Sv The Non-intercourse and Non-importation Acts repealed by the govern- 
ment. 

Mar. 3, The United States Army reduced to a peace footing of 10,000 men, two 
Major-Generals and four Brigadier-Generals. 
Jacob Brown and Andrew Jackson, Major-Generals. 

Winfield Scott, Edmund Gaines, Alexander Macomb and E. W. Bipley, Brigadier- 
Generals. 

Mar. 3, War declared by the United States against Alters. 
Mar. 23, Sloop-of-war ' ' Hornet, ' ' with Captain James Biddle in command, cap- 
tures the British brig-of-war "Penguin" off the Cape of Good Hope. 
Mar. 31, General Jackson fined $1000 for contempt of court at New Orleans, 
Louisiana. 

ApcU 3, The Dixie Highway officially advocated by the government at a con- 
ference of the states interested at Chattanooga, Tenhessee. 

Apr. 6, British guards at Dartmoor, England, fire upon American prisoners, 
mortally wounding two, killing five and wounding about a score of others more 
or less seriously. 
May 2| Philip Kearney, American major-general| bom. 



1815, May 10 171 Dec. ^ 1816 

May 10, Commodore Decatur sails with the frigate ''Gnerridre/' ''Macedonia" 

and "Constellation" from New York for Algiers. 

May, Algerine naval warfare commences. 

June 17, An American frigate captures an Algerian frigate off Gibraltar. 

June 28, Algerian naval warfare ended. 

June 30, The Algerian Dej renounces in a treaty of peace with the United States 

all claims to tribute or to hold prisoners of war as slaves. 

July 3, Convention regulating commerce between the United States and Great 

Britain concluded at London, JBngland. 

July 6, Treaty of Peace and Amity with Algiers concluded at Algiers. 

August 1, Bichard Henry Dana, lawyer and author, bom. 

Aug. 24, Stephen Badlam, military officer who served in the Bevolutionary war, 

dies. 

September 1, A treaty is concluded by the United States at a grand Indian 

council at Detroit, Michigan, with eight of the principal tribes east of the 

Mississippi Biver. 

Seipt 30, Estimated cost of the war with England, $85,500,000 and the total 

debt of the United States reaches $119,600,000. 

Nov. 30, Isaac N. Arnold, lawyer and politician, bom. 

December 4, First session of the fourteenth United States Congress convenes at 

the Capitol, Washington, D. C. 

Henry Clay, of Kentucky, Speaker of the House of Bepresentatives. 
Howell Cobb, politician, bom. 
David Davis, jurist, bom. 

The publication of the North American Beview, edited by William Tudor, starts 
in Boston, Massachusetts. 

Madison's famous letter on British Aggressions. 

John M. Bingham, politician, bom in Fennsylvania. As a lawyer he managed 
the impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson. 
Henry B. Anthony, legislator, bom. 
Financial depression throughout the United States. 
Bobert Fulton, inventor of the steamboat, dies. 
Work on the Erie canal begun. 

United States being victorious in the war with Algiers, has good moral effect 
upon the world. 

Philadelphia begins construction of waterworks system. 
At Mobile, the Americans capture the British forces. 

Commodore Decatur, off New York, forced to surrender with his ship, the "Presi- 
dent," to the British blockading squadron. 
Madison re-elected President of the United States. 
Allan Campbell, engineer, born in New York. 

Thomas ,W* Thompson, United States Senator from the state of New Hampshire. 
Jonas Galusha, Governor of the state of Vermont. 
Isaac Tichenor, United States Senator from the state of Vermont. 
Nathan Sanford, United States Senator from the state of New York. 
Mahlon Dickerson, Governor of the state of New Jersey. 
James J. Wilson, United States Senator from the state of New Jersey. 
Charles Bidgley, Governor of the state of Maryland. 
James Barbour, United States Senator from the state of Virginia. 
Nathaniel Macon, United States Senator from the state of South Carolina. 
David B. Mitchell, Governor of the state of Georgia. 
William T. Barry, United States Senator from the state of Kentucky. 
Isham Talbot, United States Senator from the state of Kentucky. 
Joseph McMinn, Governor of the state of Tennessee. 

John Williams and George W. Campbell, United States Senators from the state 
of Tennessee. 

Benjamin Buggies, United States Senator from the state of Ohio. 
National debt, $99,833,660.15. 
First steam vessel on the Thames. 



1816, Feb. 22 172 Dec 11, 1816 

1816 

Febroary 22, Acts of Jan. 18 and Feb. 27, 1815, repealed. Internal Bevenue tax 

on miscellaneouB articles named therein. 

Feb. 22, Captain Charles Stewart awarded a gold medal by Congress for dis- 
tinguished services for the capture of the ''Cyane" and the ''Levant.'' 

Feb. 22; Captain James Biddle awarded a gold medal by Congress for serviees in 

capturing the "Penguin." 

Feb. 6, By act of Congress, war duties to continue until June 30, 1816, and 

thereafter an additional duty of 42% until a new tariff shall be enacted. 

Feb. 13, Secretary of the Treasury reports to Congress on the subject of increased 

tariff duties. 

Marcb 5, Acts of Jan. 9 and Feb. 27, 1815, repealed, a direct tax of $3,000,000 

laid on the states and a direct tax of $9,999.20 on the District of Columbia. 

Mar. 12; Bill reported in Congress by Lownder of South Carolina from the ways 

and means committee to regulate duties on imports and tonnage. 

April 9, Act of Jan. 18, 1815, taxing household furniture, watches, etc., repealed 

by Congress. 

Apr. 10, United States Bank chartered by Congress for twenty years, with 

a capital of $35,000,000. 

Apr. 19, Congress authorizes the Territory of Indiana to form a constitution and 

have state government. 

Apr. 2A, Congress passes an act for the relief of the crew believed to have been 

lost with the sloop of war "Wasp." 

Apr. 27, Duties on imports regulated by acts passed by Congress. 

Apr. 29, $1,000,000 a year for eight years appropriated by Congress to increase 

the efficiency of the navy. 

Apr. 30, First session of the fourteenth United States Congress adjourns at 

Washington. 

June iC L* F* Blackburn, physician, surgeon in the Civil War and a cholera and 

yellow-fever expert, born in Kentucky. 

September SS^ A commission on a standard i^ork day for railroad employees 

created by act of Congress and approved. 

Sept. A, Treaty of Friendship and Commerce concluded between the United 

States and Sweden at Stockholm. 

October 13, Benjamin H. Brewster, lawyer and Attorney-General in President 

Arthur's Cabinet, bom in New York. 

Oct. 22; William H. Crawford, Secretary of the Treasury. 

November 12; Election for President and Vice-President held by the states of the 

Union. 

The electoral vote for President: 

Votes 

James Monroe, of Virginia, Republican 183 

Bufus King, of New York, Federalist 34 

Total vote cast 217 

For Vice-President: 

Votes 

Daniel D. Thompkins, of New York, Bepubliean 183 

John E. Howard, of Maryland, Federalist 22 

James Boss, of Pennsylvania, Federalist 5 

John Marshall, of Virginia, Federalist 4 

Robert G. Harper, of Maryland, Federalist 3 

Total electoral votes cast for Vice-President 217 

Vacancies 4. 

Monroe chosen President and Thompkins, Vice-President. 

December 2, Second session of the fourteenth United States Congress convenes at 

Washington, D. C. 

Dec l£ The nineteenth state, Indiana, formed from territory ceded to the 

United States by the state of Virginia, admitted into the Union. 



181^ De& ai 173 F»lK 12» 1817 

De& 24, Treaty of Peace and Amity with Algiers at Algiers agreed to. 
Dea» Formation in Washington, D. C, of the American Colonization Society. 

William Plumer, Governor of the state of New Hampshire. 

John Brooks, Qovernor of the state of Massachusetts. 

Eli P. Aflhmun, United States Senator from the state of Massachusetts. 

Bobert G. Harper, United States Senator from the state of Maryland. 

James P. Preston, Governor of the state of Virginia. 

A. T. Mason, United States Senator from the state of Virginia. 

Montfort Stokes, United States Senator from the state of North Carolina. 

Andrew J. Pickens, Governor of the state of South Carolina. 

George M. Troup, United States Senator from the state of Georgia. 

George Madison, Governor of the state of Kentucky. 

Gabriel Slaughter, Governor of the state of Kentucky. 

Martin D. Hardin, United States Senator from the state of Kentucky. 

James Villere, Governor of the state of Louisiana. 

Jonathan Jennings, Governor of the state of Indiana (elected to Congress). 

James Noble and Waller Taylor, United States Senators from the state of 

Indiana. 

National debt, $127,334,933.74. 

First high protective tarifP passed. 

Second United States Bank chartered for twenty years. Capital $35,000,000. 

"Bucktails^' — Democrats, followers of Madison for the Presidency. 

Stephen J. Field, jurist and associate justice of the United States Supreme 

Court, bom. 

Samuel F. Miller bom. 

Morrison B. Waite. chief justice of the United States Supreme Court, bom. 

The ''Ontario," nrst steamboat on the great lakes, built at Sacketts Harbor, 

New York. 

Martin Van Buren re-elected to the New York State Senate. 

William H. Harrison, a member of Congress. 

John Tyler, a member of Congress. 

Abraham Lincoln removes from Kentucky to Indiana. 

John Adams chosen to head the list of presidential electors from Massachusetts, 

which voted for Monroe for President. This administration is known as the 

**Era of Good Feeling." 

Henry W. Benham, xmlitary engineer and recognized expert in construction of 

pontoon bridges, bom in Connecticut. 

Gouvemeur Morris, statesman, dies. 

Anti-masonry advocates are strong in some sections of the country. 

First savings bank in the country opened in Philadelphia. 

Seminole Indian uprising in Florida auelled. 

New England shipping trade practicallv suspended as a result of the new tariff. 

The South, under the leadership of Calhoun, advocate of protective principles. 

New England inspired with Daniel Webster as its leading orator for free trade at 

this time. 

The United States continues to suffer from a general commercial and industrial 

depression. 

Nathaniel P. Banks, legislator and soldier who served with distinction during 

the Civil War, bom in Massachusetts. 

1817 

Jaanary, The United States Bank, recently chartered by Congress, begins opera- 
tion. 

Febroaxy 6, The President authorized by Congress to employ John Trambull of 
Connecticut to paint a number of scenes of the American Bevolution for the 
Capitol at Washington. The subjects finally selected are The Declaration of In- 
dependence, The Surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga, The Surrender of Com- 
Wfdlis at Yorktown, Virginia, and the Besignation of General Washington at 
Annapolis, Maryland. 

Feb. 12, The electoral vote of the United States for President and Vice-President 
counted at Washington. 



1817, Mar. 1 174 Apr., 1817 

Maxell 1, The Mississippi Territory divided by act of Congress. 

Mar. 3y The last session of the fourteenth United States Congress adjourns. 

Mar. 3, Madison vetoes the Internal Improvement Bill. 

Mar. 4 (to Mar. 3, 1821), Eighth Federal Administration began at Washington, 

Democratic-Republican. 

James Monroe, of Virginia, President. 

Daniel D. Thompkins, of New York, Vice-President. 

Richard Rush, Attomev-General of the United States. 

B. W. Crowninshield, Secretary of the Navy. 

Return J. Meigs, Jr., Postmaster-General of the United States. 

Gideon Granger, Postmaster-GeneraL 

Mar. 6, John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State for the United States. 

William H. Crawford, Secretary of the Treasury. 

Mar. 22, Braxton Bragg, military officer who served in the Mexican War and 

who joined the Confederate army at the outbreak of the Civil War as mUitary 

adviser to Jefferson Davis, bom in North Carolina. 

April, Convention relative to regulating the naval force of the the Great Lakes 

between the United States and Great Britain concluded at Washington, D. C, 

viz.: 

ARRANGEMENT RELATIVE TO THE NAVAL FORCE TO BE MAINTAINED 
ON THE AMERICAN LAKES. 

Standing agreement as per letters passed between the Representatives of thd 
American and English governments relative to the maintenance of naval forces 
on the Great Lakes. 

Mr. Bagot to Mr. Rush, 
Washington, April 28, 1817. 

The undersigned. His Britannic Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary, has the honor to acquaint Mr. Rush, that having laid before 
His Majesty 's Government the correspondence which j^assed last year between the 
Secretary of the Department of State and the undersigned upon the subject of a 
proposal to reduce the naval force of the respective countries upon the American 
Lakes, he has received commands of his Royal Highness, the Prince Regent, to ac- 
quaint the Government of the United States, that His Royal Highness is willing 
to accede to the proposition made to the undersigned by the Secretary of the 
Department of State in his note of the 2nd of August last. 
His Royal Highness, acting in the name and on Uie behalf of His Majesty, 
agrees, that the Naval force to be maintained upon the American Lakes by His 
Majesty and the Government of the United States shall henceforth be confined 
to the following vessels on each side. That is: — 

On Lake Ontario, to one vessel not exceeding one hundred tons burden and 
armed with one eighteen-pound cannon. 

On the Upper Lakes, to two vessels not exceeding like burden each and armed 
with like force. 

On the waters of Lake Champlain, to one vessel not exceeding like burden and 
armed with like force. 

And His Royal Highness agrees that all other armed vessels on these Lakes shall 
be forthwith dismantled, and that no other vessels of war shall be there built 
or armed. 

His Royal Highness further agrees that if either party should hereafter be 
desirous of annulling this stipulation and should give notice to that effect to 
the other Party, it shall cease to be binding after the expiration of six months 
from the date of such notice. 

The undersigned has it in command from His Royal Highness the Prince Regent 
to acquaint the American Government, that His Royal ffighness has issued orders 
to His Majesty's officers on the lakes directing that the naval force so to be 
limited shadl be restricted to such services as will in no respect interfere with 
the proper duties of the armed vessels of the other Party. 
The undersigned has the honor to renew to Mr. Rush the assurance of his highest 
consideration. 

Charles Bagot. 



1817, Apr. 175 Dec. 23, 1817 

Mr. Bnsb to Mr. Bagot. 

Department of State, April 29, 1817. 
The undersigned acting Secretary of £ftate has the honor to acknowledge the 
receipt of Mr. Bagot *8 note of the 28th of this month informing him that, having 
laid before the Qovemment of His Britannic Majesty, the correspondence which 
passed last year between the Secretary of State and himself upon the subject 
of a proposal to reduce the naval force of the two countries upon the American 
Lakes, he had received the commands of His Boyal Highness, the Prince Begent, 
to inform this Qovemment that His Boyal Highness was wilUng to accede to the 
proposition made by the Secretary of State in his note of the second of August 
last. 

The undersigned has the honor to express to Mr. Bagot the satisfaction which 
the President feels at His Boyal Highness, the Prince Begent, having acceded 
to the proposition of this Government as contained in the note alluded to. And 
in further answer to Mr. Bagot 's note, the undersigned by direction of the 
President, has the honor to state, that this Government, cherishing the same 
sentiments expressed in the note of the second of August, agrees, that the naval 
force to be maintained upon the Lakes of the United States and Great Britain 
shall henceforth be confined to the following vessels on each side; that is: 
On Lake Ontario to one vessel not exceeding one hundred tons burden and 
armed with an eighteen-pound cannon. On the Upper Lakes to two vessels not 
exceeding the like burden each, and armed with like force, and on the waters 
of Lake Champlain to one vessel not exceeding like burden and armed with like 
force. 

And it agrees that all other armed vessels on these Lakes shall be forthwith dis- 
mantled, and that no other vessels of war shall be there built or armed. And it 
further agrees, that if either party should hereafter be desirous of annulling this 
stipulation and should give notice to that effect to the other party, it shall 
cease to be binding after the expiration of six months from the date of such 
notice. 

The undersigned is also directed by the President to state that proper orders 
will be forthwith issued by this Government to restrict the naval force thus 
limited to such services as will in no respect interfere with the proper duties 
of the armed vessels of the other party. 

The undersigned eagerly avails himself of this opportunity to tender to Mr. 
Bagot the assurance of his distinguished consideration and respect. 

Bichard Bush. 

June 21, Joseph K. Barnes, medical officer in the Mexican war, bom in Pennsyl- 
vania. 

July 4, Ground broken for the Erie Canal. 

Octobw 8, John C. Calhoun, Secretary of War, succeeding George Graham. 
November 13, William West, Attorney-General of the United States. 
Not. 20,-— Seminole Indian War commences. 

Not. 25, John Bigelow, editor of the New York Evening Poet, biographer of 
Samuel J. Tilden, and trustee of the bulk of his estate, bom in New York. 
Nov. SO, A boat on the Apalachicola Biver, Florida, attacked by the Lidians. 
Many of the party killed. 

December 10, Mississippi admitted to the Union as a State. Formed from the 
territory ceded to the United States by the state of Ctoorgia and South Carolina. 
Dec 28, Acts of July 24, 1813, and Aug. 2, Dec. 16 and 23, 1814, repealed by 
Congress. 

Henry Clay, of Kentucky, Speaker of the National House of Bepresentatives. 

David L. Morrill and Clement Storer, United States Senators from the state 

of New Hampshire. 

James Fisk, United States Senator from the state of Vermont. 

Harrison Gray Otis, United States Senator from the state of Massachusetts. 

N. B. Knight, charter Govemor of the state of Bhode Island. 

James Burrell, Jr., United States Senator from the state of Bhode Island. 

Oliver Wolcott, Govemor of the state of Connecticut. 

De Witt Clinton, Governor of the state of New York. 



1817, Dec. 23 176 May 28^ 1818 

— ■ — ' ■ 

John Taylor, Qoyernor of the state of New York. 
I. H. Williamson, Governor of the state of New Jersey. 
Mahlon Dickerson, United States Senator from the state of New Jersey. 
William Findley, Qovernor of the state of Pennsylvania. 
John Clark, Governor of the state of Delaware. 

Nicholas Van Dyke, United States Senator from the state of Delaware. 
Alexander C. Hanson, United States Senator from the state of Maryland. 
John W. Eppes, United States Senator from the state of Virginia. 
John Branch, Governor of the state of North Carolina. 
WiUiam Smith, United States Senator from the state of South Carolina. 
William Babon, Governor of the state of Georgia. 
John C. Crittenden, United States Senator from the state of Kentucky. 
William Wyatt Bibb, Governor of the territory of Alabama. 
David Holmes, Governor of the state of Mississippi. 

Walter Leake and Thomas H. Williams, United States Senators from the state 
of Mississippi. 
Zoarites settle in Ohio. 

First session of the fifteenth United States Congress convenes at Washington, 
D. C. 

National debt, $123,491,965.16. 

Edward B. S. Cauley, army officer, bom in Kentucky. 
Internid taxes abolished by the government. 
Martin Van Buren supports Clinton for Governor of New York. 
Andrew Jackson conducts campaign against the Seminole Indians. 
James Madison retires from public life to Montpelier, Orange County, Virginia. 
Thaddeus Kosciusko, Polish patriot and soldier in the American Bevolution, dies. 
Cholera epidemic spreads across the Atlantic and causes over a million deaths 
before it is checked some years later. 

First line of steamships between New York and Liverpool, England, opened. 
Government land rapidly taken up by settlers and people begin to push west- 
ward. 

The United States enters upon the prosperous period known in history as the 
''Era of good feeling." 

1818 

February 8^ Austin Blair, lawyer and Governor of Michigan in 1860, bom in 

New York. He was one of the "war governors" and served in Congress. 

Feb. 19, General Jackson ordered to take the field against the Indians terrorizing 

Florida. 

Idardi 18, Needy officers, who had served nine months or more in the Continental 

army or navy, granted a pension. Privates also awarded a small pension. 

April 4, The United States flag established by act of Congress, the design 

adopted being thirteen horizontal stripes representing the original thirteen states 

of the Union, alternately red and white with a white star in a blue field for 

each state. 

Apr. 4, Major-€teneral William H. Harrison and Governor Isaac Shelby, awarded 

gold medals for distinguished service at the victory of the Thames. 

Apr. 7, The Spanish garrison at fort of St. Marks, Florida, captured by General 

Jackson. 

Apr. 12^ Seventeenth anniversary of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company. 

Apr. 18, By act of Congress, the people of Illinois are enabled to form a state 

government, preparatory for admission as a state of the Union. 

Apr. 20, First session of the fifteenth United States Congress adjourns. 

Apr. 20, Act passed by Congress deferring the time of reduction of tariff on 

woolens and cottons until 1826 and raising the duty on bar iron $3 per ton. 

Apr. 30, Bobert C. Ambrister and Alexander Arbuthnot, captured by (General 

Jackson at the Spanish fort of St. Marks, Florida, and hanged under orders 

of a military court. 

May 24, Pensacola, Florida, taken possession of by General Jackson. 

May 27, Fortress at Barrancas captured by the Americans. 

May 28, A steamboat, the " Walk-in-the- Water, " for Lake Erie, launched at 

Black Bock (now part of Buffalo), New York. 



1818, May 28 177 Dec 18^ 1818 

May 28, P. O. Beauregard, military officer, bom in Louisiana. He distinpfuished 
himself in the Mexican War, joined the Confederacy, and opened hostilities of 
the Civil War by bombarding Fort Sumter at Charleston, South Carolina, April 
11, 1861. 

Angnst 18, William F. Barry, military officer who served in the Florida, Mexican 
and Civil Wars, born in New York. 

Aug. 24, Center foundation of the Capitol building at Washington, D. C, laid. 
Aug. 26, State motto <5f Illinois adopted, ' ' State Sovereignty — National Union. ' ' 
September 17, William H. Barnum, statesman, bom in New York. 
Sept, 27, Bemaining Indian lands in the Maumee Valley, in Ohio, consisting of 
about 4,000,000 acres, ceded to the United States Government. 
October 15, Irvin McDowell, military officer, bom in Franklin County, Ohio. 
Oct. 20, Convention relative to fisheries, northern boundary, etc., between the 
United States and Great Britain concluded at London. 
Oct. 21, Seminole Indian War ended. 

Oct. 28^ Abigail Adams, wife of John Adams, second President of the United 
States, dies. 

November 6, Benjamin F. Butler, lawyer and soldier, bom in New Hampshire. 
He served in the Civil War, was a member of Congress, Oovemor of Massachu- 
setts, and the candidate of the Greenback and Anti-Monopolist parties for the 
presidency in 1884. 

Nov. 8, David H. Agnew, surgeon, bom. 
Nov. 9, Smith Thompson, Secretary of the Navy. 

Nov. 16v Second session of the fifteenth United States Congress convenes. 
December 3, Illinois, formed from territory ceded to the United States by the 
state of Virginia, admitted to statehood in the Union. 
Pension Act passed by Congress. 

Dea 18^ Memorial asking permission to frame a state government from the 
territory of Missouri from Congress and for admission as a state of the 
Union. 

Dec. 18, Committee appointed by the Senate to investigate the taking posses- 
sion of Fort St. Marks and Pensacola, Florida, by General Jackson, and the 
executing of Arbuthnot and Ambrister. 

William A. Palmer, United States Senator from the state of Vermont. 
Prentiss Mellen, United States Senator from the state of Massachusetts. 
Charles W. Goldsborough, Governor of the state of Maryland. 
John Gidder, Governor of the state of South Carolina. 
John Henry Eaton, United States Senator from the state of Tennessee. 
Henry Johnson, United States Senator from the state of Louisiana. 
Ethan Allen Brown, Governor of the state of Ohio. 
Shadrach Bond, Governor of the state of Illinois. 
National debt, $103,466,633.83. 

Ninian Edwards and Jesse B. Thomas, United States Senators from the state 
of Illinois. 

William Maxwell Everts, lawyer and statesman, born in Boston, Massachu- 
setts. 

All lands of the Chickasaw Indians between the Mississippi and the northern 
course of the Tennessee Biver ceded to the United States Government. 
Congress refuses upon petition to rebuke General Andrew Jackson for the invasion 
of Florida. 

Negotiations with Spain for the purchase of Florida demanded by payment of 
$5,000,000. 

Contest over the admission of Missouri commenced in Congress. 
Pensions granted to needy Bevolutionary soldiers and to their widows and 
children. This is the beginning of the pension system. 
American polar expedition sent out. 
Steam first used for heating purposes. 

John A. Andrew, statesman and Civil War Governor of the State of Massa- 
chusetts, bom. 
N. S. Beane, inventor who built the steam fire engine, born in New Hampshire. 



1818^ Dec 18 178 Feb. 22, 1819 

James Monroe signs the treaty with the government of Sweden which was signed 

at Stockholm by Mr. Bussell. 

William H. Harrison voted a gold medal by Congress for his victory on the 

Thames. 

James K. Polk graduates from the Universitv of North Carolina. 

Treaty of Commerce and Boundary with England. 

1819 

Januaiy 19, The United States and Oreat Britain sign a joint agreement for 

the occupation of the Territory of Oregon. 

February 13, Introduction of a bill for the admission of Missouri as a State 

of the Union. 

Feb. 16^ Introduction of a bill in Confess to organize the Territory of Arkansas. 

Feb. 16^ The House of Bepresentatives takes up the bill for the admission 

of Missouri to statehood. 

Feb. 17, James Tallmage, Jr., of New York, moves an amendment to the Missouri 

bill in the House of Bepresentatives for the gradual emancipation of the slavea 

in that territory, which was amended and modified to declare all slave children 

born in the State after its admission, becoming free at the age of twenty-five 

years and was passed by the House by a vote of 87 to 76 as amended. 

Feb. 22, James Bussell Lowell, poet and diplomat, bom on Elmwood Ave., 

Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Feb. 22, Cession of Florida, consisting of 70,107 square miles for $5,499,768, to 

the United States by Spain concluded at Washington. The Sabine Biver is agreed 

upon by the high contracting powers as the boundary Une between the two 

countries. 

TBEATY WITH SPAIN. 

Concluded at Washington, D. C, February 22, 1819. 
Batification advised by the United States Senate Feb. 24. 
Batified by the President of the United States; also ratified by the King of 
Spain Oct. 24, of the following year. Batification again advised by the United 
States Senate Feb. 19, 1821, and by the President on Feb. 22, 1821. And 
Batifications Exchanged at Washington, D. C, Feb. 22, and Proclaimed Feb. 
22, 1821. 

The United States of America and his Catholic Majesty desiring to consolidate 
on a permanent basis, the friendship and good correspondence which happily 
prevails between the two parties have determined to settle and terminate aU 
their differences and pretensions, by a treaty, which shall designate with pre- 
cision, the limits of their respective bordering territories in North America. 
With this intention, the President of the United States has furnished with 
their full powers John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State of the said United 
States; and His Catholic Majesty has appointed the Most Excellent Lord Don 
Luis De Onis, Gonzales, Lopez y Vera, Lord of the town of Bayaces, Perpetual 
Begidor of the Corporation of the city of Salamanca, Knight Orand Cross of 
the Boyal American Order of Isabella the Catholic^ decorated with the I^s of La 
Vendee, Knight Pensioner of the Boyal and Distinguished Spanish Order of 
Charles the third, Member of the Supreme Assembly of the said Boyal Order; 
of the Council of His Majesty; His Secretary, with Exercise of Decrees, and 
His Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary near the United States 
of America. 

And the said Plenipotentiaries, after having exchanged powers, have agreed upon 
and concluded the foUowine articles: 

ABTICLE I. There shall be a firm and inviolable peace and sincere friendship 
between the United States and their citizens and His Catholic Majesty, his 
successors and subjects, without exception of persons or places. 
ABTICLE n. His Catholic Majesty cedes to the United States, in full property 
and sovereignty, all the territories which belong to him, situated on tne east- 
ward of the Mississippi, known by the name or East and West Florida. The 
adjacent islands dependent on said provinces, all public lots and squares, vacant 
lands, public edifices, fortifications, barracks, and other buildings, which are 



1819, Fob. 22 179 Feb. 22^ 1819 

not private property, archives, and docameiite, which relate directly to the 
property and sovereignty of said provinces, are included in this article. The 
said archives and documents shall oe left in possession of the commissaries or 
officers of the United States, duljr authorized to receive them. 
ABTICLE m. The boundary line between the two countries, west of the 
Mississippi, shall begin on the Gulf of Mexico, at the mouth of the Biver Sabine, 
in the sea, continuing north, along the western bank of that river, to the 
d2nd degree of latitude; thence, by a line due north, to the degree of latitude 
where it strikes the Bio Boxo westward, to the degree of longitude 100 west 
from London and 23 from Washington; then, crossing the said Bed Biver, and 
running thence by a line due north, to the Biver Arkansas; thence, following 
the course of the southern bank of the Arkansas, to its source, in latitude 
42 north; and thence, by that parallel of lat to the South Sea. The whole 
being as laid down in Melish's map of the United States, published at Phila- 
delphia, improved to the first of January, 1818. But if the source of the 
Arkansas Biver shall be found to faU north or south of latitude 42, then the 
line shall run from the said source due south or north, as the case may be, 
till it meets the said parallel of latitude 42, and thence, along the said parallel 
to the South Sea. All the islands in the Sabine, and the said Bed and Arkansas 
rivers, through the course thus described, to belong to the United States, but the 
use of the waters, and the navigation of the Sabine, to the sea, and of the 
said rivers Boxo and Arkansas, throughout the extent of the said boundary, on 
their respective banks, shall be common to the respective inhabitants of both 
nations. 

The two high contracting parties a^ee to cede and renounce all their rights, 
claims, and pretensions, to the territories described by the said line, that is to say; 
The United States hereby to His Catholic Majesty, and renounce forever, all 
their rights, claims, and pretensions, to the territories lying west and south 
of the above-described line; and, in like manner. His Catholic Majesty cedes 
to the said United States all his rights, claims, and pretentions to any 
territories east and north of the said line, and for himself, his heirs, and 
successors, renounces all claim to the said territories forever. 
ABTICLE TV. To fix this line with more jprecision, and to place the land- 
marks which shall designate exactly the limits of both nations, each of the 
contracting parties shall appoint a Commission and a surveyor, who shall 
meet before the termination of one year from the date of the ratification of this 
treaty at Nachitoches, on the Bed Biver, and proceed to run and mark the 
said lines, from the mouth of the Sabine to the Bed Biver, and from the 
Bed Biver to the Biver Arkansas, and to ascertain the latitude of the source 
of the said Biver Arkansas, in conformity to what is above agreed upon and 
stipulated, and the line of latitude 42, to the South Sea; they shall make out 
pliws, and keep journals of their proceeding's, and the result agreed upon by 
them shall be considered as part of this treaty, and shall have the same 
force as if it were inserted therein. The two Governments will amicably 
agree respecting the necessary articles to be furnished to those persons and 
also as to their respective escorts, should such be deemed necessary. 
ABTICLE v. The inhabitants of the ceded territories shall be secured in 
the free exercise of their religion, without any restriction; and all those 
who may desire to remove to the Spanish dominions shall be permitted to sell or 
export their effects, at any time whatever, without being subject, in either 
case, to duties. 

ABTICLE VI. The inhabitants of the territories which His Catholic Majesty 
cedes to the United States, by this treaty, shall be incorporated in the Union 
of the United States, as soon as may be consistent with the principles of the 
Federal Constitution, and admitted to the enjoyment of all the privileges, rights, 
and immunities of the citizens of the United States. 

ABTICLE yn. The officers and troops of his Catholic Majesty, in the 
territory hereby ceded by him to the United States, shall be withdrawn, and 
possession of the places occupied by them shall be given within six months after 
the exchange of the ratifications of this treaty, or sooner if possible, by the 
officers of His Catholic Majesty to the commissioners or officers of the United 
States duly appointed to receive them; and the United States shall furnish 



1819, Feb. 22 180 Feb. 22, 1819 

the transports and escorts necessary to convey the Spanish officers and troops 
and their baggage to the Havana. 

ABTIOLE VUI. All the grants of land made before the 24th of January, 1818, 
by His Catholic Majesty, or by his lawful authorities, in the said territories 
ceded by his Majesty to the United States, shall be ratified and confirmed 
to the persons in possession of the lands, to the same extent that the same 

gants would be valid if the territories had remained under the dominion of 
is Catholic Majesty. But the owners in possession of such lands, who, by rea- 
son of the recent circumstances of the Spanish nation, and the revolutions in 
Europe, have been prevented from fulfilling all the conditions of their grants, 
shall complete them within the terms limited in the same, respectively, from 
the date of this treaty, in default of which the said grants shall be null and 
void. All grants made since the said 24th of January, 1818, when the first 
proposal, on the part of His Catholic Majesty, for the cession of the Floridas 
was made, are hereby declared and agreed to be null and void. 
ABTICLE IX. The two high contracting parties, animated with the most earnest 
desire of conciliation, and with the object of putting an end to all the 
differences which have existed between them, and of confirming the good under- 
standing which they wish to be forever maintained between them, reciprocally 
renounce all claims for damages or injuries which they, themselves, as well as their 
respective citizens and subjects, may have suffered until the time of signing this 
treaty. 
The renunciation of the United States will extend: 

(1) To aU the injuries mentioned in the convention of the 11th of August, 1802. 

(2) To all claims on account of prizes made by French privateers, and con- 
demned by French Consuls, within the territory and jurisdiction of Spain. 

(3) To all claims of indemnities on account of the suspension of the right of 
deposit at New Orleans in 1802. 

(4) To all claims of citizens of the United States upon the Government of Spain, 
arising from the unlawful seizures at sea, and in the ports and territories of 
Spain, or the Spanish colonies. 

(5) To aU claims of citizens of the United States upon the Spanish Government, 
statements of which, soliciting the interposition of the Government of the 
United States, have been presented to the Department of State, or to the 
Minister of the United States in Spain, since the date of the convention of 1802, 
and under the signature of this treaty. 

The renunciation of His Catholic Majesty extends: 

(1) To all the injuries mentioned in the convention of the 11th of August, 1802. 

(2) To the sums which His Catholic Majesty advanced for the return of 
Captain Pike from the Provincias Internas. 

(3) To all injuries caused by the expedition of ''Miranda," that was fitted 
out and equipped at New York. 

(4) To all claims of Spanish subjects upon the Government of the United 
States arising from unlawful seizures at sea, or within the ports and territorial 
jurisdiction of the United States. 

Finally to all the claims of subjects of His Catholic Majesty upon the Govern- 
ment of the United States in which the interposition of His Catholic Majesty's 
Government has been solicited, before the date of this treaty, and since the 
date of the convention of 1802, or which may have been made to the de- 
partment of foreign affairs of His Majesty, or to his Minister in the United States. 
And the high contracting parties, respectively, renounce all claim to indemnities 
for any of the recent events or transactions of their respective commanders and 
officers in the Floridas. 

The United States will cause satisfaction to be made for the injuries, if any, 
which, by process of law, shall be established to have been suffered by the 
Spanish officers, and individual Spanish inhabitants, by the late operations of the 
American Army in Florida. 

ABTICLE X. The convention entered into between the two Governments, on 
the 11th of August, 1802, the ratifications of which -were exchanged the 2l8t 
December, 1818, is annulled. 

ABTICLE XI. The United States, exonerating Spain from all demands in 
future, on account of the claims of their citizens to which the renunciations 



1819, Fell. 22 181 Feb. 22, 1819 

herein contained extend, and considering them entirely cancelled, undertake to 
make satisfaction for tne same, to an amount not exceeding five millions of 
dollars. To ascertain the full amount and validity of those claims, a commission, 
to consist of three Commissioners, citizens of the United States, shall be 
appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate, which commission shaJl meet at the city of Washington, and, within the 
space of three years from the time of their first meeting, shall receive, examine, 
and decide upon the amount and validity of all the claims included within 
the descriptions above mentioned. The said commissioners shall take an oath 
of affirmation, to be entered on the record of their proceedings, for the faithful 
and diligent discharge of their duties; and, in case of the death, sickness, or 
necessary absence of any such Commissioner, his place may be supplied by the 
appointment, as aforesaid, or by the President of the United States during the 
recess of the Senate, of another Commissioner in his stead. The said Commis- 
sioners shall be authorized to hear and examine, on oath, every question 
relative to the said claims, and to receive all suitable authentic testimony 
concerning the same. And the Spanish Government shall furnish all such 
documents and elucidations as may be in their possession, for the adjustment 
of the said claims, according to the principles of justice, the laws of the 
nations, and the stipulations of the treaty between the two parties of • 27th 
October, 1795; the said documents to be specified, when demanded, at the in- 
stance of the said Commissioners. 

The payment of such claims as mav be admitted and adjusted by the said 
Commissioners, or the major part of them, to an amount not exceeding five 
millions of dollars, shall be made bv the United States, either immediately at 
their treasury, or by the creation of stock, bearing an interest of six per cent, 
per annum, payable from the proceeds of sales of public lands within the terri- 
tories hereby ceded to the United States, or in such other manner as the 
Congress of the United States may prescribe by law. 

The records of the proceedings of the said Commissioners, together with the 
vouchers and documents produced before them, relative to the claims to be 
adjusted and decided upon by them, shall, after the close of their transactions, 
be deposited in the Department of State of the United States; and copies of them, 
or any part of them, shall be furnished to the Spanish Oovernment, if required, 
at the demand of the Spanish Minister in the United States. 
ABTICLE Xn. The treaty of limits and navigation, of 1795, remains confirmed 
in all and each one of its articles excepting the 2, 3, 4, 21, and the second 
clause of the 22nd article, which having been altered by this treaty, or having 
received their entire execution, are no longer valid. 

With respect to the 15th article of the same treaty of friendship, limits, and 
navigation of 1795, in which it is stipulated that the fiag shall cover the 
property, the two high contracting parties agree that this shall be so understood 
with respect to those Powers who recognize this principle; but if either of the two 
contracting parties shall be at war with a third party, and the other neutral, 
the flag or the neutral shall cover the property of enemies whose Government 
acknowledge this principle, and not of others. 

ABTICLE Xm. Both contracting parties, wishing to favor their mutual 
commerce, by affording in their ports every necessary assistance to their respective 
merchant-vessels, have agreed that the sailors who shall desert from their 
vessels in the ports of the other, shall be arrested and delivered up, at the 
instance of the Consul, who shall prove, nevertheless, that the deserters belong 
to the vessel that claims them, exhibiting the document that is customary in their 
nation; that is to say, the American Consul in a Spanish port shall exhibit 
the document known by the name of articles, and the Spanish Consul in 
American ports the roll of the vessel, and if the name of the deserter or 
deserters who are claimed shall appear in the one or the other, they shall 
be arrested, held in custody, and delivered to the vessel to which they shall 

belong. 

ABTICLE XIY. The United States hereby certify that they have not received 
any compensation from France for the injuries they suffered from her privateers. 
Consuls, and tribunals on the coasts and in the ports of Spain, for the satis- 
faction of which provision is made by this treaty; and they will present an 



1819, Feb. 22 182 Dec. 6, 1819 

authentic statement of the prizes made, and of their trae value, that Spain may 
avail herse lf of the same in such manner as she may deem just and proper. 
ABTICLE XV. The United States, to give to His Catholic Majesty a proof of 
their desire to cement the relations of amity subsisting between the two 
nations, and to favor the commerce of the subjects of His Catholic Majesty, 
agree that Spanish vessels, coming laden only with productions of Spanish 
growth or manufactures, directly from the ports of Spain, or her colonies, shall 
be admitted, for the term of twelve years, to the ports of Pensacola and St. 
Augustine, in the Floridas, without pacing other or higher duties on their car- 
goes, or of tonnage, than will be paid by the vesseb of the United States. 
During the said term no other nation shall enjoy the same privileges within the 
ceded territories. The twelve years shall commence three months after the 
exchange of the ratifications of this treaty. 

ABTICLE XVI. The present treaty shall be ratified in due form, by the 
contracting parties, and the ratifications shall be exchanged in six months from 
this time, or sooner if possible. 

In witness whereof we, the underwritten Plenipotentiaries of the United States 
of America and of His Catholic Majesty, have signed, by virtue of our powers, 
the present treaty of amity, settlement, and limits, and have thereunto afixed 
our seals, respectively. Done at Washington this twenty-second day of February, 
one thousand eight hundred and nineteen. 

John Quincy Adams. (L. S.) 
Luis De Onis. " 

Feb. 26, Treaty with Spain approved by the President of the United States. 

Feb. 27, The United States Senate rejects the House proviso on the admission 

of Missouri to the Union. 

Maxcb 2, The Oovernment of the United States donates to Alabama 902,774 

acres of public lands, the proceeds to be devoted to public schools. 

The Congress of the United States separates the territory of Arkansas and 

Missouri. 

Mar. 2, The United States Senate returns the bill for the admission of Missouri 

to statehood to the House of Bepresentatives with amendments. 

Mar. 2, The Territory of Arkansas organized. 

Mar. 2, By act of Congress the Territory of Alabama authorized to form a State 

government preparatory for admission into the Union. 

Mar. 3, By act of Congress the President of the United States authorized to 

occupy east and west Florida. 

Mar. 3, The Congress of the United States passes an act authorizing the 

employment of the navy for the suppression of the African slave trade. 

Mar. 3, The last session of the fifteenth Congress adjourns. 

Mat^ 24, The steamer "Savannah" leaves Savannah for Liverpool, England, 

under Captain Stevens Bogers, and makes the passage across the Atlantic in 

twenty-six days. 

May 28, The steamboat "Independence," pioneer steam craft on the Mississippi 

Biver, ascends the stream as far as Franklin. 

June 2, The steamboat "Harriet," a pioneer steam craft on the Mississippi 

Biver, arrives at St. Louis from New Orleans after a trip of three weeks and 

six days. 

June 19, By act of the Massachusetts Legislature, Maine is separated from the 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

June 20, The steamer * * Savannah ' ' arrives at Liverpool, England, from America^ 

July 12, The first United States Custom House in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is 

opened. 

Angnst 23, Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry dies of yellow fever at Trinidad, 

West Indies. 

Aug. 28^ The first American lodge of the secret order of Odd Fellows, known 

as Washington Lodge No. 1, is founded at Baltimore, Maryland. 

October 11, A convention in Maine appoints a committee to draw up a state 

constitution. 

December 8, General William 8. Bosecrans, of the Union army during the Civil 

War^ bom. 



1819, Dec. 6 183 Mar. 3, 1820 

Dec. 6v First seBsion of the sixteenth United States Congress convenes at Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Henry Clay, of Kentucky, speaker of the House of Bepresentatives. 
Dea 7, Memorial presented to Congress from the people of Maine, asking for 
admission into the Union. Also one from the inhabitants of Missouri, seeking 
statehood, again presented to the House of Bepresentatives. 
Dea 14, Alabama enters the Union, containing 51,278 square miles, 330 miles 
long by 200 miles wide, capital Montgomery, legislative term four years, salary 
of governor $7,500 per annum. 

Dea 14, Alabama admitted as the twenty-second State of the Union. 
Dea 31, Indianapolis, Indiana, settled by a number of families. 

Samuel Bell, Governor of the State of New Hampshire. 

John F. Parrott, United States Senator from the State of New Hampshire. 

James Lauman, United States Senator from the State of Connecticut. 

Walter Lowrie, United States Senator from the State of Pennsylvania. 

Edward Lloyd, United States Senator from the State of Maryland. 

Thomas M. Bandolph, Governor of the State of Virginia. 

James Pleasants, United States Senator from the State of Virginia. 

William Wyatt Bibb, Governor of the State of Alabama. 

William B. King and Joseph W. Walker, United States Senators from the State of 

Alabama. 

John Clark, Governor of the State of Georgia. 

Matthew Talbot. Acting Governor of the State of Geor^a. 

John Forsyth, John EUiott, and Freeman Walker, United States Senators from 

the State of Georgia. 

James Brown, United States Senator from the State of Louisiana. 

(George Poindezter, Governor of the State of Mississippi. 

WiUiam Logan and Bichard M. Johnson, United States Senators from the State 

of Kentucky. 

James Miller, Governor of the State of Arkansas. 

William A. Trimble, United States Senator from the State of Ohio. 

Beginning of the discussion between the north and south in regard to the 

slavery question. 

The first steamship on Lake Erie begins its trips. 

Besolution introduced in Congress but fails to become a law for the abolition 

of drawbacks and bills to shorten long credits on importations. 

National debt, $95,529,648.28. 

1820 

January 8, Bill for the admission of Maine as a State of the Union passes the 
House of Bepresentatives. 

Jan. 9^ Motto adopted by the State of Maine, Dirigo (Indirect). 
Pebmary 15, Lucan B. Anthony, reformer, bom. 

Feb. 18^ The United States Senate adds to the bill for the admission of Maine 
to statehood a clause including the admission of Missouri also together with 
an amendment proposed by Senator Thomas of Hlinois, prohibiting the intro- 
duction of slavery into Louisiana north of Arkansas, etc., which passed the 
Senate, but was rejected by the House. The Senate asks for a committee of 
Conferences. 

Peb. 29, The House of Bepresentatives passes the Missouri admission to statehood 
bill with a clause prohibiting the further introduction of slaves in the 
territory. 

Maxth 2, The Missouri bill for statehood returned by the Senate to the House 
with the slavery clause struck out and territorial proviso inserted, but upon 
advice of the Committee of Conference the Senate recedes from its amendment 
to the Maine bill and the House in turn passes the Senate Missouri bill by 
striking out the slavery clause and inserting the Senate proviso of Senator 
Thomas. 

Mar. 3, Missouri compromise passed. 

jk£ar. S; Maine, formed from a portion of the territory of the State of Massa- 
chusetts, admitted as the twenty-third State to the Union. 



1820, Mar. 22 184 Dec 11» 1820 

liar. 22; Duel fought at Bladensburg, Maryland, between Commodore Stephen 
Decatur and Commodore James Barron. 

liay 3, First committee on agriculture organized by Congress. 
May 15, First session of the sixteenth United States Congress at Washington 
adjourns. 

A government loan of $3,000,000 authorized by Congress. 
Daniel Ammen, naval officer, bom. 

July 1, The United States lighthouse service under the fifth auditor of the 
treasury. 

September 19, Alexander McNair, Governor of Montana. 

Btit, 26, Death of Daniel Boone at Charrette, Montana, at the age of 85 years. 
October 20, Treaty ceding Florida to the United States ratified by Spain. 
All the territory east of the Mississippi Biver called east and west Florida ceded 
by Spain by treaty to the United States with adjacent islands in payment of 
$5,000,000. Batified by Spain in October. 

November IS, Second session of the sixteenth United States Congress com- 
mences. 

Nov. 14, Henry Clay resigns the speakership of the House of Bepresentatives 
and John W. Taylor of New York is elected by a majority of one vote. 
Presidential election held in the United States. 

December 11, The bill admitting Missouri with her constitution as amended 
passes the Senate. The Missouri constitution prohibited free colored persons from 
settling in the State and the Senate adds a proviso that nothing m the State 
constitution shall be construed as conflicting with that clause of the United 
States Constitution which declares, ''the citizens of each State shall be en- 
titled to all the privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States.'' 
William King, Qovemor of Maine, which was prior to 1820 a part of Massa- 
chusetts. 

John Chandler and John Holmes, United States Senators from Maine. 
Bichard Skinner, Governor of Vermont. 

Elijah H. Mills, United States Senator from the State of Massachusetts. 
N. B. Knight, United States Senator from the State of Bhode Island. 
Joseph Heister, Governor of Pennsylvania. 
Jacob Stout, Governor of Delaware. 
Samuel Sprigg, Governor of Maryland. 
William Pinckney, United States Senator from Maryland. 
Jesse Franklin, Governor of North Carolina. 
Thomas Bennet, Governor of South Carolina. 
Thomas Bibb, Governor of Alabama. 
John Adais, Governor of Kentucky. 
Thomas B. Bobinson, Governor of Louisiana. 
David Holmes, United States Senator from Mississippi. 

Albany Begency — a combination of politicians of the Democratic party. Promi- 
nent among them were Martin Van Buren, William L. Marcy, John A. Dix and 
Silas Wright. This combination was, it was charged, organized to manage and 
control that party in New York State from about 1820 to 1855. Their organ- 
ization was quite thorough and complete and its success was mainly due to 
this fact. A majority of those in the combination resided in Albany or operated 
from that city. The name arose from this circumstance. 
George T. Angell, reformer, bom. 

Center of population in the United States is 16 miles north of Woodstock, 
Virginia. 

University of Indiana established. 
Montgomery, Alabama, established. 
National debt, $91,015,566.15. 

Fourth United States Census, 23 States, population 9,638,191. 
Besult of the presidential election, viz.: 
For President: 

James Monroe, Virginia, Bepublican 231 votes 

John Q. Adams, Massachusetts, Bepublican 1 vote 

Total 232 votes 



1820, Dec 11 185 July 21, 1821 

For Vice-President: 

Daniel D. Thompkins, New York, Republican ;. .218 votes 

Bichard Stockton, New Jersey, Bepublican 8 votes 

Daniel Bodney, Delaware, Bepublican 4 votes 

Bobert G. Harper, Maryland, Bepublican 1 vote 

Bichard Bush, Pennsylvania, Bepublican 1 vote 

Total 232 votes 

James Monroe chosen President and Daniel D. Thompkins Vice-President. 

Up to this time the popular vote for the principal Presidential candidates had 

not been enumerated and the record of electors' popular vote is so meagre and 

so unreliable that compilation would be impossible and in tabulating the votes 

of these early elections only the aggregate electoral vote for candidates have been 

attempted. 

Thomas H. Benton, on admission of Missouri as a State, is chosen United 

States Senator, which post he held continuously for 30 years. He was a 

determined opponent of Calhoun's nullification scheme, and later supported 

Jackson in his war on the United States Bank and earned the name of 

"Old Bullion'' by his opposition to paper currency. 

Samuel Blatchford, born. (Died, 1893.) 

Immigration into the United States 8,385. 

From the fiscal year ending June 30, 1789 to 1820, 250,000 immigrants estimated 

to have arrived in the United States. 

Interest bearing debt of the United States July 1, $91,015,566. 

Navigation Act restricting importation to United States vessels. 

Country agitated over the slavery question. 

Fourth official census 9,633,822 inhabitants. 

1821 

Januaiy 10, Christopher C. Angus, military officer, bom. 

Jan, 21, John C. Breckinridge, soldier and politician, born. 

February 20, Francis P. Blair, Jr., military officer, bom. 

Feb. 23, John W. Adams, United States Secretary of State, makes an elaborate 

report on the metric system to Congress. 

Feb. 26, House of Bepresentatives failing to agree with the* United States 

Senate on the Missouri admission bill, Henry Clay, of Kentucky, moves that a 

committee of the House act with a committee of the Senate, to consider 

whether it is expedient to admit Missouri into the Union as a State. Clay 

reports a joint resolution from the committee which passed the House and on 

the following day was concurred by the Senate. 

Bfardi 2, Besolution passes Congress and Missouri is admitted to statehood in 

the Union as the 24th State under the Constitution. 

Mar. Sy Last session of the sixteenth United States Congress adjourns. 

Mar. S, A loan of $5,000,000 authorized by Congress. 

Mar. 5 (to Marcb 3, 1825), Ninth Federal Administration, Democratic-Bepublican. 

James Monroe, of Virginia, President. 

Daniel D. Thompkins, of New York, Vice-President. 

William West, Attomey-GeneraL 

Smith Thompson, Secretary of the Navy. 

Betum Meies, Jr., Postmaster-Oeneral. 

John C. Calhoun, Secretary of War. 

John Q. Adams, Secretary of State. 

William H. Crawford, Secretary of the Treasury. 

April 15, Joseph £. Brown, statesman, bom. 

President Monroe appoints General Andrew Jackson of Tennessee, Governor 

of Florida. 

May, W. C. Gibbs, Charter Govemor of Bhode Island. 

July 1, Cbvernor Jackson takes official possession of Florida. 

July 21, Henry W. Blodgetti jurist, bom. 



1821, Aug. 10 186 Dec 2, 1822 

AngQSt 10, MisBOoii proclaimed as the twenty-fourth State of the Union by 

President James Monroe. 

Aug. 21, William Bradsdale, statesman and military officer, bom. 

September, William Carroll, Oovernor of Tennessee. 

Noveoiber, Isreal Pickens, Governor of Alabama. 

Walter Leake, Governor of Mississippi. 

December S, First session of the seventeenth United States Congress convenes at 

Washington, D. C. 

Dec. 6^ Missouri sends Thomas H. Benton to the United States Senate. 

William D. Williamson, Governor of Maine. 

Horatio Seymour, United States Senator from Vermont. 

James De Wolf, United States Senator from Bhode Island. 

Elijah Boardman, United States Senator from Connecticut. 

Samuel L. Southard, United States Senator from New Jersey. 

William Findley, United States Senator from Pennsylvania. 

John Collins, Governor of Delaware. 

Cassar A. Bodney, United States Senator from Delaware. 

Gabriel Holmes, Governor of North Carolina. 

Nicholas Ware, United States Senator from (Georgia. 

Andrew Jackson, Territorial Governor of Florida. 

David Barton and Thomas H. Benton, United States Senators from Missoiui. 

Amherst College founded. 

Charles Francis Hall, arctic explorer, born. 

Philip P. Barbour of Virginia, speaker of the House of Bepresentatives. 

Seventeenth United States Congress assembles. 

The first iron sea-going steam vessel, the "Aaron Manby," is constructed. 

National debt, $89,987,427.66. 

Immigration to the United States 9,127. 

C. P. Huntington, capitalist, bom. 

1822 

Jaimary 11, Motto adopted by the State of Missouri, "Salus Populi Supreme 

Lex Esto" (The Welfare of the People Is the Supreme Law). 

February 25, Death of William Pinckney of Ma^land, at the age of 58 years. 

Marcb 1, Congress passes the Apportionment BilL 

Mar. 8^ Message by the President recommends the independence of the South 

American states and Mexico. 

Mar. 12, The House of Bepresentatives defeats the Bankrupt Bill by a vote 

of 90 to 72. 

Mar. 28, Independence Besolutions, recognizing the Spanish- American provinces, 

passed. 

Mar. 30, Establishment of territorial government in Florida. 

May 4, President Monroe vetoes appropriation for repairing and preserving the 

Cumberland Bead. 

President Monroe submits to Congress his objections to national appropriations 

for questionable internal improvements. 

May 8, First session of the seventeenth United States Congress adjourns. 

June iif Convention of Navigation and Commerce concluded between the United 

States and France at Washington, D. C. 

July 12, Treaty of Indemnification between the United States and Great Britain 

concluded at St. Petersburg, Bussia. 

October 4, Butherford B. Haves, bom. 

December 2, Second session of the seventeenth United States Congress commences. 

Albion E. Parris, Governor of Maine. 

James Lloyd, United States Senator from Massachusetts. 

John Philips, first Mayor of Boston. 

Joseph C. Yates, Governor of New York. 

Samuel Smith, United States Senator from Maryland. 

Calet Bodney, (Governor of Delaware. 

James Pleasants, Governor of Virginia. 

John Taylor, United States Senator from Virginia. 



1828^ Dec 2 187 Dec 2, 1828 

John I. Wilson, Oovernor of South Carolina. 

William P. Duval, Territorial Governor of Florida. 

Allen Trimble and Jeremiah Morrow, Governor of Ohio. 

Ethan Allen Brown, United States Senator from Ohio. 

Edward Coles, Governor of Illinois. 

William Hendricks, Governor of Indiana (elected United States Senator). 

September 12 to December 6, Batliff Boon, Acting Governor of Indiana. 

National debt, $89,987,427.66. 

Immigration to the United States 6,911. 

Florida made a territory. 

Batio of representation fixed at 40,000. Members 213. 

Federal party disbands. 

Clintonian Democratic party organized in New York. 

1823 

Januaiy 27, Expedition of Captain John C. Symeness. Upon petition of Congress, 
Symeness is sent north to verify his theory by a voyage to the north, and is 
put in command to conduct the expedition. 

February, A grant of land obtained from Mexico in Texas by Stephen F. Austin 
for colonization. 

Mardi 1, Auction system by which foreigners ship goods to the United States 
undervaluing them in the invoice is remedied by oeterrent legislation. 
Mar. 3, The final session of the seventeenth United States Congress adjourns. 
Mar. 28, Schuyler Colfax, journalist and vice-president of the United States, 
bom. 

April 18, William Aspinwall, Surgeon-General Bevolutionary Army, dies. 
September 16, Samuel L. Southard, Secretary of the Navy. 
October, Nesbit Balfour, British General at the Battle of Bunker Hill, dies. 
December 1, First session of the eighteenth United States Congress convenes 
at Washington, D. C. 
Dea 2. TmJ MONEOE DOCTRINE. 

Upon the question of recognizing the independence of the South American 
States, President Monroe mc^e a record which has ever since been quoted and 
denominated as the Monroe Doctrine. It is embodied in the following abstract 
of hie seventh annual message: ''It was stated, at the commencement of the 
last session, that a great effort was then making in Spain and Portugal to 
improve the conditions of the people of those countries, and that it appeared 
to be conducted with extraordinary moderation. It need scarcely be remarked 
that the result has been, so far, very different from what was then anticipated* 
Of events in that (juarter of the globe, with which we have so much inter- 
course, and from which we derive our origin, we have always been anxious and 
interested spectators. The citizens of the United States cherish sentiments the 
most friendly in favor of the liberty and happiness of their fellow men on 
that side of the Atlantic. In the wars of the European powers, in matters 
relating to themselves, we have never taken any part nor does it comport 
with our policy to do so. It is only when rights are invaded or seriously 
menaced, that we resent injuries, or make preparation for our defense. With the 
movements in this hemisphere we are of necessity more immediately con- 
nected, and by causes which must be obvious to all enlightened and impartial 
observers. The political system of the allied powers is essentially different in this 
respect from that of America. This difference proceeds from that which exists 
in their respective governments. And to the defense of our own, which has 
been achieved by the loss of so much blood and treasure, and matured by the 
wisdom of their most enlightened citizens^ and under which we have enjoyed 
unexampled felicity, this whole nation is devoted. We owe it, therefore, 
to candor, and to the amicable relations existing between the United States 
and those powers, to declare, that we should consider any attempt on their 
part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous 
to our peace and safety. With the existing colonies or dependencies of anv 
European power we have not interfered, and shall not interfere. But with 



1823, I>ec. 2 188 Dec 8^ 1828 

the governments who have declared their independence, and maintained it, and 
whose independence we have, on great consideration, and on just principles, 
acknowledged, we could not view Buy interi)osition for the purpose of oppressing 
them, or controlling in any other manner their destiny, by any European power, in 
any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition towards 
the United States. In the war between those new governments and Spain, we 
declare our neutrality at the time of their recognition, and to this we have 
adhered, and shall continue to adhere, provided no changes shall occur which, 
in the judgment of the competent autnorities of this government, shall make a 
corresponding change on the part of the United States indispensable to their 
security. The late events in Spain and Portugal show that £urope is still un- 
settled. Of this important fact no stronger proof can be adduced than that 
the allied powers should have thought it proper, on a principle satisfactory 
to themselves, to have interposed by force in the internal concerns of Spain. 
To what extent such interposition may be carried, on the same principle, is a ques- 
tion to which all independent powers, whose governments differ from theirs, 
are interested; even those most remote, and surely none more so than the 
United States. Our policy in regard to Europe, which was adopted at an 
early stage of the wars which have so long agitated that quarter of the 
globe, nevertheless remains the same, which is, not to interfere in the in- 
ternal concerns of any of its powers; to consider the government, de facto, as 
the legitimate government for us; to cultivate friendly relations with it, and 
to preserve those relations by a frank, firm, and manly policy; meeting, in 
all instances, the just claims of every power, submitting to injuries from none. 
But in regard to these continents, circumstances are eminently and con- 
spicuously different. It is impossible that the allied powers should extend 
their poUtical system to any portion of either continent without endangering 
our peace and happiness; nor can any one believe, that our southern brethren, 
if left to themselves, would adopt it of their own accord. It is equally im- 
possible, therefore, that we should behold such interposition, in any form, 
with indifference. If we look to the comparative strength and resources of 
Spain and those new governments, and their distance from each other, it 
must be obvious that she can never subdue them. It is still the true policy 
of the United States to leave the parties to themselves, in the hope that other 
powers will pursue the same course.'' 

December 2, The "Monroe Doctrine" proclaimed by President Monroe in his 
message to Congress. 

Dec. 8, Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts, in the House of Bepresentatives, 
offers his resolution authorizing an embassy to Greece. 

Memphis, Tennessee, established. 

National debt, $90,875,377.28. 

Galusha A. Grow, American statesman, bom. 

Henry Clay, Kentucky, speaker of the House of Bepresentatives. 

Eighteenth United States Congress assembles. 

Smith Thompson, New York, Justice United States Supreme Court. 

C. P. Van Ness, Governor of Vermont. 

Levi Woodbury, Governor of New Hampshire. 

Samuel Bell, United States Senator from the State of New Hampshire. 

William Eustis, Governor of Massachusetts up to February, 1825. 

Henry W. Edwards, United States Senator from Connecticut. 

Martin Van Buren, United States Senator from New York. 

Joseph Mcllvaine, United States Senator from New Jersey. 

J. A. Shulze, Governor of Pennsylvania. 

Samuel Stevens, Jr., Governor of Maryland. 

Joseph Hazett, Governor of Delaware. 

John Branch, United States Senator from the State of North Carolina. 

Bobert Y. Hayne, United States Senator from South Carolina. 

George M. Troup, Governor of Georgia. 

William Eelley, United States Senator from the State of Alabama. 

Andrew Jackson, United States Senator from Tennessee. 

Immigration to United States 6,354. 



1823, I>ec 8 189 Dec 22, 1824 

Congressional appointment for representation in Congress 40,000. 

Thomas F. Meagher, bom in Waterford, Ireland, August 3, 1823. He was 

sentenced to death for sedition but the sentence was commuted to transportation 

for life. Escaping from Trasmania in 1852, he went to New York, and became 

editor of the Irish News in 1856. He was a Major of the 69th New York 

Volunteers, 1861, and Brigadier-General, 1862-63. In 1865, he became Secretary of 

Montana Territory. He was drowned July 1, 1867. 

Independence of South American Bepublic acknowledged. 

Treaty |With Great Britain for neutral suppression of the Slave Traffic. 

The "Monroe Doctrine'' advanced and proclaimed. 

Party politics quiet. 

Smith Thompson, of New York, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme 

Court. 

1824 

January 9, Protective Tariff Bill brought before the House of Bepresentatives 
supported by Clay and Buchanan and opposed by Daniel Webster. 
Jan. 21, Thomas J. ("Stonewall") Jackson, general in the Confederate Army, 
bom at Clarksburg, Virginia. 

Jan. 26, Webster resolution for the creating of an embassy to Greece defeated 
although supported by Clay and Bandolph. 

Febmary 4^ Congress approves the resolution of offering a ship to bring the 
Marquis de Lafayette to visit the United States. 
Feb., Act to survey routes for canals and roads passes Congress. 
April 15-17, Convention regulating navigation, fishery, and boundary settled 
between the United States and Bussia concluded at St. Petersburg. 
Apr. 19, The "A. B. Plott," the preferring of charges against Secretary Craw- 
ford in the House of Bepresentatives by Ninian Edwards. 

May 22, After a long debate, a tariff bill with average rate of 37% passed by 
the Senate amended and rejected by the House. The difference is finally 
settled by a committee of conference and approved. 

Biay 26, Secretary Crawford exonerated from the charge of Mr. Edwards in 
report of the investigating committee of Congress. 

Blay 27, First session of the eighteenth United States Congress adjourns. 
August 16, The Marquis de Layfayette arrives in New York accompanied by 
his son. 

October 3, Convention of Peace, Amity, Commerce, Navigation concluded be- 
tween the United States and Colombia at Bogota. 
November 9, Tenth United States presidential election held. 
December 6, Second session of the eighteenth United States Congress convenes 
at Washington, D. C. 

Dec 10, Henry Clay, speaker of the House of Bepresentatives, Washington, 
D. C, welcomes Lafayette. 

Dec. 22, Congress votes Lafayette $200,000 and a township in any unoccupied 
lands that he might select in the United States. 

Bichard J. Manning, Governor of South Carolina. 

H. S. Thibodeauz, Governor of Louisiana. 

Henry Johnson, Governor of Louisiana. 

Joseph Desha, Governor of Kentucky. 

H. G. Burton, Governor of North Carolina. 

De Witt Clinton, Governor of New York. 

David L. Morrill, Governor of New Hampshire. 

Frederick Bates, Governor of Missouri. 

Samuel Paynter, Governor of Delaware. 

James Fenner, Charter Governor of Bhode Island. 

D. Bouligny, United States Senator from Louisiana. 

J. S. Johnson, United States Senator from Louisiana. 

John McLean, United States Senator from Illinois. 

Thomas W. Cobb, United States Senator from Georgia. 

I. W. Tazewell, United States Senator from Virginia. 

Thomas Clayton, United States Senator from Delaware. 



1824, Dec. 22 190 Har. 7, 1825 

National debt, $90,269,777.77. 

William B. Woods, born. (Dies 1887.) 

Stanley Matthews, United States Senator and Associate Jnstiee of the Supreme 

Court, bom. (Dies 1889.) 

Indianapolis, Indiana, established. 

Alien immigration 7,912. 

People's Party, Democratic-Bepnblican element principally in New York State 

favoring the choosing of electors by the people instead of by the State 

Legislature. 

Second high protective tariif passed and enacted. 

Convention with Great Britain for the suppression of the slave trade. 

Electoral and Popular Votes. 

Besults for President: 

Popular Vote 

Andrew Jackson, Tennessee, Bepublican • 155,872 

J. Q. Adams, Massachusetts, Bepublican 105,321 

Henry Clay, Kentucky, Bepublican 46,587 

Wm. H. Crawford, Georgia, Bepublican 44,282 

Electoral Vote 

Jackson, Plurality 50,651 99 

Adams 84 

Clay 87 

Crawford • 41 



Total 261 

For Vice-President: 

John C. Calhoun, South Carolina, Bepublican 182 

Nathan Sanf ord. New York, Bepublican 80 

Nathaniel Macon, North Carolina, Bepublican 24 

Andrew Jackson, Tennessee, Bepublican 13 

M. Van Buren, New York, Bepuolican 9 

Henry Clay, Kentucky, Bepublican 2 



Total 260 

Political parties were disorganized at the time of the election of John Quincy 
Adams, there being no choice by the electors. The House of Bepresentatives 
chose J. Q. Adams as President and J. C. Calhoun Vice-President. 

1825 

January 11, The United States ratifies the pending treaty with Bussia estab- 
lishing the boundary line between the United States and Bussian territory. 
Febnury 9, The electoral vote of the country for President and Vice-President 
counted. 

Feb. 12» Conclusion of the Indian Spring Treaty with the Creek Indians by the 
United States. This treaty provides for the cession of all Creek territory in 
Georgia and Alabama in consideration of $400,000 and is signed by the chief. 
The Indians later repudiate the cession and kill their chief, Mcintosh. 
Mardi 3, Act of Congress appropriating $150,000 for the extension of the Cumber- 
land Bead from Canton, Ohio, opposite Wheeling to Zanesville, Ohio, approved by 
the President. 

Mar. 3^ An act of Congress strengthening United States laws approved. 
Mar. 8, The final adjournment of the eighteenth United States Congress. 
Mar. 4k, John Quincy Adams inaugurated President. 
John C. Calhoun inaugurated Vice-President. 
William West, Attorney-General 
John McLean, Postmaster-GeneraL 
Samuel L. Southard, Secretary of the Navy. 
Mar. 7, Bichard Bush, Secretary of the Treasury. 
Henry Clay, Secretary of State for the United States. 
James Barbour, Secretary of War. 



1825, Jime 17 191 Fob. 26, 1826 

June 17, Comer etone of Bunker Hill Monument at Gharlestown, Mass., laid in 
presence of Lafayette. Daniel Webster delivers the oration, 
▲ngiurti 16^ The first voyage by steam vessel to India is made by Captain Johnson 
in the '' Enterprise'' from London to Calcutta in 113 days. 
September 7, The Frigate ^'Brandywine'' furnished by the United States Govern- 
ment to take General Lafayette to France leaves from Washington. D. C. 
Sept. 17, Grand Island in the Kiamra Biver selected as a site for a city to be 
called ^arat, as a refuge for the Jews, by Mordecai M. Noah. 
October 26^ The Erie Canal, New York, completed. 

December 6, Convention of Peace, Amity, Navigation, etc^ concluded between 
the United States and Central America at Washington, D. C. 
Dec. 6^ First session of the ninteenth United States Congress convenes at the 
CapitoL 

Marcus Morton, Governor of Massachusetts from February to July, 1825. 
Levi Lincoln, Governor of Massachusetts. 

James B. Bay, Governor of Indiana. (Acting Governor, February 12 to December 
11, and elected Governor in the election of this year.) 
Lieutenant Governor G. C. Brandon, Acting Governor of MississippL 
David Holmes, Governor of MississippL 
General John Miller, Governor of MissourL 
John TyleI^ Governor of Virginia, 
John Muiphy, Governor of Alabama. 
A. J. Williams, Acting Governor of Missouri, August. 
George Izard, Governor of Arkansas Territoiy. 
William Marks, United States Senator from Pennsylvania. 
Calvin Willey, United States Senator from the State of Connecticut. 
Henry Chambers, United States Senator from the State of Alabama. 
William Henry Harrison, United States Senator from Ohio. 
Asher Bobbins, United States Senator from Bhode Island. 
John Bowan, United States Senator from Kentucky. 
William Hendricks, United States Senator from Indiana. 
John McP. Berrien, United States Senator from Georgia. 
Levi Woodbury, United States Senator from New Hampshire. 
Dudley Chase, .United States Senator from Vermont. 
Hugh Lawson White, United States Senator from Tennessee. 
John Bandolph, United States Senator from Virginia. 

Commodore David Porter is recalled and suspended for six months for landing a 
force at Porto Bico and exacting an apology for an insult to the American flag. 
The Erie Canal opened. 

Gas first used for lighting the streets of New York City. 

Controversy between the National Government and the State of Georgia concern- 
ing the lands of the Creek Indians. 
Panama Mission discussed. 

CoaUtion-Hao termed from the union of the supporters of Clay with those of 
John Chaincy Adams in the session of the House tnat gave Adams the Presidency. 
John W. Taylor, New York, speaker of the House of Bepresentatives. 
Alien immigrants to the United States 10,199. 
University of Virginia established. 

Lucius Q. C. Lamar, lawyer and United States Senator, bom. (Died 1898.) 
National debt, $83,788,432.7L 
Nineteenth United States Congress assembled. 
Henry C. Baird, political economist, bom in Pennsylvania. 

George L. Beal, military officer who served in the Civil War, bom in Maine 
on May 21. (Died December IL 1896.) 

David B. Berney, military officer who particularly distinguished himself at 
Gettysburg, bom in Alabama on May 29. (Died October 18, 1864.) 

1820 

January 1, William P. Blake, mineralogist in the United States Service, bom in 

New York. 

February 26, Death of John GaiUard at Washington, D. C. He was United 



1826, Feb. 2S 192 JUj 4^ 1826 

SUtes Senator from Sooth CarolisA from 1804-86 and PrendeBt pro tern of the 
Senate April 14, 1814 to March 9, 1825. 

Mardi li, General Congreee of the Sooth Amenean atatefy called to meet at 
Panama in Jane, 1826, for tho consideration of their ri^ta, inTitea del^^tes 
from the United Statee. Biehard C. Anderson, Miniater to Colombia, and 
John Sargent, of Philadelphia, are appointed aa delegatea and 640,000 to defray 
the expenses is appropriated bj Congress. 

April 8» In the United States Senate during the debato on the "Panama Con- 
gress," John Bandolph refers to the coalition of Adama and Clay aa that of 
the "Poritan and the black-leg'' in consequence of which a dnel between 
Henry Clay and Bandolph follows. 

Ayr. 2&, Convention of Friendship, Commerce and Kavigation concluded between 
the United States and Denmark^ at Washin^n, D. C. 
Hay 22, First session of the ninteenth United States Congress adjourns. 
Hay 26, Benjamin O. Brown, politician who served during the Ci^il War in the 
Union Armv and was Vice-Presidential candidate on the ticket with Horace 
Greeley, is bom in Kentucky. He died December 13, 1885. 

July 4, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, both signers of the Declaration of 
Independence and both ez-presidents of the United States, die at about the 
same hour. 

Commissioners appointed to attend a congress representation of the Spanish- 
American BepobUc at Pana m a. 

September 12; Supposed abduction of William Morgan from Canandaigua, New 
York, for exposure of Free-Masonry, which later gives rise to a political party, 
the Anti-Masonic, that becomes national in importance, though of short duration. 
October 7^ William B. Batem, lenslator who served in the CivU War, bom 
in Tennessee. (Died March 9, 1905). 

Octk 13, L. C. Baker, detective who was chief of the Secret Service Bureau 
during the Civil War and who successfully superintended the pursuit of 
Wilkes Booth, President Lincoln's assassin, bom in New York. (Died July 2, 
1868.) 

Octk 22y Samuel Houston, inaugurated President of the Bepublic of Texas. 
Norember 13, Convention between Great Britain and the United States relative 
to indemnities for damages during the war. 

December 4, Second session of the nineteenth United States Congress at Wash- 
ington. 

Robert Trimble, of Kentucky, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme 
Court. 

First railroad in America from the quarries to tide water in Quincy, Massa- 
chusetts. 

General Lafayette visits Boston, Mass. 
Ezra Butler^ Governor of the State of Vermont. 

Thomas B. Beed, United States Senator from the State of Mississippi. 
Nathaniel Selsbee, United States Senator from the State of Massachusetts. 
Daniel Bodney, United States Senator from the State of Delaware. 
Nathan Sanford. United States Senator from the State of New York. 
E. Bateman, United States Senator from the State of New Jersey. 
Joseph Kent, Governor of the State of Maryland. 
E. F, Chambers, United States Senator from the State of Maryland. 
William B. Giles, Governor of the State of Virginia. 
John Taylor, Governor of the State of South Carofina. 

William Harper and WiUiam Smith, United States Senators from the State of 
South Carolina. 

John McKinley and Israel Pickens, United States Senators from the State of 
Alabama. 

Allen Trimble, Governor of the State of Ohio. 
Elias Kent Kane, United States Senator from the State of Illinois. 
Ninian Edwards, Governor of the State of Hlinois. 
Extensive internal improvements under the leadership of Henry Clay. 
July 4^ The fiftieth anniversary of American Independence celebrated. 



1828, /uly 4 193 Dea 20, 1827 

Webster delivers his celebrated elegy on Adams and Jefferson, ex-presidents 
of the United States. 
Oswald Ottendorfer, jonmalist, bom. 
Alien immigrants 10,875. 
Yicksburg, Mississippi, established. 
National debt, $81,054,059.99. 

Academy of National Design founded in New York. 

John Bufoid, cavalry leader in the Civil War, bom in Kentucky. (Died Decem- 
ber 16, 1863.) 

1827 

January 1, William L. Cabell, lawyer, born in Danville, Virginia. He graduated 
from the United States Military Academy in 1850. During the Civil War he 
served in the Confederate Army, rose to the rank of Brigadier-General, was 
captured in Kansas in 1864, and held a prisoner of war till April 28, 1865. 
Ajfter the war, he practiced law in Fort Smith, Arkansas, and in 1872 in 
Dallas, Texas, and was later mayor of that city four times. 
JaxL 7, James B. Angell, diplomatist, bom. 

JaxL 11, George Q. Cannon, bom in Liverpool, England. Came to America and 
became a Morman leader and a member legislative council of Utah. 
JaxL 29, Samuel P. Bates, State historian for Pennsylvania, bom in Massachusetts. 
February 20, Edward S. Brage, legislator, bom in New York. He served in the 
Union Army during the Civil War. As a member of the Democratic Conven- 
tion that renominated Grover Cleveland in 1884, he uttered the memorable phrase 
"We love him for the enemies he has made.'' 

Feb. 10, Edward Atkinson, economist, bom. (Died December 11, 1905.) 
Maxch 26, Peter B. Porter, Secretary of War. 

April 28, Joseph Bailey, military officer, bom in Ohio. He served in the 
Union Army in the Civil War and built the Bed Biver dam that enabled Admiral 
Porter to pass the rapids safely. He died July 7, 1867. 

July 4^ Treaty of Navigation, Commerce, etc., and regulation of consular powers 
concluded between the United States and Sweden and Norway at Stockholm. 
July 30, Besolutions adopted by a National Convention called by the Penn- 
sylvania Society for the Fromotion of Manufactures at Harrisburg, in favor of 
more protection on iron, steel, glass, wool, woolens, and hemp. 
September 29, Convention relative to settlement of boundary between the United 
States and Great Britain concluded at London, England. 

December 7, Horace Boies, lawyer, politician, and conspicuous candidate for the 
Democratic Presidential nomination 1892-96, bom in New York. 
Dec 20, Convention of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation between the 
United States and Hamburg, Bremen and Lubeck, conducted at Washington, D. C. 

Aluminum discovered. 

Andrew Stevenson, of Virginia, speaker of tl^e House of Bepresentatives. 

Enoch Lincoln, Governor of the State of Maine. 

Benjamin Pierce, Governor of the State of New Hampshire. 

Daniel Webster, United States Senator from the State of Massachusetts. 

Gideon Tomlinson, Governor of the State of Connecticut. 

Samuel A. Foote, United States Senator from the State of Connecticut. 

Charles Polk, Governor of the State of Delaware. 

Henry M. Bidgeley and Louis McLane, United States Senators from the State 

of Delaware. 

I. D. Barnard, United States Senator from the State of Pennsylvania. 

John Tyler, United States Senator from the State of Virginia. 

James Iredell, Governor of the State of North Carolina. 

John Forsyth, Governor of the State of Georgia. 

Samuel Houston, Gpveraor of the State of Tennessee. 

G. C. Brandon, Governor of the State of Mississippi. 

Experimenting on the construction of a railroad. 

Tariff Convention at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, at which the foundation of the 

American system for encouraging home manufactures are laid. 



1827, Dec. 20 194 Dea 1% 1828 



Anti-Masonic party consisted of those opposed to fraternal secrecy by men in 

public office. 

Fort Union, Montana, settled by Americans. 

National debt $73,987,357.20. 

William L. Strong, merchant and Mayor of New York City, born. 

Alien immigrants 18,875. 

Breyse invents the needle gun. 

Twentieth United States Congress assembles. 

1828 

January, Second treaty with Creek Indians ceding the remainder of their lands 

in Georgia to the United States for $47,491 ratified. 

Jan. 12; Treaty limits between the United States and United Mexican States 

concluded at Mexico. 

Jan. 31, Tariff bill introduced in Congress based on recommendation of the Harris- 
burg Convention. 

Febmary 24, Death of Major-Oeneral Jacob Brown at Washington, D. C. 

Mardi i, Tariff bill debate begun in the House of Bepresentatives. 

May 1, Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between the United States and 

Prussia concluded at Washington, D. C. 

May 5-14, Debate on the Tariff bill in the United States Senate. 

May 15, The Tariff bill passes the House of Bepresentatives. 

May 19, Tariff bill approved. Known as the "Tariff of Abominations.'' 

May 23, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, only survivor of the Declaration of 

Independence, granted the franking privilege by resolution of Congress. 

May 26^ First session of the twentieth United States Congress adjourns. 

June 28, Andrew H. Buchanan, military engineer in the Confederate Army during 

the war, born in Arkansas. 

August 28, Charles W. Baird, historian, bom in New York. (He died February 

10, 1881.) 

September 16^ John Beatty, military officer who fought in the Union Army 

during the Civil War, bom in Ohio. 

October 29, Thomas F. Bayard, statesman and diplomatist, bom in Delaware. He 

was ambassador to the Court of St. James in 1892, being the first to bear that 

title. He died September 28, 1898. 

Korember 11, The eleventh presidential election in the United States held. 

For President: 

Popular Vote 

Andrew Jackson, Tennessee, Democrat &7,231 

J. Q. Adams, Massachusetts, National Bepublican 509,097 

Electoral Vote 

Jackson, Plurality 138,134 178 

Adams 83 

Total 261 

For Vice-President: 

John C. Calhoun, South Carolina, Democrat 171 

Bichard Bush, Pennsylvania, National Bepublican 83 

Wm. Smith, South Carolina, Democrat 7 

Total 261 

Andrew Jackson chosen President and John C. Calhoun, Vice-President. 
December 1, Second session of the twentieth United States Congress convenes. 
Dec 12^ Treaty of Peace and Amity concluded between the United States and 
Brazil at Bio de Janiero. 

Albion K. Parris, United States Senator from the State of Maine. 

John Bell, Governor of the State of New Hampshire. 

Samuel C. Crafts, Governor of the State of Vermont. 

Martin Van Buren, Governor of the State of New York. 

Charles E. Dudley, United States Senator from the State of New York. 



1828, Dec. 12 195 Dec 7, 1829 

Oliver H. Prince, United States Senator from tlie Stato of Georgia. 
-John Owen, Governor of the State of North Carolina. 
James Iredell, United States Senator from the State of North Carolina. 
Stephen D. MiUer, Governor of the State of South Carolina. 
Pierre Derbigny, Governor of the State of Louisiana. 
Thomas Metcalf, Governor of the State of Kentucky. 
Jacob Burnett, United States Senator from the State of Ohio. 
National debt, $67,475,043.87. 
Alien immigrants, 27,382. 

First Women's Temperance Society organized in Ohio. 

Second railroad in the United States from the Lehigh Biver to Manch Chunk, 
Pennsylvania, nine miles in length, completed. 

The ionerican system adopted by Congress and denounced by Southern politicians 
as pernicious. 

TanfP amended and duties increased. 

Charles H. B. Calwell, naval officer, bom in Hingham, Mass., June 11. In the 
Civil War, he commanded the "Itasca" taking part in the bombardment of 
Forts Jackson and St. Philip and the Chalmette batteries, and in the capture 
of New Orleans. He was promoted to Commodore in 1874. He died in Boston, 
November 30, 1877. 

Democratic party of today constructed from the ruins of the Democratic- 
Bepublican parties of 1793. 

National-Bepublican party. The broad construction wing of the Democratic- 
Bepublican party professing opposition to the spoils system in office holding. 
First passenger railroad in the United States. 
Samuel J. B^daU, American congressman and political leader bom. (Died, 1890.) 

1829 

Fehmary 11, Electoral votes for President and Vice-President counted in the 

House of Bepresentatives. 

Maxch 3, William B. Allison, statesman, bom. (Died Aug. 8, 1908.) 

Mar. 3, Twentieth United States Congress adjourns. 

Mar. 4, Eleventh Federal Administration begins Democratic. 

Andrew Jackson, of Tennessee, President. 

John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina, Vice-President. 

Mar. 6, Samuel D. Ingham, Secretary of the Treasury. 

Martin Van Buren, Secretary of the State. 

John H. Eaton, Secretary of War. 

Mar. 9, John Branch, Secretary of the Navy. 

John M. Berrien, Attomey-GeneraL 

May 19, Death of John Jay, statesman, at Bedford, New York. 

June 4, *' Fulton the First" steamboat blown up accidentaUy in New York 

Harbor. 

June 27, Death of James L. M. Smithson, founder of the Smithsonian Instith- 

tion in Washington, D. C, in Genoa, Italy. 

AugOBt 8, The first locomotive run in the United States in Carbondale, Pa., 

Honesdale B. B., on wooden rails purchased in England. 

Ang. 26, Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between the United States and 

Austria concluded at Washington, D. C. 

December 7, First session of the twenty-first United States Congress convenes 

at Washington, D. C. 

Nathan Cutler, Governor of the State of Maine. 

John Holmes, United States Senator from the State of Maine. 

Benjamin Pierce, Governor of the State of New Hampshire. 

E. T. Throop, Governor of the State of New York. 

Peter D. Veroom, Governor of the State of New Jersey. 

Theodore Frelinghuysen, United States Senator, from the State of New Jersey. 

George Wolf, Governor of the State of Pennsylvania. 

John M. Clayton, United States Senator from the State of Delaware. 

Daniel Martin, Govemor of the State of Maryland, 

John Floyd, Governor of the State of Virginia. 



1829^ I>B& 7 196 8ept^ 1830 

Bedford Brown, United States Senator from the State of North Carolina. 
George B. Gilmer, Governor of the State of Georgia. 
John ForsTth, United States Senator from tbe State of Georgia. 
George M. Troup, United States Senator from the State of Georgia. 
A. Beauvais, Governor of the State of Louisiana. 

Edward Livingston, United States Senator from the State of Louisiana. 
George M. Bibb, United States Senator from the State of Kentuckj. 
William Carroll, Governor of the State of Tennessee. 
Felix Grundv, United States Senator from the State of Tenneatee. 
John Pope, Governor of the Territory of Arkansas. 
(Gabriel Moore, Governor of the State of Alabama. 
National debt, $58,421,413.67. 
Alien immigration to the United States, 22,520. 
Twenty-first United States Congress assembles. 
Josiah Quincy, President of Harvard College. 

John McLean, of Ohio, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. 
The Geniu9, published at Baltimore, Maryland, by William Lloyd Garrison, advo- 
cating tbe immediate emancipation of slaves. 
Daniel Webster's great speech against nullification. 
Treaty of Amity and Commerce with BraziL 
Spain unsuccessfully attempts to recover Mexico, 
^ew York and Connecticut State Temperance Societies organized. 
The Legislature of Virginia denies tbe right of Congress to pass a Tariff bilL 
Elisha S. Andrews, diplomat, bom October 27. 
Benjamin P. Avery, diplomat, bom in New York. (He died November 8, 1875.) 

1830 

Jannacy 25, Great n>eech in the United States Senate by Bobert Y. Hayne of 

South Carolina in defence of State rights and the Foote resolution lunitin(( 

the sale of public lands of the United States. 

Jan. 26-27, Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts, makes a masterly jreply to Hayne, 

defending the Constitution, in the United States Senate. 

Jan. 31, James G. Blaine, American statesman, bom in West Brownsville, 

Pennsylvania. He graduated from Washington College, Pa., in 1847, removed 

to Augusta, Maine, in 1854, engaging there in journalism, and was one of 

tbe founders of tbe Bepublican party. 

BCaxch 28, Bill before the House of Representatives advocating a national road 

via Washington from Buffalo, New York, to New Orleans, Louisiana. 

Mar. 28^ Treaty between the United States and Denmark relative to indemnity 

claims. 

April 13, At a public dinner in Washington, D. C, on the anniversary of Jeffer^ 

son 's birthday, President Andrew Jackson g^ves this toast, ' ' Our Federal Union, 

it must be preserved'' to which Vice-President John C. Calhoun responds with 

"Liberty, dearer than Union." 

Apr. 14, Bill for a national road between Buffalo, New York^ and New Orleans, 

Louisiana, defeated in the House of Representatives. 

May 7, Treaty of Friendship between the United States and the Ottoman Porte 

concluded. 

May 20, Congress repeals the duty on coffee, tea, and cocoa. 

May 27, President Jackson vetoes the bill for the Mayville and Lexington road 

in Kentucky. 

May 29, By act of Congress, duties repealed on molasses and salt. 

May 81, First session of the twenty-first United States Congress adjourns. 

BCay 31, Jackson vetoes the bill for Internal Improvements of turnpike stock. 

BCay 31, The United States reimburses the State of Massachusetts for service 

of her militia during 1812-14 to the amount of $430,748.26. 

Final rupture between President Jackson and Vice-President John C. Calhoun. 

June, John Bandolph leaves the United States to assume his duties as Minister 

to Bussia. 

Sai^taoibar, First national convention in the United States of the Anti-Mason 

partv held at Philadelphiai Pennsylvania, with Francis Granger, of New York, 

presiding. 



1880, Oct 5 197 Apr. 2U 1831 

October 6, Chester A. Artbar, twenty-first President of the United States, bom 
in Fairfield, Vt. During the Civil War he was qnartermaster general of New 
York and later coUector of easterns for the port of New York. 
December 6, Second session of the twenty-first United States Congress convenes. 
Dec. 6, Jackson vetoes the bill for Internal Improvements of lighthouses and 
beacons and also a similar bill for canal stock. 

Dec 16, The Secretary of the Treasury, in his report, advocates "home" valu- 
ation in place of "foreign" as the current value of goods in the United States 
to be the dutiable basis of value. 
De& 19, Kemp P. Battle, member of North Carolina secession convention, bom. 

Jonathan G. Hutton, Governor of the state of Maine. 

Peleg Spraffue, United States Senator from the state of Maine. 

Matthew akrvej, Governor of the state of New Hampshire. 

David Hazzard, Governor of the state of Delaware. 

Arnold Naudain, United States Senator from the state of Delaware. 

Thomas K. Carroll, Governor of the state of Maryland. 

Montford Stokes, Governor of the state of North Carolina. 

James Hamilton, Governor of the state of South Carolina. 

George Poindexter and Bobert H. Adams, United States Senators from the state 

of Mississippi. 

Jacques Dupr6, Governor of the state of Louisiana. 

Duncan McArthur, Govemor of the state of Ohio. 

John Beyirolds, Govemor of the state of Illinois. 

David J. Baker, United States Senator from the state of Illinois. 

Fifth United States census, 24 states, population 12,866,020 inhabitants. 

Henry Baldwin, Pennsylvania, Justice of the United States Supreme Court. 

Alien immigrants to the United States, 23,322. 

Interest bearing debt, $48,565,406. 

Tampa, Florida, established. 

The Mormon Church organized at Manchester, New York, by Joseph Smith. 

Treaty with Turkey securing for the United States freedom of the Black Sea. 

Center of population of the United States, 19 miles west-southwest of Moorefield, 

West Virginia. 

C. B. Agnew, physician and specialist of the eyea and ears, born in New York. 

Political divisions into Whigs and Democrats. 

John Quincy Adams elected a member of Congress from Massachusetts. 

James K. Polk distinguishes himself in Congress by his uncompromising course 

upon any important measure. 

Millard FiUmore removes to Buffalo where, as a successful lawyer, his political 

career begins and ends with the birth and extinction of the Wiug party. 

Abraham Lincoln settles in lUinois. 

Andrew Johnson elected Mayor of Greenville, Tennessee. 

1831 

January 1, Abolitionists, a term applied to members of the New England Anti- 
slavery Society and to tnose who held them that immediate unconditional emanci- 
pation was the right of every slave. Most noted among its leaders preceding 
the Civil War were: William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips, Charles Sumner, 
John G. Whittier. 

Jan. 10, The United States Senate rejects the award relative to the boundary 
settlement between Maine and Great Britain, rendered by the Eling of the 
Netherlands as arbitrator. 

Jan. 15, "The Best Friend,^' the first locomotive built in the United States at 
the West Point shops in New York City, makes its first trip on the South Caro- 
lina Bailroad. 

Mardi 3, Adjournment of the twenty-first United States Congress. 
April 5, Treaty of Amity, Commerce and Navigation between the United States 
and the United Mexican States concluded at Mexico. 
Apr. 7, Secretary of State, Martin Van Buren^ resigns from office. 
Apr. 7, Secretary of War, John H. Eaton, resigns from office, 
ApTt XL, Black iuawk Indian War commences. 



1831, July 4 198 Jan. 1, 1831 

JUy 4, Death of Ex-President James Monroe in New York Gitj at the age of 73 
years. 

July 4, Convention in settlement of claims for indemnity eonelnded between the 
United States and France at Paris, France. 

August^ Nat Turner leads a Negro insurrection in Southampton County. 
September 26^ National Convention at Baltimore, Maryland, held by the Anti- 
Masonic party and William Wirt of Virginia nominated for President, with 
Amos Ellmaker of Pennsylvania on the ticket for Vice-President. 
S^pt. 30, National Free-Trade Convention meets in Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

October 5, Free-Trade Convention at Philadelphia adjourns. 
OcL 22; William Barton, military officer in the Revolutionary Army who cap- 
tured the British General Prescott, dies. 

Oct 25, High or Protective Tariff Convention held at New York C^ty. 
Kovember 19, James A Garfield, twentieth President of the United States, bom. 
Abram M. Scott, Governor of the state of Mississippi. 

December 5, First session of the twenty-second United States Congress convenes. 
Dec 12; Convention of the National republican party held at Baltimore, Mary- 
land. Henry Clay, of Kentucky, nominated for I^esident and John Sergeant, of 
Pennsylvania, for Vice-President, on a platform advocating a higher tariff and 
in favor of internal improvements. 

Samuel E. Smith, Governor of the state of Maine. 

Joseph M. Harper, Acting Governor of the state of New Hampshire. 

Samuel Dinsmore, Governor of the state of New Hampshire. 

Isaac Hill, United States Senator from the state of New Hampshire. 

William A. Palmer, Governor of the state of Vermont. 

Samuel Prentiss, United States Senator from the state of Vermont. 

L. H. Arnold, Charter Governor of the state of Rhode Island. 

John S. Peters, Governor of the state of Connecticut. 

Gideon Tomlinson, United States Senator from the state of Connecticut. 

William L. Marcy, United States Senator from the state of New York. 

George M. Dallas and Williain WiUdns, United States Senators from the state 

of Pennsylvania. 

George Howard, Governor of Manrland. 

Daniel Martin, Governor of Maryland. 

W. P. Mangum, United States Senator from the state of North Carolina. 

Stephen D. Miller, United States Senator from the state of South Carolina. 

Wilson Lumpkin, Governor of Georgia. 

Andre B. Boman, Governor of Louisiana. 

John Gayle, Governor of Alabama in November. 

Samuel B. Moore, Governor of Alabama in March. 

Gabriel Moore, United States Senator from Alabama. 

Henry Clay, United States Senator from Kentucky. 

Alexander Buckner, United States Senator from Missouri 

Thomas Ewing, United States Senator from Ohio. 

John M. Bobinson, United States Senator from Illinois. 

Noah Noble, Governor of the state of Indiana. 

Bobert Hanna, United States Senator from Indiana. 

George B. Porter, Territorial Governor of Michigan. 

Active building of railroads. 

Nullification party — ^A South Carolina party organized by the staunch states 

rights adherent Calhoun. 

Aliens arriving in the United States, 22,633. 

The "Boyal Williams," a steamboat, crosses the ocean from Quebec. 

National debt, $39,123,191.68. 

First National Convention, called to nominate a candidate for the Presidency, 

meets at Baltimore, Maryland. Henry Clay is unanimously declared the choice 

of the Whigs. 

Twenty-second United States Congress assembles. 

January 1, Publication of the L^eraiion at Boston, Massachusetts, by William 

Lloyd Garrison, begun. 



1831, JaxL 1 199 Nor. 24, 18S2 

Badical amendment to the copyright laws enacted by Congress with provisions 
of 28 years instead of 14, with renewal of 14 additional years. Wife and children 
of authors are made eligible to a renewal in case of tiie author's death. 
Extensive reforms made by President Andrew Jackson in his cabinet. 

1882 

January 9, Memorial presented to Congress for the renewal of the charter of the 
National Bank. 

Jan. 25, In the United States Senate, William L. Marcy, of New York, while ad- 
vocating the cause of Martin Van Bnren and urging the Senate to confirm him 
as Minister to England, says, "They see nothing wrong in the rule that to the 
victor belong the spoils of the enemy." 

JaiL-Febroary, Henry Clay advocates the "American System" of high protec- 
tion in the United States Senate and is ably supported by the Senators from the 
States of Maine, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Bhode 
Island, and Ohio. 

February 8, George McDuffee, representative in Congress from South Carolina, a 
member of the Committee on Ways and Means, reports a bill advocating ad 
valorum duties for revenue only. 
May 6^ Herbert H. Bancroft, historian, bom in Ohio. 

BCay 16^ Convention of Peace, Commerce and Navigation concluded between the 
United States and Chile, at Santiago. 

May 21, First so-called Democratic National Convention meets at Baltimore, 
Maryland. 

Andrew Jackson, of Tennessee, President; Martin Van Buren, of New York, who 
was rejected as Minister to England in the Senate by the vote of Vice-President 
John C. Calhoun, Vice-President. The convention also adopts the two-thirds re- 
quirement vote to nominate. 

May 23, A bill reported for repealing the act of 1828, by John Quincy Adams, 
from Massachusetts, and reducing duties on coarse woolens, iron, etc. 
May-August^ Black Hawk War. 

June 1, Death of General Thomas Sumter, distinguished Revolutionary soldier, 
near Camden, South Carolina, at the advanced age of 98 years. 
June 11, National Bank rechartering bill passes the United States Senate by a 
vote of 28 to 20. 

June 20, Benjamin H. Bristow, lawyer and Civil War veteran, bom in Ken- 
tucky. 

July 3, Bill rechartering the National Bank passes the House of Representatives 
by a vote of 107 to 85. 

July 9, Commissioner of Indian affairs first appointed by the government of the 
United States. 

July 10, Jackson vetoes the bill for the extension of the United States Bank 
Charter. 

The United States Senate fails to pass the National Bank Charter bill over the 
President's veto. 

July 13, Exploring party, under the direction of Henry B. Schoolcraft, discovers 
the source of the Mississippi Biver. 

July 14, The tariff measure of 1828 partially repealed by act of Congress. 
Ju^ 15, Bepresentatives from South Carolina publish an address urging re- 
sistance to the tariff. 

July 16, First session of the twenty-second United States Congress adjourns. 
B&ift&mhw 3, Black Hawk Indian War ends. 

October 14, Convention regarding depredation of Murat concluded between the 
United States and the two Sicilies at Naples. 

November 18, National presidential election held throughout the United States. 
Kovember 14, Death of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, Maryland, the last sur- 
viving signer of the Declaration of Independence, at Baltimore, aged 95 years. 
Not. 19, Convention at Columbia, South Carolina, declares by ordinance the 
tariff acts of 1828-32 null and void. (The tern;i "nullification'' was borrowed 
from the resolutions of Virginia and Kentucky of 1798.) 
Not. M^ Convention that met in Columbiai South Carolina, November 19, peti- 



1832, KOT. 24. 200 Jan. 9, 1833 

tions the Legislature to declare that acts of 1824 and 1828 are null and void 
in that state and to prohibit the collection of duties there after February 1, 1833. 
The law is passed. 

December 3, Second session of the twenty-second United States Congress con- 
venes. 

Dec 5, Secretary of the Treasury recommends in his report a reduction of duties 
to the requirements of revenues. 

Dec. 6-18, Treaty of Navigation and Commerce between the United States and 
BuBsia concluded at St. Petersburg. 

De& 6^ Jackson vetoes the bills for interest of state claims and river and harbor 
improvements. 

Dec 10, Proclamation issued by President Jackson to the people of South Caro- 
lina. 

Dec 11, President of the United States proclaims intention to enforce the laws. 
Special reference is made to tariff collections. 

oec. 28, Vice-President of the United States, John C. Calhoun, resigns his office. 
William L. Marcy, Governor of the state of New York. 
Silas Wright, Jr., United States Senator from the state of New York. 
Samuel L. Southard, Governor of the state of New Jersey. 
Daniel Dunklin, Governor of the state of Missouri. 
David I. Swain, Governor of the state of North Carolina. 
Bobert Y. Hayne, Governor of the state of South Carolina. 
George A. Waggaman, United States Senator from the state of Louisiana. 
John Tipton, United States Senator from the state of Indiana. 
Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte, who served with credit in the United States and 
French armies, bom in Maryland. 

First appearance of the Asiatic cholera in the United States. 
Aliens to come to the United States, 60,482. 
Wilmington, Delaware, established. 

George Shiras, associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, bom. 
Howell E. Jackson, American jurist and United States Senator from the state 
of Tennessee, bom. (Died 1895.) 

For President: 

Popular Vote 

A. Jackson, Tennessee, Dem 687,502 

Henry Clay, Kentucky, Nat. B 530,189 

John Floyd, Georgia, Ind 

William Wirt, Missouri, Ant. M 33,108 

Electoral Vote 

Jackson (Plurality, 157,313) 219 

Clay 49 

Floyd 11 

Wirt 7 

Total 286 

For Vice-President: 

Votes 

M. Van Buren, New York, Dem 189 

John Sergeant, Pennsylvania, Nat. B 49 

Henry Lee, Massachusetts, Ind 11 

Amos Ellmaker, Pennsylvania, Anti M 7 

William Wilkins, Pennsylvania, Dem 30 

Total 286 

Andrew Jackson chosen President and Martin Van Buren, Vice-President. 

1833 
January 8, Bill reported in Congress bv Mr. Verplanck, from the Committee on 
Ways and Means for the reduction on duties in the course of two years to about 
one-half. 



1833, Jan. 16 201 Sept. 26^ 1833 

Jan. 16^ CongresB informed by message of President Jackson of the proceedings 
of South Carolina, who asks power to enforce collections of the revenue. 
Jan. 22, John G. Calhoun, of South Carolina, introduces resolutions in the United 
States Senate declaring that the theory that the people of the United States 
are now or ever have been united as one nation is erroneous, false in history and 
false in reason. 

Jan. 26^ Cornelius N. Bliss, merchant, member of the Pan-American Conference, 
Governor of New York, and Cabinet officer, bom in Massachusetts. 
February 12, "Compromise Tariff BiU" introduced in Congress by Mr. Clay. 
Feb. IS, The electoral votes of the United States for President and Vice-Presi- 
dent counted in the House of Representatives. 

Feb. 26, Henry Clay's '^ Compromise Tariff Bill" passes the House of Bepre- 
sentatives by a vote of 119 to 85. 

Feb. 26, Congressional Temperance Society organized at Washington, D. C. 
March 1, Clay's "Compromise Tariff Bill" passes the United States Senate by a 
vote of 29 to 16. 

Mar. 2, "Force Bill or "Bloody Bill," to enforce the collection of duties, passed 
by Congress. 

Mar. 2, House of Representatives strikes out Mr. Yerplanck's bill and substi- 
tutes Mr. Clay's, which declares its object to be to prevent the destruction of 
the political system and to arrest civil war and restore peace and tranquillity to 
the nation, by providing for a gradual reduction in duties. 

Mar. 3, Clay's "Compromise Tariff Bill" becomes a law, scaling down the duties 
so that the standard rate in 1842 would be approximately 20%. 
Mar. 3, The twenty-second United States Congress adjourns. 
Mar. 4 (to Mar. 3, 1837), The Twelfth Federal Administration inaugurated. Demo- 
cratic, Andrew Jackson, Tennessee, President, and Martin Van Buren, New York, 
Vice-President. 

McLane and Forsyth, Secretaries of State. 
Duane, Taney and Woodbury, Secretaries of the Treasury. 
Congress 1833-35 Senate, Bepublican. 
1833-37 House, Democratic. 
Stevenson and Polk, Speakers. 

Mar. 16, Ordinance of nullification repealed in convention by South Carolina. 
Mar. 18, Nullification acts repealed by South Carolina. 

Mar. 20, Treaty of Amity and Commerce concluded between the United States 
and Siam at Bankok. 

May 9, Treaty made by the Federal Government with the Seminole Indians. 
May 14, James D. Cameron, capitalist and politician, bom in Middletown, Pennsyl- 
vania. He was the oldest son of Simon Cameron, graduated from Princeton 
College in 1852, and was Secretary of War under President Grant in 1876. In 
1877 ne succeeded his father as United States Senator from Pennsylvania, retiring 
in 1897. 

May 24, Death of John Randolph of Yirginia, in Philadelphia, at the age of 60 
years. 

May 24-27, First National Temperance Convention meets at Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania, with 440 delegates from 22 states in attendance. 

May, President Jackson, near Fredericksburg, Virginia, lays, with appropriate 
ceremony, the comer-stone of a monument to Mary Washington, George Wash- 
ington's mother. 

Ji2y 3, Tour of the Eastern States as far as Concord, New Hampshire, made by 
President Jackson. 

July 28, William Bainbridge, naval officer, dies. 

AugUBt 20, Benjamin Harrison, twenty-third President of the United States, 
born. 

September 23, Secretary of the Treasury W. J. Duane removed from office by the 
President for refusing to withdraw under orders the government deposits from 
the National Bank. Boger B. Taney, of Maryland, appointed in his stead. 
Sept. 26, Secretary of the Treasury Taney directed by President Jackson to 
withdraw the government deposits amounting to approximately $10,999,000 from 
the National Bank. 



1833, Oct. 1 202 Feb. 4^ 1834 

October 1, Bank deposits removed hj the Secretary of the Treasury, under orders 
from the President, from the National Banks. 

Oct. 2, Organization of the Anti-Slavery Society in New York City. 
Oct. 8, Severe railroad accident on the Amboy and Bordentown Bailroad, in which 
several are killed and others maimed. This is said to be the first railroad acci- 
dent in the United States of any great size. 

Kovember 13. Great display of shooting stars daring the morning. 
December 2, First session of the twenty-third United States Congress convenes. 
Dec. 4, Jackson vetoes the bill passed by Congress relative to the proceeds of 
land sales. 

Dec 6» Organization at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, of American Anti-Slavery 
Society. Beriah Green is President and John G. Whittier, one of the secre- 
taries. 

Dec. 11, Besolntion offered by Henry Clay in the United States Senate inqoiring 
of the President whether the paper addressed to heads of departments referring 
to deposits of public money was genuine and requesting that its contents be laid 
before that bo^y for consideration. This resolution is passed by the Senate. 

Benjamin Swift, United States Senator from the state of Vermont. 
John B. Francis, Charter Governor of the state of Bhode Island. 
H. W. Edwards, Governor of the state of Connecticut. 
Nathan Smith, United States Senator from the state of Connecticut. 
Nathaniel P. Tallmadge, United States Senator from the state of New York. 
Peter D. Vroom, Governor of the state of New York. 
Elias P. Seeley, Governor of the state of New Jersey. 
Samuel L. Southard, United States Senator from the state of New Jersey. 
Samuel McKean, United States Senator from the state of Pennsylvania. 
Caleb P. Bennett, Governor of the state of Delaware. 
Joseph Kent, United States Senator from the state of Maryland. 
James Thomas, Governor of the state of Maryland. 
L. W. Tazewell, Governor of the state of Virginia. 
William C. Bivers, United States Senator from the state of Virginia. 
William C. Preston and John C. Calhoun, United States Senators from the state 
of South Carolina. 

Lewis F. Linn, United States Senator from the state of Missouri. 
John P. King, United States Senator from the state of Georgia. 
Lieutenant-Governor F. Winston, acting Governor of the state of Mississippi. 
Thomas Morris, United States Senator from the state of Ohio. 
Bamon y Blanco, Captain (General of the Spanish army in Cuba during the Spanish- 
American War, bom. 

Henry Clay's compromise measure tends to avert civil war. 
The government funds removed from the custody of the United States Banks by 
the President. 

General Santa Anna elected President of Mexico. 

Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the United States and Muscat concluded 
at Muscat. 

Alien immigration to the United States, 58,640. 
Basis for Congressional Bepresentation, 47,700. 
Burlington, Iowa, settled by English. 
National debt, $7,001,698.83. 
Twenty- third United States Congress assembled. 

John M. Harlan, associate justice of the United States Supreme Court, born. 
Melville W. Fuller, chief justice of the United States Supreme Court, born. 
During this year, Chief of the Black Hawk Indians is taken through the principal 
cities of the eastern states. 

1834 

January 31, James Bassett, who served in the Union Army during the Civil War, 

bom. 

Jan., Hiram G. Bunnels, Governor of the state of Mississippi. 

February 4, A committee appointed by the United States Senate to investigate the 

National Bank question. 



1834, Feb. 17 203 Deo, 1834 

Feb. 17, Convention for settlement of claims between the United States and 
Spain conclnded at Madrid. 

Feb. 18| Death of William Wirt, orator, lawyer, and author, at Washington, D. C, 
at the age of 62 years. 

Mardi 20, Charles W. Eliot, American educator and president of Harvard Col- 
lege, born. 

BCar. 28, Additional treaty made by the United States at Fort Gibson with the 
Seminole Indians for their removal to the Indian Territory. 
BCar. 28^ Besolves by the United States Senate that the President assumed au- 
thority not conferred by the Constitution and the laws of the land in removing 
the deposits from the National Bank. 

April 4, Besolves of the House of Bepresentatives that the National Bank shall 
not be rechartered nor the deposits of the government restored. 
Apr. 15, The President protests against the resolution of the United States 
Senate of March 28 relative to the National Bank deposits. That body, how- 
ever, refuses to enter the protest in its minutes — a practical ignorance of the 
executive. 

May 20, Death of General Lafayette in France. 
May 27, Charles Francis Adams, soldier and writer, bom. 
June 27, John Forsyth, Secretary of State. 
Levi Woodbury, Secretary of the Treasury. 
June 28, System of the United States coinage changed. 
June 30, First session of the twenty-third Congress adjourns. 
June SO, By act of Congress the Indian Territory is established. 
June 30, Mahlon Dickinson, Secretary of the Navy. 

June^ Besolution of the United States Senate censures the President for removing 
the government deposits from the National Bank. 
August 24, Frederick W. Benteen, military officer, born in Virginia. 
October 9, Francis C. Barlow, military officer, born in New York. 
Oct. 28, The Seminole Indians reject the treaty made by their chiefs with the 
United States and General Thompson is sent by the Federal Government to 
insist upon its execution. 

December 1, Second session of the twenty-third United States Congress convenes 
at Washington, D. C. 

Andrew Stevenson resigns and John Bell, of Tennessee, is elected Speaker of 
the House of Bepresentatives, with John Hubbard, of New Hampshire, serving 
pro tem during this session of the twenty-third Congress. 
December 1, Jackson vetoes the bill for Internal Improvements, Wabash Biver. 
Dec. 6, Henry W. Blair, legislator, born in New Hampshire. He served in the 
Civil War and was later a member of Congress and the United States Senate. 
Dec 13, Oration on Laftnrette delivered before Congress by John Quincy Adams, 
a Bepresentative from Massachusetts. 
Dec 28, Dale's massacre by the Seminoles. 

Dec, President Jackson in his message announces to Congress the extinction of 
the national debt. 

The government revenues deposited by the Secretary of the Treasury in local 
banks throughout the United States, few of which were under any sort of super- 
vision and their notes had little certainty of value so faultily were they man- 
aged. 

Bobert P. Dunlap, Governor of the state of Maine. 
William Badger, Governor of the state of New Hampshire. 
John Davis, Governor of the state of Massachusetts to March, 1835. 
Samuel A. Foote, Governor of the state of Connecticut. 
James Buchanan, United States Senator from the state of Pennsylvania. 
Benjamin W. Leigh, United States Senator from the state of Virginia. 
Alfred Cuthbert, United States Senator from the state of Georgia. 
George McDuffee, Governor of the state of South Carolina. 
Edward D. White, Governor of the state of Louisiana. 
Alexander Porter, United States Senator from the state of Louisiana. 
John H. Eaton, Territorial Governor of Florida. 
Joseph Duncan, Governor of Illinois. 



1834^ D6& 204 Dec. 25, 1885 

William D. L. Ewing, Acting Governor of lUinoie. 

Steven T. Mason, Territorial Governor of Michigan. 

National debt, $4,760,082.08. 

Alien immigration into the United Stafea, 65,365. 

"John Bandolph,'' first iron vessel in American waters, mied as a tugboat on the 

Savannah Biver. 

Fort Hall, Idaho, settled by Americans. 

Fort Laramie, Wyoming, settled by Americana. 

Houston, Texas, established. 

San Francisco, California, established. 

France and Portugal, who were slow in paying for injuries to United States 

Commerce, are brought to terms by the President. 

E. A. Carman, military officer, bom in Metuchen, New Jersey, February 27. He 

served through the Civil War in the army of the Potomac and the army of the 

Cumberland, became Brigadier-General, United States Volunteers. He died 

December 25, 1909. 

The Whig partv fully organized throughout the country. It was founded from 

tbe union of the National Bepublicans and disrupted remnants of the Demo- 

cratic-Bepublican party that could not affiliate with the new Democratic party of 

1828. 

Alaska Boundary Treaty. 

Cardinal James Gibbons bom. 

1886 

January 1, John Y. Beall, Confederate guerilla, who was hanged on Governor's 
Island, New York, February 24, 1865, bom in Virginia. 
JaxL 2i4, Charles K. Adams, historian, born. 

Jan. 29, Andrew Jackson shot at in the Capitol building in Washington, D. C, by 
Bichard Lawrence. 

Jan. 30, Bichard Lawrence, who attempted the assassination of President Jack- 
son at the Capitol, adjudged insane at his triaL 

February 13, Colonel George Crogham awarded a gold medal by Congress for the 
gallant defence of Fort Stephenson 22 years previous. 

Feb. 22, A committee appointed by the Senate to inquire into the alleged com- 
plicity of Senator Poindezter of Mississippi in the attempt to assassinate Presi- 
dent Jackson. The senator is exonerated and declared innocent by the investi- 
gation committee. 

March 3, Jackson vetoes the bill for Compromise Claims against the two Sicilies. 
Mar. 3, The twenty-third United States Congress adjourns. 

Mar. 3, Branch mints established by Congress at New Orleans, Louisiana, at 
Charlotte, North Carolina, and at Dahlonega, Georgia. 
May 1, Amos Kendall, PostmasterGeneral. 

May, The National Democratic convention held at Baltimore, Maryland. 
Martin Van Buren, of New York, nominated for President and Bichard M. John- 
son, of Kentucky, for Vice-President. 
July, Bevolt of Texas against Mexico. 

August 19, Bichard P. Bland, better known as the leader of the free silver move- 
ment and author of the Bland bill in Congress, bom in Kentucky. 
August^ Anti-slavery documents at Charleston, South Carolina, taken from the 
United States Mail and publicly burned. 
October, Newton Cannon, Governor of Tennessee. 

December 2; First session of the twenty-fourth United States Congress convenes 
at Washington, D. C. 

James K. Polk, from Tennessee, Speaker of the House of Bepresentatives. 
Dec. 16-17, Great fire rages in New York City for two days. Six hundred ware- 
houses burned with a loss of over $20,000,000. 
Dec 17, Alexander Agassiz, zoologist and geologist, bom. 
Dec 22, Independence of Texas proclaimed. 
Dec 23, Florida Indian War commenced. 

Dec 25, Orville E. Babcock, military officer, who was a member of (General 
Grant's staff during the Civil War, bom in Vermont. 



1835, Dec 28 205 Mar. 2, 1836 



;. 28, Dade's massacre by the Seminoles. 
Dec 29, The Cherokee Indians in Georgia cede, by treaty to the United States, 
all their territory east of the Mississippi Biver in consideration of $5,000,000. 
Dec, President Jackson in his message to Congress suggests passage of laws to 
prohibit the use of the United States mails for the circulation of anti-alavery 
literature. 

James M. Wayne, of Georgia, Justice United States Supreme Court. 

James K. Polk, of Tennessee, Speaker of the House of Bepresentatives. 

John Buggies and Ether Shepley, United States Senators from the state of 

Maine. 

S. H. Jenison, Governor of the state of Vermont. 

Samuel T. Armstrong, Governor of the state of Massachusetts. 

John Davis, United States Senator from the state of Massachusetts. 

H. W. Edwards, Governor of the state of Connecticut. 

John M. Niles, United States Senator from the state of Connecticut. 

Garret D. WaU, United States Senator from the state of New Jersey. 

John S. Spence and B. H. Goldsborough, United States Senators from the state of 

Maryland. 

Bichard D. Spaight, Governor of North Carolina. 

William Schley, Governor of the state of Georgia. 

John J. Crittenden, United States Senator from the state of Kentucky. 

Clement C. Clay, Governor of Alabama. 

William S. Fulton, Governor of the territory of Arkansas. 

Samuel Colt patents the invention of a revolving pistoL 

Adelbert Ames, military officer, bom. 

James M. Wayne, of Georgia, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme 

Court. 

The state Whig convention at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, nominated as their 

choice General WiUiam H. Harrison, of Ohio, for President and Francis Granger, 

of New York, for Vice-President. 

Name "Loco-focos," it is said, was first applied to the Democratic party. 

Seminole Indian War begun. 1835-42. 

Henry Villard, financier, bom. 

Alien immigrants, 45,374. 

Motto of the state of Michigan adopted "Si Quaeris Peninsulam Amoeriam Cir- 

cumspice'' (If Thou Seekest a Beautiful Peninsula Behold It Here). 

South Bend, Indiana, established.- 

Morse invented the telegraph. 

National debt, $37,733.05. 

Twenty-fourth United States Congress assembles. 

John G. Carlisle, lawyer and statesman, bom. 



1836 

January 20, Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Navigation, Commerce, etc., between 

the United States of America and Venezuela concluded at Caracas. # 

Jan., Charles Lynch, Governor of the state of Mississippi. 

February 27, Bussel A. Alger, politician and one who served in the Civil War, 

born. 

Marcb 2, Texas Independence Day. 

Besults of the presidential election: 

For President: 

Popular Vote 

Martin Van Buren, New Tork, Dem 761,549 

W. H. Harrison, Ohio, Whig ^ 

Henry L. White, Tennessee, Whig I -^^ 

Daniel Webster, Massachusetts, Whig f 73«»«o0 

William P. Mangum, North Carolina, Whig 1 



1886, Mar. 2 206 Doc 15, 1886 

Electoral Y oto 

Van Buren (PluraUty, 24,893) 170 

Harrison 73 

White 26 

Webster 14 

Mangum 11 

Total 294 

For Vice-President: 

B. M. Johnson, Kentucky, Dem « 147 

Francis Granger, New York, Whig 77 

John Tyler, Virginia, Whig 47 

William Smith, Alabama, Dem 23 

Total 294 

Martin Van Buren chosen President and B. M. Johnson elected Vice-President. 

ApiH 27, Charles E. Bendise. military officer in the Civil War, bom. 

May 5, Creek Indian disturbance commenced. 

June 9, Jackson vetoes the bill for Begulations for Congressional Sessions. 

June 9, Battle of Micanopy, Seminole War. 

June 15, Arkansas admitted to the Union. It was formed from a portion of the 

territory ceded to the United States by France under the name of Louisiana by 

the treaty of Paris in 1803. 

June 28, James Madison, fourth President of the United States, dies. 

August 21, Battle of Fort Drane, Seminole War. 

September 14, Aaron Burr, Ex- Vice-President of the United States, dies. 

Sept. 16^ Treaty of Peace between the United States and Morocco concluded. 

Norember 11, Henry M. Alden, editor, bom. 

Not. 17, 18 and 21, Battle of Wahoo Swamp, the Seminoles sue for peace. 

Vov, 30, Convention of Peace, Friendship, Commerce and Navi^tion between 

the United States and Peru-Bolivia Confederation concluded at Lama. 

December 15, Post-office and patent-office in Washington, D. C, burned, 

Judah Dana, United States Senator from the state of Maine. 

Isaac Hill, Governor of the state of New Hampshire. 

John Page and Henry Hubbard, United States Senators from the state of New 

Hampshire. 

Edward Everett, Governor of the state of Massachusetts. 

P. Dickerson, Governor of the state of New Jersey. 

Charles Polk, Governor of the state of Delaware. 

Bichard M. Bayard, United States Senator from the state of Delaware. 

Thomas W. Veazey, Governor of the state of Maryland. 

W. Bobertson, Governor of the state of Virginia. 

Bichard E. Parker and William C. Bivers, United States Senators from the state 

of Virginia. 

Bobert Strange, United States Senator from North Carolina. 

Pierce M. Butler, Governor of South Carolina. 

Bobert C. Nicholas, United States Senator from the state of Louisiana, 

Bichard K. Call, Territorial Governor of Florida. 

Bobert J. Walker, United States Senator from the state of Mississippi. 

James S. Conway, Govemor of the state of Arkansas. 

William S. Fulton and Ambrose H. Sevier, United States Senators from the 

state of Arkansas. 

Lr. W. Boggs, Governor of the state of Missouri. 

Steven T. Mason, Governor of the state of Michigan. 

Joseph Vance, Govemor of the state of Ohio. 

William D. L. Ewing, United States Senator from the state of Illinois. 

Henry Dodge, Territorial Governor of Wisconsin. 

Boger B. Taney, Maryland, Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court. 

Philip B. Barbour, Virginia, Justice of the United States Supreme Court. 



1838, Dec 15 207 Nov. 7, 1837 



National debt, $37,513.05. 

Alien immigrants in the United States, 76,242. 

P. 8. Bennett, who served through the Civil War, bom in New York. 

Anthony Burns born in Virginia. He was a fugitive slave and when arrested 

in Boston, Massachusetts, July 27, 1862, bloodshed and death resulted. 

Matthew C. Butler, ''soldier and statesman, bom in South Carolina. He served 

in the Confederate Armv during the Civil War, in the Spanish War and as a 

commissioner on Cuban Evacuation. 

ICarcli 6, Storming and massacre at the Alamo, San Antonio, Texas. 

Santa Anna defeated by Houston, who is proclaimed President of Texas. 

Office of the Commissioner of Patents created. 

Treaty of Friendship and Commerce with Venezuela proclaimed. 

Financial trouble brewing. 

Cleveland, Ohio, established. 

Cherokee disturbances or removal warfare commenced. 

Henry B. Brown, associate justice of the United States Supreme Court, bom. 

The << Great Western," 1340 tons keel, laid at Bristol, England. 

Joseph G. Cannon, lawyer and Speaker of the House of Bepresentatives, bom. 

1837 

Jannary 16, Besolution of June, 1834, by the United States Senate, censuring 
President Jackson for removing from the National Bank public money, expunged 
from the records. 

Jan. 18» United States coinage again changed. 

Jan. 26, Michigan admitted to the Union — formed from territory ceded to the 
United States by the state of Virginia. 

February 8, The electoral vote of the United States for President and Vice- 
President counted. 

Ifarch 3, Second session of the twenty-fourth United States Congress adjourns, 
liar. 3, Jackson vetoes the bill relative to funds receivable from United States 
revenue. 

Bfar. 4, Thirteenth Federal Administration, Democratic, convenes at Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Great commercial panic begins by failures in New Orleans and other places, 
which reaches its height in the following May. Banks in New York City, Boston, 
Philadelphia and Baltimore suspend specie payments, 
liar. 18, Grover Cleveland, later President of the United States, born. 
April, The screw steamer, ''Francis B. Ogden,'' with Captain Ericsson in com- 
mand, makes ten miles per hour dn the Thames. 
May 15, Congress called in extra session. 
July 19, The steamship ''Great Western" launched. 

Seiiitember 4, First session of the twenty-fifth United States Congress to assemble 
at Washington. D. C. 

Sept. 14, In his message to Congress, the President advocates the sub-treasury 
bill as reported in the United States Senate. 
8^. 30, Creek Indian disturbances ended. 

October 4, Sub-treasury bill first reported in the United States Senate passes that 
body by a small majority. 

Oct. 14, Sub-treasury bill as passed by the Senate defeated in the House of 
Bepresentatives. 

Outbreak in Canada of the "Patriot War.'* 

Oct. 16, First (extra) session of the twenty-fifth United States Congress ad* 
journs. 

Oct. 21, The Seminole Indian chief, Osceola, with a party of warriors, visits 
the camp of General Jesup under stipulations of safety and is made a prisoner 
and detained. He was confined at Charleston, South Carolina, where he died 
January 31, 1838, in Fort Moultrie. 

United States citizens along the border of Canada join in the Patriot War in 
large numbers. 

November 7, While defending his printing establishment at Alton, Illinois, against 
the attack of a pro-slavery mob, Elijah P. Lovejoy is shot and killed. 



1837, Dec 8 208 Apr. 11, 1838 

December 8, Speech by Wendell Phillips in Faneoil Hall, Boston, to protest 

against the murder of Lovejoy at Alton, Illinois. 

Itoc 10-22, Treaty of Commerce and Navigation concluded at London, England. 

Dec. 25, The Seminole Indians defeated by General Zachary Taylor at Okecho- 

bee Lake Swamp, Florida. 

Dec. 29, Canadian troops at Schlossers Landing above Niagara Falls on the 

American side attack the United States steamer "Carolina'' and bum it. 

John Crion of Tennessee, Justice of United States Supreme Court. 

John McKinley of Alabama, Justice United States Supreme Court. 

Benel Williams, United States Senator from the state of Maine. 

Franklin Pierce, United States Senator from the state of New Hampshire. 

Perry Smith, United States Senator from the state of Connecticut. 

William Pennington, Governor of the state of New Jersey. 

Joseph Bitner. Governor of the state of Pennsylvania. 

Cornelius P. Cfomegys, Governor of the state of Delaware. 

Thomas Clayton, United States Senator from the state of Delaware. 

David Campbell, Governor of the state of Virginia. 

William H. Boane, United States Senator from the state of Virginia. 

Hugh McVay, Governor of the state of Alabama, July. 

Clement C. Clay, United States Senator from the state of Alabama. 

Arthur P. Bugby, Governor of the state of Alabama, November. 

Edward B, Dudley, Governor of the state of North Carolina, January 1. (After 

the election of 1835, the governors were elected by the people.) 

George B. Gilmer, Governor of the state of Georgia. 

Wilson Lumpkin, United States Senator from the state of Georgia. 

AJex Mouton, United States Senator from the state of Louisiana. 

C. A. Wickliflfe, Governor of the state of Kentucky. 

William Allen, United States Senator from the state of Ohio. 

David Wallace, Governor of the state of Indiana. 

Oliver H. Smith, United States Senator from the stat^ of Indiana. 

Bichard M. Young, United States Senator from the state of Illinois. 

Lucius Lyon and John Norwell, United States Senators from Michigan. 

National debt, $336,957.83. 

Alien immigrants to United States, 79,340. 

Twenty-fifth United States Congress assembles. 

Naval Commission on lighthouses appointed. 

University of Michigan established. 

Toledo, Ohio, established. 

Little Bock, Arkansas, established. 

Galveston, Texas, established. 

Chicago, Illinois, established. 

Edward McGlynn. clergyman, bom. 

Peninsula Steamsnip Company founded. 

David J. Brewer, associate justice of the United States Supreme Court, bom. 

Bufus W. Peckham, associate justice of the United States Supreme Court, bom. 

Mob at Alton, Illinois. 

Issue of $10,000,000 in treasury notes authorized. 

President refuses to remit the regulation regarding the Bpecie Circular. 

Banks suspend specie payments in March and resume in July. 

1838 

January 5, Proclamation of neutrality issued by the President of the United 
States as regards the disturbance in Canada. 

February 24, William J. Graves, of Kentucky, and Jonathan CiUey, of New Hamp- 
shire, members of the House of Bepresentatives, engage in a duel. CiUey is 
mortally wounded. 

AimtU 8-23, First voyage of the steamship "Great Western" from Bristol, Eng- 
land, to New York. 

April 11, Convention for Indemnity between the United States and Texas con- 
cluded at Houston. 



1838, Apr. 23 209 Not. 13, 1839 

Apr. 23, The ''Great Western" and "Sirius," first re^^ar passenger steamers 

across the Atlantic, arrive in New York, the former making the passage in fifteen 

days and the latter in seventeen days. 

Apr. 25, Convention relative to boundary settlement between the United States 

and Texas concluded at Washington, D. G. 

Apr. 27, One hundred and forty-five acres devastated and 1158 buildings de* 

stroyed by fire at Charleston, South Carolina. 

May 10, New England and New York banks resume specie payments. 

June 12, Iowa organized under a territorial government. 

June 25, James K. Paulding, Secretary of the Navy. 

July 5, Felix Grundy, Attorney-General. 

July 9, Second session of the twenty-fifth United States Congress adjourns. 

August 18, Lieutenant Charles Willes sails from Hampton Beads in command 

of the United States exploring expedition to the Antarctic and Pacific Oceans. 

November 26, Treaty of Commerce and Navigation concluded between the United 

States and Sardinia at Genoa. 

December 3, Third session of the twenty-fifth United States Congress assembles. 

Dec. 11, Besolution introduced into the House of Bepresentatives by Charles 

G. Atherton of New Hampshire, known as the "Atherton gag," to prevent 

the discussion of slavery, passed by a vote of 127 to 78. 

Edward Kent, Governor of Maine. 

William Sprague, Charter Governor of Bhode Island. 

H. W. Ellsworth, Governor of Connecticut. 

William H. Seward, Governor of New York. 

William D. Merrick, United States Senator from the state of Maryland. 

Patrick Noble, Governor of South Carolina. 

£. H. Foster, United States Senator from the state of Tennessee. 

Andre B. Boman, Governor of the state of Louisiana. 

Alex G. McNutt, Governor of the state of Mississippi, January. 

James F. Trotter and Thomas H. Williams, United States Senators from the 

state of Mississippi. 

Wilson Shannon, Governor of the state of Ohio. 

Thomas Carlin, Governor of the state of Illinois. 

Bobert Lucas, Territorial Governor of the state of Iowa. 

J. B. Lamar, President of the Bepublic of Texas. 

1838-43, Congressional investigation of lighthouse management, which results in 

great improvements to the service. 

National debt, $3,308,124.07. 

Alien immigration to United States, 38,914. 

About 75 steamboats lost and a number of other disasters on the Mississippi, 

Ohio, Missouri, Illinois, Arkansas and Bed Bivers during the year. 

International copyright act passed. 

National debt paid, surplus revenue divided among the several states. 

Aroostook Indian disturbances commence. 

1839 

January 19, Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between the United States and 

the Netherlands concluded at Washington, D. C. 

February-March, Aroostook War as a result of the unsettled boundary between 

Maine and the British provinces. 

ICarch 3, Third session of the twenty-fifth United States Congress adjourns. 

April 11, Convention for the adjustment between the United States and the 

Mexican Bepublic concluded at Washington, D. C. 

June 13, Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation concluded between 

the United States and Ecuador at Quito. 

July 23, Battle of Carloosahatchee^ Seminole War. 

August 19, Aaron Bancroft, historian, dies. 

Aug. 29, United States brig ''Washington" captures the "Friendship" off 

Montauk Point. 

NoTember 13, James G. Bimey is nominated by the Liberty party in convention 



1839, Not. IS 210 July 15, 1840 

at Warsaw, New York, for President, and Thon^as Earle, of Pennsylvania, for 
Vice-President. This the first appearance of a national anti-slavery party, 
polling over 7000 votes, though Mr. Birney declines the nomination, 
becember 2, First session of the twenty-sixth United States Congress assembles. 
Bobert M. T. Hunter, Whig, of Virginia, elected Speaker of the House of Bepre- 
sentatives. 

Dec 4, Whig national convention held at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Harrison 
nominated on the fifth ballot for President and John Tyler nominated for Vice- 
President, other competitors for the nomination being Henry Clay and General 
Scott. 

John Fairfield, Governor of the state of Maine. 

John Page, Governor of the state of New Hampshire. 

Samuel ». Philips, United States Senator from the state of Vermont. 

Nathan F. Dixon, United States Senator from the state of Bhode Island. 

ThaddeuB Betts, United States Senator from the state of Connecticut. 

David B. Porter, Governor of the state of Pennsylvania. 

Daniel Sturgeon, United States Senator from the state of Pennsylvania. 

William Grayson, Governor of the state of Maryland. 

Charles J. McDonald, Governor of the state of Georgia. 

Bobert B. Beid, Territorial Governor of the state of Florida. 

James K. Polk, Governor of the state of Tennessee, October. 

Felix Grundy, United States Senator from the state of Tennessee. 

John Henderson, United States Senator from the state of Mississippi. 

Benjamin Tappan, United States Senator from the state of Ohio. 

Augustus S. Porter, United States Senator from the state of Michigan. 

Albert S. White, United States Senator from the state of Indiana. 

National debt, $10,434,221.14. 

Alien imbii^ants to United States, 68,069. 

Thomas B. Beed bom. (He died 1902.) 

United States bank suspends payment. 

Samuel 0. Armstrong, who became a brigadier-general in the Civil War, bom in 

Hawaii. (He died May 11, 1893.) 

1840 

Jannary 13, Steamer ''Lexington" burned between New York and Stonington, 
Connecticut, on Long Island Sound. Many lives lost. 

Jan. 19, Lieutenant Charles Wilkes discovers the Antarctic continent and coasts 
westward for 70° along this land. 

Washington Temperance Society founded in Baltimore, Maryland. 
February 2, Samuel Calvin, a Scotch- American, who served in the Civil War, 
born in Wigtonshire, Scotland. 
April 28, Battle of Fort King, Seminole War. 

May 5, The Democratic National Convention at Baltimore, Maryland, nominates 
Martin Van Buren for President, leaving the state to nominate a candidate for 
Vice-President. 

May 20, Treaty of Commerce and Navigation concluded between the United 
States and Hanover at Berlin. 

June 2, Steam vessel * * Unicorn ' ' first from Europe to enter Boston Harbor. 
Alien immigrants to the United States, 84,066. 
Population of the United States, 17,069,453. 

July 4, The first Cunard line steam vessel, the "Britannia," side-wheeler, crosses 
the Atlantic from Liverpool to Boston in fourteen days eight hours. 
Pacific Steam Navigation Company established. 
July 4, Sub-treasury bill passed and approved. 

July 15, Alfred £. Bates, a Brigadier-General of Volunteers in the War with 
Spain, bom in Monroe, Michigan. 

John McP. Berrien, United States Senator from the state of Georgia. 
James G. Birney, statesman and publicist. Liberty party candidate for President. 
Charles A. Boutelle, legislator, bom in Damariscotta, Maine, Febroary 9. He 
served in the navy during the CSvil War and was promoted to Lieutenant for 
-ftllantry. 



1840, July 15 211 Dec. 7, 1840 

Henry P. Bowditch, soldier and educator, bom in Boston, Massachasetts, April 4. 
He graduated from Harvard in 1861 and reached the rank of Major in the Civil 
War. 

Steamship ''Arcadia" arrives in Boston, Massachusetts, from Liverpool, England. 
John M. Niles, Postmaster-General. 
Henry D. Gilpin, Attorney-General. 

Zachary Taylor assigned to command the southern division of the western de- 
partment with headquarters at Baton Bouge, Louisiana. 

Andrew Johnson elected for the state at large on the Van Buren ticket and 
makes a state reputation by the force of his oratory. 

Abraham Lincoln declines a nomination to the state legislature in favor of a 
nomination for the presidential election on the Whij? ticket. 
July 19, Arrival at Boston, Massachusetts, of the nrst regular steam-packet of 
th6 Cunard Line from Liverpool, England. 

July 21, First session of the twenty-sixth United States Congress adjourns. 
July, ' ' Hard-cider and Log Cabin * ' campaign begins in the interests of William 
H. Harrison and John Tyler. First modem methods of conducting a presidential 
campaign in the country introduced. 

August 26^ Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between the United States and 
Portugal concluded at Lisbon. 

NoTamber 10, Fourteenth federal presidential election held. 
Not. 14, Treaty between Texas and Great Britain. 

NoT^ For complicity in the destruction of the steamer ''Caroline" in the year 
1837, Alex McLeod arrested in New York. 

For President: 

Popular Vote 

William H. Harrison, Ohio, Whig 1,275,017 

Martin Van Buren, New York, Dem 1,128,702 

James G. Bimey, New York, Lib 7,059 

Electoral Vote 

Harrison (Plurality, 146,315) 234 

Van Buren * 60 

Bimey — 

Total 294 

For Vice-President: 

Votes 

John Tyler, Virginia, Whig 234 

B. M. Johnson, Kentucky, Dem 48 

L. W. Tazewell, Virginia, Dem 11 

James K. Polk, Tennessee, Dem 1 

Thomas Earle, Pennsylvania, Lib — 

Total 294 

William H. Harrison chosen President and John Tyler Vice-President. 

December 7, Second session of the twenty-sixth United States Congress as* 

sembles. 

Edward Kent, Governor of the state of Maine. 

Marcus Morton, Governor of the state of Massachusetts. 

Samuel W. King, Charter Governor of the state of Bhode Island. 

J. W. Huntington, United States Senator from the state of Connecticut. 

William B. Cooper, Governor of the state of Delaware. 

Thomas W. Gilmer, Governor of the state of Virginia. 

William A. Graham and W. P. Mangum, United States Senators from the state 

of North Carolina. 

B. K. Hennegan, Acting Governor of the state of South Carolina. 

J. P. Bichardson, Governor of the state of South Carolina. 

Alexander Anderson, United States Senatoi from the state of Tennessee. 



1840, Dec 7 212 Sept. 11, 1841 

Archibald Yell, Governor of the state of Arkansas. 

Bobert P. Letcher, Governor of the state of Kentucky. 

William Woodbridge, Governor of the state of Michigan. 

Thomas Beynolds, Governor of the state of Missouri, November. 

Samuel Bigger, Governor of the state of Indiana. 

National debt, $3,573,343.82. 

Center of population of the United States sixteen miles south of Clarksburg, 

West Virginia. 

Sixth United States census, twenty-six states, population 17,069,453. 

John W. Philip, naval officer, bom. 

Horace Greeley's Whig campaign paper. Log CaMn, reaches a circulation of 

over 80,000 copies. 

Springfield, Illinois, established. / 

university of Missouri established. 

David B. Henderson, politician and Speaker of the House of Bepresentatives, bom. 

Liberal party, deriving its principal support from abolitionists. 

Agitation concerning the northeastern boundary question. 

South Sea exploring expedition discovers an Antartic continent. 

Edward D. Baker, State Senator of Illinois. 

William F. Bartlett, military officer who served in army and navy during the 

Civil War and at the close of the war was made Major-General of Volunteers 

for distingmshed service in the field, bom in Haverhill, Massachusetts, January 6. 

1841 

Fabmary 19, Electoral vote of the country counted. 
ICardi if Battle near Fort Brooke, Seminole War. 
l£ar. 3, Second session of the twenty-sixth Congress adjourns. 
Bfar. 4, Fourteenth National Administration, Whig, begun. William Henry 
Harrison President and John Tvler Vice-Presiaent of the United States. 
Webster and Legare and later Upsher and Calhoun, Secretaries* of State. 
White and Jones, Speakers of the House of Bepresentatives. 
Bfar. 13, Steamer "President," en route from New Tork to Liverpool, is lost 
in storm with 136 persons aboard. 

Mar. 17, Convention relative to the adjustment and payment of claims against 
Peru of $300,000 between the United States and Peru concluded at Lima. 
April 4, President Harrison dies. 
April 6^ John Tyler inaugurated.. 

Apr. 6, Comer-stone of the Morfiion Temple at Nauvoo, Illinois, laid with great 
pomp and ceremony. 

May 10, James G. Bennett, journalist, born. 

May 31, First session of the twenty-seventh United States Congress assembles 
at Washington, D. C. * 

Samuel L. Southard, of New Jersey, President pro tern of the United States 
Senate. He was acting Vice-President until May 22, ,1842, and W. P. Mangum, 
of North Carolina, acting Vice-President of the United States to the end of 
President Tyler's term, from May 31, 1842. 

July 6^ Act passed appropriating the proceeds of the public lands and pre- 
emptive rights granted. 

July 18, The ''Peacock," United States sloop of war, with the "Wilkes" United 
States exploring expedition, is lost at the mouth of the Columbia Biver in Oregon. 
Angnst 9, Sub-Treasury Act repealed. 

Aug. 16, Fiscal Bank Incorporation Act of the United States vetoed by Presi- 
dent Tyler. 

Aug. 10, United States Bankruptcy bill passed by Congress. 
September 9, Fiscal Corporation, bill vetoed by President Tyler. 
86^ 9» Colonel Gorgan carries off party of British volunteers from Canada. 
Sept. 11, President Tvler 's cabinet, with the exception of the Secretary of State, 
resigns, because, it is said, of the President's vetoing the Fiscal Corporation 
biU. 

Sept. 11, A general tariff act with average rate of duty of about 33% and 
dropping the principal of "home valuation" is passed by Congress. 



1841, Seirt 13 213 May 2, 1942 

Sept. IS, First sessioiiy eztra^ of the twenty-seventh United States Congress ad- 
journs. 

Sept. 26, The invasion of British possession prohibited by Presidential proclama- 
tion. 

October 11, The United States Bank under the Pennsylvania charter fails. 
Oct. 12, Alex McLeod acquitted for alleged complicity of the destruction of the 
steamer '' Caroline. ' ' 

November 6, Nelson W. Aldrich, statesman, bom. 

Not. 7, Brig ** Creole" en route from Bichmond. Virginia, for New Orleans, 
Louisiana, with slaves, attacked and captured by the slaves. 
December 6, Second session of the twenty-seventh United States Congress as- 
sembles. 

Dec. 9, Dr. Anson Jones, President of the Bepublic of Texas. 
Dec. IS, Samuel Houston, President of the Bepublic of Texas. 

John Fairfield, Governor of the state of Maine. 

George Evans, United States Senator from Maine. 

Charles Paine, Governor of the state of Vermont. 

John Davis, Governor of the state of Massachusetts. 

Bufus Choate and Isaac C. Bates, United States Senators from the state of 

Massachusetts. 

James F. Simmons, United States Senator from the state of Bhode Island. 

Jacob W. Miller, United States Senator from the state of New Jersey. 

John L. Kerr, United States Senator from the state of Maryland. 

John Butherford, Governor of the state of Virginia. 

William S. Archer, United States Senator from the state of Virginia. 

John M. Morehead, Governor of the state of North Carolina, January 1. 

John McP. Berrien, United States Senator from the state of Georgia. 

Benjamin Fitzpatrick, Governor of the state of Alabama, November. 

Arthur P. Bagoy, United States Senator from the state of Alabama. 

James C. Jones, Governor of the state of Tennessee, October. 

A. O. P. Nicholson, United States Senator from the state of Tennessee. 

Bichard K. Call, Territorial Governor of the state of Florida. 

Alexander Mouton, Governor of the state of Louisiana. 

Alex Barrow, United States Senator from the state of Louisiana. 

Samuel McBoberts, United States Senator from the state of Illinois. 

James W. Gordon, Governor of the state of Michigan. 

William Woodbridge, United States Senator from the state of Michigan. 

Lucius F. Hubbard, Governor of the state of Minnesota, November. 

James W. Nye, Territorial Governor of the state of Nevada. 

John C. Chambers, Territorial Governor of the state of Iowa. 

National debt, $5,250,875.54. 

Central Bankrupt Law passed. 

A loan of $12,000,000 authorized by the government. 

Bevenues received from public lands ordered to be distributed among the 

states. 

Two bills for re-chartering the United States Bank vetoed. 

Home league formed to a^tate for high duties. 

Alien immigrants to the united States, 80,289. 

Peter V. Daniel, Virginia^ Justice United States Supreme Court. 

Oliver W. Holmes, physician, poet, essayist and novelist, born. 

John White, Kentucky, Speaker of the House of Bepresentatives. 

Henry Beard, who served in the Union Army during the Civil War, bom« 

1842 

Jannary 14, Joseph C. Breckinridge, military officer, who served in the Santiago 

campaign in the Spanish- American Wur^ bom in Maryland. 

Blax^ 31, Henry Clay, Senator from Ejentucky, resigns from the United States 

Senate. 

April 10, Battle of Big Hammock, Seminole War. 

May 2, Colonel John 0. Fremont commences his first exploring expedition to the 

Bocky Mountains. 



1842, May 2 214 May 2, 1842 

TBEATY WITH GREAT BRITAIN, 1842. 

Relative to Boundaries, SuppresBion of the Slave Trade, and Extradition of 
Criminals. 

Concluded at Washington, D. C, August 9, 1842, Ratification advised by the 
Senate August 20, Ratified by the President August 22, Ratifications exchanged 
at London, October 13, and Proclaimed November 10, 1842. 

Whereas certain portions of the line of boundary between the United States of 
America and the British dominions in North America, described in the second 
article of the treaty of peace of 1783, have not yet been ascertained and de- 
termined, notwithstanding the repeated attempts which have been heretofore 
made for that purpose; and whereas it is now thought to be for the interest 
of both parties, that, avoiding further discussion of their respective rights, aris- 
ing in this respect under the said treaty, they should agree on a conventional 
line in said portions of the said boundary, such as may be convenient to both 
parties, with such equivalents and compensations as are deemed just and rea- 
sonable; and whereas, by the treaty concluded at Ghent on the 24th day of 
December, 1814, between the United States and His Britannic Majesty, an arti- 
cle was agreed to and inserted of the following tenor, viz.: "Art. 10. Whereas 
the traffic in slaves is irreconcilable with the principles of humanity and justice; 
and whereas both his Majesty and the United States are desirous of continuing 
their efforts to promote its entire abolition, it is hereby agreed that both the 
contracting parties shall use their best endeavors to accomplish so desirable an 
object, and whereas, not withstanding the laws which have at various times 
been passed by the two governments, and the efforts made to suppress it, that 
criminal traffic is still prosecuted and carried on; and whereas the United States 
are desirous of continuing their efforts to entire abolition, it is hereby agreed 
that both the contracting parties shall use their best endeavors to accomplish so 
desirable an object," and whereas, notwithstanding the laws which have at 
various times been passed by the two governments, and the efforts made to sup- 
press it, that criminal traffic is still prosecuted and carried on, and whereas the 
United States of America and Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Ireland are determined that, so far as may be in their 
power, it shall be effectually abolished; and whereas it is found expedient, for 
the better administration of justice and the prevention of crime within the 
territories and jurisdiction of the two parties respectively, that persons commit- 
ting the crimes hereinafter enumerated, and being fugitives from justice, should, 
under certain circumstances, be reciprocally delivered up; the United States 
of America and Her Britannic Majesty, having resolved to treat on these sev- 
eral subjects, have for that purpose appointed their respective Plenipotentiaries 
to negotiate and conclude a treaty, that is to say: 

The President of the United States has, on his part, furnished with full powers 
Daniel Webster, Secretary of State of the United States, and Her Majesty the 
Queen of the XJnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland has, on her part, 
appointed the Right Honorable Alexander Lord Ashburton, a peer of the said 
United Kingdom, a member of Her Majesty's Most Honorable Privy Council, and 
Her Majesty's Minister Plenipotentiary on a special mission to the United 
States. 

■Who, after a reciprocal communication of their respective full powers, have 
agreed to and signed the following articles: 

ARTICLE I. It is hereby agreed and declared that the line of boundary shall 
be as follows: Beginning at the monument at the source of the river St. Croix as 
designated and agreed by the Commissioners under the fifth article of the treaty 
of 1794, between the Governments of the United States and Great Britain; 
thence, north, following the exploring line run and marked by the surveyors 
of the two Government in the years 1817 and 1818, under the fifth article of 
the treaty of Ghent, to its intersection with the river St. John, and to the middle 
of the channel thereof, thence, up the middle of the main channel of the said 
river St. John, to the mouth of the river St. Francis, thence, up the middle of 
the channel of the river St. Francis, and of the lakes through which it flows, 
to the outlet of the Lake Pohenagamook; thence, southwesterly, in a straight line, 
to a point on the northwest branch of the river St. John, which point shall be ten 
miles distance from the main branch of the St. John, in a straight line, and in the 



1842, May 2 215 Bffay 2, 1842 

nearest dixection; but if the said point shall be found to be less than seven 
miles from the nearest point of the snmmit or crest of the highlands that divide 
those rivers which empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence from those 
which fall into the river St. John, then the said point shall be made to recede 
down the said northwest branch of the river St. John, to a point seven miles in 
a straight line from the said summit or crest; thence, in a straight line, in a 
course about south, 8** west, to the point where the parallel of latitude of 
46*^ 25' north intersects the southwest branch of the St. John's; thence, lands 
at the Metjarmette portage; thence, down along the said highlands which divide 
the waters which empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence from those 
which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to the head of Hall's Stream; thence, down the 
middle of said stream, till the line thus run intersects the old line of boundary 
surveyed and marked by Valentine and Collins, previously to the year 1774, 
as the 45^ of north latitude, and which has been known and understood to be 
the line of actual division between the states of New York and Vermont on ond 
side, and the British province of Canada on the other; and from said point of 
intersection, west, along said dividing line, as heretofore known and under- 
stood, to the Iroquois or St. Lawrence Biver. 

ARTICLE n. It is moreover agreed, that from the place where the joint Com- 
missioners terminated their labors under the sixth article of the treaty of Ghent, 
to wit, at a point in the Neebish Channel, near Muddy Lake, the line shall run 
into and along the ship-channel between St. Joseph 's and St. Tammany Island, to 
the division of the channel at or near the head of St. Joseph's Island; thence 
turning eastwardly and northwardly around the lower end of St. George's or 
Sugar Island, and follovdng the middle of the channel which divides St. George's 
from St. Joseph's Island; thence up the east Neebish Channel, nearest to St. 
George's Island, through the middle of Lake George; thence, west of Jonas Island, 
into St. Mary's River, to a poin^ in the middle of that river, about one 
mile above St. George's or Sugar Island, so as to appropriate and assign the 
said island to the United States; thence, adopting the line traced on the maps 
by the Commissioners, through the river St. Mary and Lake Superior, to a point 
north of lie Boyale, in said lake, one hundred yards to the north and east 
of lie Chapeau, which last mentioned island lies near the northeastern point of He 
Boyale, where the line marked by the Commissioners terminates; and from the 
last mentioned point, southwesterly, through the middle of the sound between lie 
Boyale and the northwestern mainland, to the mouth of Pigeon Biver, and up 
the said river, to and through the north and south Fowle Lakes, to the lakes 
of the height of land between Lake Superior and the Lake of the Woods, thence, 
along the water communication to Lake Saisaginaga, and through that lake, 
thence, to and through Cypress Lake, Lac du Bois Blanc, Lac la Croix, Little Ver- 
milion Lake, and JjtJae Namecan and through the several smaller lakes, straits, or 
streams, connecting the lakes here mentioned, to that point in Lac la Pluie, or 
Bainy Lake, at the Chaudi&re Falls, from which the Commissioners traced the line 
to the most northwestern point of the Lake of the Woods; thence, along the said 
line, to the said most northwestern point, being in latitude 49° 23' 55^^ north and 
in longitude 95** 14' 38" west from the observatory at Greenwich; thence, ac- 
cording to existing treaties, due south to its intersecting with the 49th, parallel 
of north latitude, and along that parallel to the Bocky Mountains. It being 
understood that all the water communications and all the usual portages along 
the line from Lake Superior to the Lake of the Woods, and also Grand Portage, 
from the shore of Lake Superior to the Pigeon Biver, as now actually used, shall 
be free and open to the use of the citizens and subjects of both countries. 
ABTICLE III. In order to promote the interests and encourage the industry of 
all the inhabitants of the countries watered by the river St. John and its tribu- 
taries, whether living within the State of Maine or the province of New Bruns- 
wick, it is agreed that, where, by the provisions of the present treaty, the river 
St. John is declared to be the line of boundary, the navigation of the said 
river shall be free and open to both parties, and shall in no way be obstructed by 
either; that all the produce of the forests, in logs, lumber, timber, boards, 
staves, or shingles, or of agriculture, not being manufactured, grown on any 
of those parts of the State of Maine watered by the river St. John, or by its 
tributaries, of which, fact reasonable evidence shall, if required, be produced, 



j^ 



1842, Bffay 2 216 May 2, 1842 

shall have free access into and through the said river and its said tributaries, 
having their source within the state of Maine, to and from the sea-port at the 
mouth of the said river St. John, and to and round the falls of the said river, 
either by boats, rafts, or other conveyance; that whin within the province of 
New Brunswick, the said product shall be dealt with as if it were the produce 
of the said province; that, in like manner, the inhabitants of the territorv of the 
upper St. John, determined by this trealy to belong to Her Britannic Majesty, 
shall have free access to and through the river, for their produce, in those parts 
where the said river runs wholly through the state of Maine; Provided, always, 
that this agreement shall give no right to either party to interfere with any regu- 
lations not inconsistent with the terms of this treaty which the governments, 
respectively, of Maine or of New Brunswick may make respecting the naviga- 
tion of the said river, where both banks thereof shall belong to the same party. 
ARTICLE IV. All grants of land heretofore made by either party, within the 
limits of the territory which by this treaty falls within . the dominions of the 
other party, shall be held valid, ratified, and confirmed to the persons in posses- 
sion under such grants, to the same extent as if such territory had by this treaty 
fallen within the dominions of the party by whom such grants were made, and 
all equitable possessoi^ claims, arising from a possession and improvement 
of any lot or parcel of land by the person actually in possession, or by those 
under whom such person claims, for more than six years before the date of 
this treaty, shall, in like manner, be deemed valid, and be confirmed and 
quieted by a release to the persons entitled thereto, of the title of such lot 
or parcel of land, so described as best to include the improvements made 
thereon; and in all other respects the two contracting parties agree to deal 
upon the most liberal principles of equity with the settlers actually dwelling 
upon the territory falling to them, respectively, which has heretofore been 
in dispute between them. 

ABTICLE V. Whereas in the course of the controversy respecting the disputed 
territory on the northeastern boundary, some moneys have been received by the 
authorities of Her Britannic Majesty's province of New Brunswick, with the 
intention of preventing depredations, on the forests of the said territory, which 
moneys were to be carried to a fund called the ''disputed territory fund," the 
proceeds whereof it was agreed should be hereafter paid over to the parties 
interested, in the proportions to be determined by a final settlement of boundaries, 
it is hereby agreed that a correct account of all receipts and payments on the 
said fund shall be delivered to the Government of the United States within 
six months after the ratification of this treaty; and the proportion of the 
amount due thereon to the State of Maine and Massachusetts, and any bonds 
or securities appertaining thereto shall be paid and delivered over to the Govern- 
ment of the United States; and the Government of the United States agrees 
to receive for the use of, and pay over to, the State of Maine and Massa- 
chusetts, their respective portions of said fund, and further, to pay and satisfy 
said States, respectively, for all claims for expenses incurred by them in 
protecting the said heretofore disputed territory and making a survey thereof 
in 1838, the Government of the United States agreeing with the States of 
Maine and Massachusetts to pay them the further sum of three hundred thousand 
dollars, in equal moieties, on account of their assent to the line of boundary 
described in this treaty, and in consideration of the conditions and equivalents 
received therefor from the Government of Her Britannic Majesty. 
ABTICLE VI. It is furthermore understood and agreed that, for the purpose of 
running and tracing those parts of the line between the source of the St. 
Croix and the St. Lawrence Biver which will require to be run and ascer- 
tained, and for marking the residue of said line by proper monuments on 
the land, Two Commissioners shall be appointed, one by the President of 
the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, 
and one by Her Britannic Majesty; and the said Commissioners shall meet 
at Bangor, in the State of Maine, on the first day of May next, or as soon 
thereafter as may be, and shall proceed to mark the line above described, 
from the source of the St. Croix to the Biver St. John, and shall trace on 
paper maps the dividing line along said river and along the Biver St. Francis 
to the outlet of the LaJLO Pohenagamook, and from the outlet of the said lake 



1842, May 2 217 May 2, 1842 

they shall ascertaiiiy fix, and mark, by proper and durable monuments on 
the land, the land described in the first futide of this treaty; and the said 
Commissioners shall make to each of their respective Governments a joint 
report or declaration, under their hands and seals, desigfnating such line of 
boundary, and shall accompany such report or declaration with maps, certified 
by them to be true maps of the new boundary. 

ABTICLE VII. It is further agreed that the channels in the Biver St. Lawrence 
on both sides of the Long Sault Island and of Barnhart Island, the channel 
in the Biver Detroit on both sides of the Island Bois Blance, and between 
that island and both the American and Canadian shores, and all the several 
channels and passages between the various islands lying near the junction 
of the Biver St. Clair with the lake of that name, shall be equally free and 
open to the f^ipSy vessels and boats of both parties. 

ABTICLE Vin. The parties mutually stipulate that each shall prepare, 
equip, and maintain in service on the coast of Africa a suf&cient and adequate 
squadron or naval force of vessels of suitable numbers and descriptions, to 
carry in all not less than eight guns, to enforce, separately and respectively, 
the laws, rights, and obligations of each of the two countries for the suppres- 
sion of the slave-trade, tne said squadrons to be independent of each other, 
but the two Governments stipulating, nevertheless, to give such orders to the 
officers commanding their respective forces as shall enable them most effectually 
to act in concert and co-operation, upon mutual consultation, as exigencies may 
arise, for the attainment of the true object of this article, copies of all such 
orders to be communicated by each Government to the other, respectively. 
ABTICLE IX. Whereas, notwithstanding all efforts which may be made on 
the coast of Africa for suppressing the slave-trade, the facilities for carr3ring on 
that traffic and avoiding the vigilance of cruisers, by the fraudulent use of fl.ags 
and other means, are so great, and the temptations for pursuing it, while a 
market can be found for slaves, so strong, as that the desired result may 
be long delayed unless all markets be shut against the purchase of African 
negroes, the parties of this treaty agree that they will unite in all becoming 
representations and remonstrances with any and all Powers within whose domin- 
ions such markets are allowed to exist, and that they will urge upon all 
such Powers the propriety and duty of closing such markets effectually, at once 
and forever. 

ABTICLE X. It is a^rreed that the United States and Her Britannic Majesty 
shall upon mutual requisitions by them, on their Ministers, officers, or authorities, 
respectively made, deliver up to justice all persons who, being charged with 
the crime of murder, or assault with intent to commit murder, or piracy, or 
arson, or robbery, or forgery, or the utterance of forged papers, committed 
within the jurisdiction of either, shall seek an asylum or shall be found 
within the territories of the other, Provided, that this shall only be done 
upon such evidence of criminality as, according to the laws of the place 
where the fugitive or person so charged shall be found, would justify his 
apprehension and commitment for trial if the crime or offence had there been 
committed; and the respective judges and other magistrates of the two Govern- 
ments shall have power, jurisdiction, and authority, upon complaint made 
under oath, to issue a warrant for the apprehension of the fugitive or person 
so charged, that he may be brought before such judges or other magistrates, 
respectively, to the end that the evidence of criminality may be heard and 
considered, and if, on such hearing, the evidence be deemed sufficient to 
sustain the charge, it shall be the duty of the examining judge or magistrate to 
certify the same to the proper executive authority, that a warrant may issue 
for the surrender of such fugitive. The expense of such apprehension and 
delivery shall be borne and defrayed by the party who makes the requisition 
and receives the fugitive. 

ABTICLE XI. The eighth article of this treaty shall be in force for five 
years from the date of the exchange of the ratification, and afterwards until 
one of the other party shall signify a wish to terminate it. The tenth 
article shall continue in force until one of the other of the parties shall 
si^ify its wish to terminate it, and no longer. 
ABTICLE XTT. The present treaty shall he duly ratified, and the mutual 



1842, May 2 218 Dec. 18, 1842 

exchange of ratification shall take place in London, within six months from 
the date hereof, or earlier if possible. In faith whereof we, the respective 
Plenipotentiaries, have signed this treaty and have hereunto affixed oar seals. 
Done in duplicate at Washington, the ninth day of August, anno Domini one 
thousand eight hundred and forty-two. 

Danl. Webster. (L. 8.) 

Ashburton. 

May-June^ Dorr's Bebellion in Bhode Island resulting from a disagreement be- 
tween Suffrage and Charter parties. 

June 10, The return to New York of the United States exploring expedition 
under Lieutenant Charles Wilkes after a voyage of four years and over 
90,000 miles. 

June 29, Tyler vetoes the bill relative to the tariff, the first Whig Tariff. 
July 1, Batio of representation fixed at 70,680^ representatives 223. 
United States fiscal year ordered to begin with July 1. 
August 0, Tyler vetoes the tariff bill, the second Whig Tariff. 
Aug. 9, The Maine boundary settled by the /'Ashburton Treaty" between 
Great Britain and the United States. 
Aug. 14, Indian War proclaimed at an end in Florida. 

Aug. 20, Treaty ratified by the United States Senate by a vote of 39 to 9. 
Aug. 26, John C. Bates, military officer who served in Cuba and the Philippines, 
born in Missouri. 

Aug. 28, Fiscal year changed by law from January 1 to July 1. 
Aug. SO, President Tyler signs the tariff bill, the prevailing rate being approxi- 
mately 20%. 

Aug. 30, Tariff law passed containing the much controverted and litigated 
similitude section (20) imposing duties on n on enumerated articles which may 
be similiar in material, etc. 

Aug. 31, Second session of the twenty-seventh United States Congress adjourns. 
September 29, Order of Sons of Temperance organized in New York. 
October 2, William B. Channing, minister, dies at Bennington, Vermont, aged 
62 years. 

Oct. 31, John B. Gough, American lecturer on temperance, signs the pledge at 
Worcester, Mass. 

Oct., Motto adopted by the State of Connecticut, ''Sustinet qui Transtulit" 
(He Who Transplanted Still Sustains). 
November 27, Avery A. Adee, politician, born. 

December 1, Philip Spencer, midshipman and son of John C. Spencer, Secretary 
of War, hanged at the yard-arm of the United States brig ''Somers" by 
commander Alex E. Mackenzie for an alleged conspiracy. 
Dec. 5, Third session of the twenty-seventh United States Congress assembles. 
Dec 9» The author of the "Old Oaken Bucket" Samuel Woodworth, dies at 
the age of 57 years in New York City. 

Dec 14, Tyler vetoes the bill designating Proceeds of Public Land sales, also 
bill for Testimony in Contested Elections. 
Dec 18, Tyler vetoes the payment of Cherokee Certificates. 

Alien immigrants to the United States, 104,565. 
Henry Hubbard, Governor of New Hampshire. 

Leonard Wilcox and Levi Woodbury, United States Senators from New Hamp- 
shire. 

Samuel C. Crafts, United States Senator from the State of Vermont. 
William Sprague, United States Senator from the State of Bhode Island. 
C. F. Cleveland, Governor of the State of Connecticut. 
William C. Bouck, Governor of the State of New York. 
William L. Dayton, United States Senator from the State of New Jersey. 
Francis Tomas, Governor of the State of Maryland. 
James T. Morehead, United States Senator from the State of Kentucky. 
John M. Gregory, Governor of the State of Virginia. 
James H. Hammond, Governor of the State of South Carolina. 
T. M. Tucker, Governor of the State of Mississippi, January. 



184a; Dec. 18 219 Dec. 4, 1843 

Wilson Shannon, Qovemor of the State of Ohio. 

Thomas Ford, Governor of the State of niinois. 

John S. Barry, Governor of the State of Michigan. 

Charles M. Conrad, United States Senator from the State of Louisiana. 

James D. Doty, Territorial Governor of the State of Wisconsin. 

{Earliest actual finding of gold in the Los Angeles district in California. 

Charles Dickens, the ffreat English writer, visits the United States. 

The Horatio Greenough statue of General Washington placed in the Capitol at 

W^ashington, D. C. 

tinfluenza (called la grippe) prevalent throughout the country. 

Oreat political excitement in Bhode Island and civil war threatened. 

d?he ascent of Frtoont Peak by John C. Fremont. 

Christian ,Metz establishes a community at Ebenezer, New York. 

National debt, $13,594,480.73. 

1843 

January 10, John M. Botts, of Virginia, offers a resolution for the impeachment of 
President Tyler for gross usurpation of power, misdemeanors in office, etc., 
rejected. 

Jan. 11, Francis Scott Key, author of "The Star-Spangled Banner," dies at Balti- 
more, Maryland, aged 64 years. 

Jan. 29, William McKinley, twenty-fifth president of the United States, bom. 
Fabmary IS, Commander Isaac Hull dies at the age of 68 years, at Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. 

ICarcli 3, News through Dr. Marcus Whitman of the British Government's in- 
tention to occupy the Oregon Territory travels from Walla Walla reaching 
Washington, D. C., with warning to the United States Government advising 
of same. 

ICar. 3, Bepeal of the Bankruptcy Act of 1841. 

Mar. 3, Thirty thousand dollars appropriated by Congress to build between 
Washington, D. C, and Baltimore, Maryland, telegraph communications "Morse 
System. ' ' 

liar. 3, Third session of the twenty-seventh United States Confess adjourns, 
liar. 14, Joseph P. Bradley, member of the electoral commission who cast the 
vote which gave the presidency to General Hayes in 1877, bom in New York. 
April 1, John Armstrong, Secretary of War in 1812, dies at Bed Hook, New 
York, aged 85 years. 

Afoy 9, Bill Boyd, Confederate spy during the Civil War, bom. 
Bffay 28, Noah Webster, American lexicographer, dies in New Haven, Connecticut. 
May, Second exploring expedition of Colonel John C. Fremont via Salt Lake 
to the Pacific coast to the mouth of the Columbia Biver. 

June 17, Completion and dedication of the Bunker Hill Monument, Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. Daniel Webster delivers the address in presence of President Tyler. 
AogOBt 30, James G. Birney nominated by the National Liberty party in con- 
vention at Buffalo, New York, for President and Thomas Morris of Ohio, for 
Vice-President of the United States. 

NoTsmber 9, Convention relative to extradition concluded between the United 
States and France at Washington, D. C. 

Deoember 4, First session of the twenty-eighth United States Congress convenes 
at .Washington, D. C. 

John W. Jones, of Virginia, elected speaker of the House of Bepresentatives. 

Edward Kavanagh, Governor of the State of Maine. 

John Fairfield, United States Senator from the State of Maine. 

Charles G. Atherton, United States Senator from the State of New Hampshire. 

John Mattocks, Governor of the State of Vermont. 

William Upham, United States Senator from the State of Vermont. 

Marcus Morton, Governor of the State of Massachusetts. 

James Fenner, first Governor of Bhode Island, under the State constitution. 

John M. Niles, United States Senator from the State of Connecticut. 

Daniel Haines, Governor of the State of New Jersey. 

James A. Pearce, United States Senator from the State of Maryland. 



1843, Dea 4 220 June S, 1844 

James McDowell, Govenior of the State of Virginia. 

William H. Haywood, United States Senator from the State of North Carolina. 

George McDuffee and Daniel E. Huger, United States Senators from the State 

of South Carolina. 

George W. Crawford. Governor of the State of Georgia. 

Walter T. Colquitt, United States Senator from the State of Georgia. 

Alexander Porter, United States Senator from the State of Louisiana. 

E. H. Foster and Spencer Jamagin, United States Senators from the State of 

Tennessee. 

Sidney Breese and James Semple, United States Senators from the State of 

Illinois. 

James Whitcomb, Governor of Indiana (elected United States Senator). 

E. A. Hannegan, United States Senator from the State of Indiana. 

David B. Atchinson, United States Senator from the State of Missouri. 

National debt, $32,742,922. 

Aliens arriving in United States 52,496. 

Basis for Congressional Bepresentation 70,680. 

Steel steamer * * Princeton ' ' built for the United States Navy. 

Joseph McEenna, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, born. 

1844 

February 16, Thomas W. Gilmer, Secret^ of the Navy. 
Feb. 16, William Wilkins, Secretary of War. 
Fob. 22, Nicholas Biddle, financier and diplomat, dies. 
March 6, John C. Calhoun, Secretary of State. 
Bfar. 14, John Y. Mason, Secretary of the Navy. 

Mar. 28, Convention for the settlement of droit d 'aubaine and tax on immigration 
abolished between the United States and Hesse-Cassel concluded at Berlin. 
April 10, Convention abolishing droit d 'aubaine and taxes on immigrants be- 
tween the United States and Wurtemberg concluded at Berlin. 
June 11, Tyler vetoes the Biver and Harbor bill passed by Congress. 
June 16, George M. Bibb, Secretary of the Treasury. 

July 3, Treaty of Peace, Amity, and Commerce concluded between the United 
States and China at Wang-Hyia. 

Hugh J. Anderson, Governor of the State of Maine. 
John H. Steele, Governor of the State of New Hampshire. 
William Slade, Governor of the State of Vermont. 
George N. Brings, Governor of the State of Massachusetts. 
John B. Francis, United States Senator from the State of Rhode Island. 
Boger S. Baldwin, Governor of the State of Connecticut. 
Silas Wright, Governor of the State of New York. 
Henry A. Foster, United States Senator from this State of New York. 
Charles C. Stratton, Governor of the State of New Jersey. 
Thomas Stockton, Governor of the State of Delaware. 
William Aiken, Governor of the State of South Carolina. 
William Onsley, Governor of the State of Kentucky. 
Dixon H. Lewis, United States Senator from the State of Alabama. 
John Branch, Territorial Governor of Florida. 
Thomas W. Bartley, Governor of the State of Ohio. 
Mordecai Bartley, Governor of the State of Ohio. 
Nathaniel P. Tallmadge, Territorial Governor of Wisconsin. 
Albert G. Brown, Governor of the State of Mississippi, January. 
Henry Johnson, United States Senator from the State of Louisiana. 
Samuel Adams, Governor of the State of Arkansas. 
Thomas S. Drew, Governor of the State of Arkansas. 
Chester Ashley, United States Senator from the State of Arkansai. 
M. M. Marmaduke, Acting Governor of the State of Missouri 
John C. Edwards, Governor of the State of Missouri 
Agitation concerning the annexation of Texas. 
Treaty for admission signed. 
National debt, $23,461,652.50. 



1844, Jima 3 221 Dec. 29, 1845 

Aliens arriving in the United States, 78|615. 

Mob at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

George W. Cable, novelist and a volnnteer in the service of the Confederate 

Army from 1863 until the close of the Civil War, bom in New Orleans, Louisiana. 

First message by the electric telegraph. 

June 27, Murder of the Mormon prophet, Joseph Smith, and his brother. 

Treaties effected by the United States and France with China. 

The Washington celebration on Boston Common, Massachusetts. 

Charles Bul£ich, architect, dies. 

For President: 

Popular Vote 

James E. Polk, Tennessee, Democrat 1,337,243 

Henry Clay, Kentucky, Whig 1,299,068 

James G. Bimey,' New York, Liberty 62,800 

Electoral Vote 

Polk, PluraUty 38,176 170 

Clay 105 

Bimey — 

Total , 275 

For Vice-President: 

Votes 

George M. Dallas, Penn^lvania, Democrat 170 

T. Frelinghuysen, New Jersey, Whig 105 

Thomas Morris, Ohio, Liberty — 

Total 275 

James E. Polk chosen President and George M. Dallas, Vice-President. 

1845 

Jaimary 21, Convention for abolishing droit d'aubaine and taxes on immi- 

f ration between the United States and Bavaria at Berlin, 
an. 23, First large ship with iron hull, screw steamer, ''Great Britain,'' sails 
from Bristol, t 

February 20, Tyler vetoes the Revenue Cutters and Steamers Defence Bill. 
Veto passed over. 

ICarcli 3, Florida admitted to the Union, formed from territory ceded to the 
United States by Spain by the treaty of 1819. 

Mar. 4, Taylor signs the bill for the admission of Texas and Florida as States 
of the Union.. 

liar. 6^ Cave Johnson, Postmaster-General. 
John Y. Mason, Attomey-GeneraL 
Bobert J. Walker, Secretary of the Treasury. 
James Buchanan, Secretary of State. 

May 14, Convention abolishing droit d'aubaine concluded between the United 
States and Saxony at Berlin. 

June 4, Mexico declares war against the United States. 

June 8, Andrew Jackson, iijnerican general and seventh president of the 
United States, dies. 

June 28, Over 1000 dwellings destroyed by fire in New York City. 
July 4, Joint resolution annexing Texas. 

July 19, A loss of a number of lives and over $6,000,000 in property by fire in 
New York City. 

August 10, $6,000,000 fire, 1000 buildings destroyed in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 
November 10, Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between the United States 
and Belgium concluded at Brussels. 

DecembMT 1, Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between the United States 
and the two Sicilies concluded at Naples. 

Dec^ 29, Texas admitted to the Union. This State was originally a part of the 
Bepublic of Mexico but by a successful revolt the people established for 



1846, Dec. 29 222 Jana 10, 1846 

themselves an independent republican government and were subsequentlj an- 
nexed to the United States. 

B. J. Jenness, United States Senator from the State of New Hampshire. 

Daniel Webster and John Davis, United States Senators from the State of 

Massachnsetts. 

Charles Jackson, Governor of the State of Bhode Island. 

Albert G. Greene, United States Senator from the State of Bhode Island. 

John A. Dix and Daniel S. Dickinson, United States Senators from the State 

of New York. 

Frank B. Shank, Governor of the State of Pennsylvania. (Besigned in 1848.) 

Simon Cameron, United States Senator from the State of Pennsylvania. 

Thomas G. Pratt, Governor of Maryland. 

Beverdy Johnson, United States Senator from the State of Maryland. 

John M. Clayton, United States Senator from the State of Delaware. 

I. S. Pennybacker, United States Senator from the State of Virginia. 

William A. Graham, Governor of the State of North Carolina. 

John C. Calhoun, United States Senator from the State of South Carolina. 

Joshua L. Martin, Governor of the State of Alabama. 

William D. Moseley, Governor of the State of Florida. 

James D. Westcott, Jr., and David It, Tales, United States Senators from the 

State of Florida. 

Thomas Corwin, United States Senator from the State of Ohio. 

Lewis Cass, United States Senator from the State of Michigan. 

Henry Dodge, Territorial Governor of Wisconsin. 

Aaron V. Brown, Governor of the State of Tennessee, October. 

H. L. Tumey, United States Senator from the State of Tennessee. 

Isaac Johnson, Governor of the State of Louisiana. 

J. W. Chalmers and Jesse Speight, United State Senators from the State of 

Mississippi. 

James Cliark, Territorial Governor of Iowa. 

Jesse D. Bright, United States Senator from the State of Indians. 

George Abernethy, Governor of Oregon Territory. 

Rational debt, $15,925,303.01. 

Navy commission sent to inspect European lighthouse systems. 

Twenty-ninth United States Congress assembles. 

Charles F. Crisp, bom. Died, 1896. Speaker of the House of Bepresentatives. 

John W. Davis, of Indiana, speaker of the House of Bepresentatives. 

Tumwater, Washington, settled by Americans. 

Edward D. White, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, bom. 

Samuel Wilson, New York, Justice United States Supreme Court. 

Levi Woodbury, New Hampshire, Justice United States Supreme Court. 

Texas acquires 389,166 square miles. 

Alien immigrants arriving in the United States, 114,371. 

Jules M. <>mbon, a French diplomatist, bom in Paris April 5. He studied for 

the law and fought in the Franco-Prussian war reaching the grade of captain. 

He was ambassador to the United States in 1897, retiring in 1903, and represented 

Spain in drawing up the Spanish-American protocol in 1898. 

Anti-rent riots in New York. 

The first Tuesday after the first Monday in November designated as the one 

on which to hold presidential elections. 

Treaty made with China. 

Speech of Mr. Cass on north-western boundary of Oregon. 

1846 

April 2Af War with Mexico commenced. 

May 8, Battle of Fort Brown, Mexican War. 

May 8, Battle of Palo Alto, Mexican War. 

May 9, Battle of Besaca de la Palma, Mexican War. 

May 27, Convention abolishing droit d'aubaine between the United States and 

Nassau concluded at Berlin. 

June 10, Treaty of Commerce and Navigation concluded between the United 

States and Hanover at Hanover. 



1846, Jima 16 223 Dec 28, 1846 

June 15, Treaty in settlement of the Oregon boondary between United States 

and Oreat Britain concluded. 

Jima 16^ Battle of Sonoma and Sonoma Pass, Mexican War. 

July 16, Major General Zacbary Taylor awarded a gold medal by Cbngreas 

for service at the victory of Bio Grande. 

July SO, Tariff bill passed the House by a vote of 114 to 95 and the Senate 

by the casting vote of Vice-President George M. Dallas. 

Angnst S, President Polk vetoes the Biver and Harbor bill passed by Congress. 

Aug. 6, Warehouse system established by act of Conffress. 

Aug. 8, President Polk vetoes the French Spoliation Claims bill. 

Aug. 22, General S. W. Kearney, Military Governor of New Mexico. 

Aug. 23, Annexation of New Mexico to the United States. 

Aug. 27, AUyn Capron, military officer, bom in Tampa, Florida. He was a 

son of Captain Erastur A. Capron who was killed in the Mexican War. He 

graduated from West Point in 1867, rose to the rank of Captain in 1888, 

and in the war with Spain led an advance at the battle of Santiago. He 

further distinguished himself at El Caney and died at Fort Myer, Virginia, 

Sept. 18, 1898. 

September 9, J. Y. Mason, Secretary of the Navy. 

Sept. 21 to 23, Battle of Monterey, Mexican War. 

Sept. 22, Charles Bent, Military Governor of New Mezieo. 

October 17, Nathan CUfford, Attorney-General. 

December 12, Treaty of Peace, Amity, Navigation, and Commerce between 

the United States and New Granada concluded at Bogota. 

Dec. 25, Battle of Braceta, Mexican War. 

Dec 28, Iowa admitted to the Union, formed from a portion of the territory of 

Wisconsin as the territory of Iowa, June 12, 1838. 

Anthony Colby, Governor of the State of New Hampshire. 

Joseph Cilley, United States Senator from the State of New Hampshire. 

Horace Eaton, Governor of the State of Vermont. 

Clark Bissell, Governor of the State of Connecticut. 

John Toung, Governor of the State of New York. 

Bobert C. Grier, of Pennsylvania, Justice United States Supreme Court. 

Joseph Maul and William Temple, Governors of Delaware. 

William Smith, Governor of the State of Virginia. 

George E. Badger, United States Senator from the State of North Carolina. 

David Johnson, Gk)vemor of the State of South Carolina. 

Andrew P. Butler, United States Senator from the State of South Carolina. 

William Bebb, Governor of the State of Ohio. 

Alpheus Felch, Governor of the State of Michigan. 

A. Briggs, Governor of the State of Iowa. 

Augustus C. French, Governor of the State of Illinois. 

J. P. Henderson, Governor of the State of Texas, February 19. 

Samuel Houston and Thomas J. Busk, United States Senators from Texas. 

John C. Fremont, Governor of the California Bepublic. 

General Taylor defeats the Mexicans. 

California and New Mexico occupied. 

The unadopted Wilmot Proviso formulates the exclusion of slavery from all 

acquired Mexican territory. 

Large Irish emigration to the United States. 

Scott's successful campaign in Mexico from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico. 

Tariff on imports reduced. 

Treaty settling northwestern boundhry. 

Oregon Territory acquired adding new territory of 288,689 square miles to 

the United States. 

Aliens into the United States^ 154,416. 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin, established. 

Motto of the State of Florida, "In God We Trust." 

The sewing machine completed by Elias Howe. 

St. Paul, Minnesota, settled by Americans. 

National debt, $15,550,202.97. 



1846, Dec. 28 224 Dec, 1847 

Edward Everet^ Presideiit of Harvard College. 

Eriek Jansen lomifl a Swedieli eolonj of Pietiato and Beparatiata at Bishop 

Hill, niinoia. 

Siege of Fort Brown, Texas. 

Siege of Fort Monterey, Mexico. 

1847 

January 8, Battle of San OabrieL 
Jan. 9, Battle of the Mesa. 

Jan. 19, Donaeiano Vigil, Acting Military-Governor of New Mexico. 
Jan. 23, Battle of Encamadon. 

Jan. 26, Act passed allowing States to tax pablic lands of the United States 
after they are sold by the United States. 

February 11, Authorization of ten additional regiments by Congress for regolar 
army service. 

Fab. 23, Battle of Bnena Vista. 

Feb. 25, Motto adopted by the State of Iowa, ''Our Liberties We Priae, and 
Our Bights We Maintain." 
Feb. 28, Battle of Chihuahua. 

Mardi 2, Zaehary Taylor, Major General in the United States Army, awarded 
a gold medal by Congress for distinguished services in capturing Monterey. 
Mtf . 8, Alexander G. Bell, inventor of the telephone, photophone, and grapho- 
phone, bom. 

Mar. 3, By act of Congress the Capitol and grounds at Washington, D. C, lifted 
by gas. 

Mar. 3, First session of the twenty-ninth United States Congress adjourns. 
Mar. 3, The British, French, and Spanish officers and crews awarded gold and 
silver medids for services rendered in rescuing the crew of the United States 
brig-of-war "Somers" before Vera Cruz, December 7, 1846. 
liar. 9, The Americans land a force of 13,000 men under General Scott at Vera 
Cruz, Mexico. 

Mar. 29, Vera Cruz captured, 
i^wil 2, Battle of Alvarado. 
Apr. 18, Battle of Cerro Gordo. 

May 18, Convention abolishing droit d'aubaine and taxes on emigration con- 
cluded between the United States and Swiss Confederation at Washington, D. C. 
July 7, The Eastern States toured by President Polk as far as Augusta, Maine. 
August 20, Battle of Contreras. 
Aug. 20, Battle of Churubusco. 

September 7, Mexico granted an armistice by General Scott. 
S^t. 8, Battle of El Molino del Bey. 
Sept. 13, Battle of Chapultepec. 
Sept^ 13, Mexico City entered by General Scott. 
October 9, Battle of Huamantla. 
Oct 18, Battle of Athixco. 
September-October, Battle of Puebla. 

November, Reuben Chapman, Governor of the State of Alabama. 
December 6, Second session of the thirtieth United States Congress assembles at 
Washington, D. C. 

Dec 15, Polk vetoes the Internal Improvement bill 
Dec 21, George T. Wood, Governor of Texas. 

Dec 31, Wilson S. Bissell, lawyer, bom in New York. He was Postmaster- 
General in President Cleveland's Cabinet. 
Dec, John P. Altgeld, governor and judge, bom. 

John W. Dana, Govemor of the State of Maine. 

James W. Bradbury, United States Senator from the State of Maine. 

J. W. Williams, Governor of the State of New Hampshire. 

John P. Hale, United States Senator from the State of New Hampshire. 

Elisha Harris, Govemor of the State of Bhode Island. 

John H. Clark, United States Senator from the State of Bhode Island. 

Boger S. Baldwin, United States Senator from the State of Connecticut. 



1847, Dec. 225 Jane 7-8, 1848 

William Thorp, Governor of the State of Delaware. 

Presley Spruance, United States Senator from the State of Delaware. 

James M. Mason and Bobert M. T. Hunter, United States Senators from the 

State of Virginia. 

Oeorge B. Towns, Governor of the State of Georgia. 

Neil S. Brown, Governor of the State of Tennessee, October. 

John BelL United States Senator from the State of Tennessee. 

Solomon W. Downs and Pierre Soule, United States Senators from the State 

of Louisiana. 

J. B. Underwood, United States Senator from the State of Kentucky. 

Jefferson Davis and Henry S. Foote, United States Senators from the State 

of Mississippi. 

Stephen A. Douglas, United States Senator from the State of Illinois. 

Alpneus Felch, United States Senator from the State of Michigan. 

Commodore B. S. Stockton, Provisional or Military Governor of California. 

General S. W. Kearney, ^litary Governor of California. 

John C. Fremont, Military Governor of California. 

B. B. Mason, Provisional Governor of California. 

William L. Greenley, Governor of the State of Michigan. 

Atlanta, Georgia, established. 

American Medical Association founded, Chicago, Hlinoia. 

Salt Lake City, Utah, established. 

University of Iowa, established. 

Siege of Buebla, Mexico. 

Siege of Vera Cruz. 

Oneida community established. 

Bobert C. Winthrop, Massachusetts, speaker of the House of Bepresentativea. 

National debt, $38,826,534.77. 

Aliens arriving in the United States, 234,968. 

Pacific Mail Steamship Company organized. 

Thomas A. Edison, inventor, bom. 

General Kearney takes possession of Santa F6, New Mexico. 

California declared a part of the United States. 

1848 

January 31, Confess authorizes monument to George Washington on public 

grounds in Washington. 

Jan., Gold discovered in California. 

February 2, Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Limits between the United States 

and the Bepublic of Mexico concluded at Guadalupe Hidalgo. 

Feb. 23, John Quincy Adams dies in Washington, D. C, at the age of 81 years. 

March 9, Major-General Winfield Scott awarded a gold medal by Congress for 

services in the Mexican Campaign. 

Mar. 11, Henry Wheaton, publicist and diplomatist, dies. 

Mar. 29, John Jacob Astor, merchant, dies in New York. 

Mar. 31, A government loan of $16,000,000 authorized by Congress. 

Mar. 31, William Waldorf Astor, capitalist, bom. 

April 14, First session of the thirty-first United States Congress adjourns. 

Apr. .15, Charles H. Allen, diplomatist, born. 

May 8^ Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between the United States and 

Austria concluded at Washington, D. C. 

May 9, Major-General Zachary Taylor awarded a gold medal by Congress for 

services at the victory of Buena Vista. 

May 19, Treaty between the United States and Mexico for cession of California 

and New Mexico ratified. 

May 22-26, Democratic National Convention at Baltimore, Maryland, Lewis 

Cass, of Michigan, nominated for President and William O. Butler, of Kentucky, 

for Vice-President. 

May 29, Wisconsin admitted to the Union. 

May 31, James Madison's unpublished papers ordered bought by act of Congress. 

Jime 7-8, National Whig Convention at Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Penn- 



1848, June 7-8 226 Daa IS, 1848 

sylvania. nominates Major-Oeneral Zachanr Taylor, of Loniaiana, for President 

and Millard Fillmore, of New York, for Vice-President. 

June 21, Isaac Toucey, Attomey-OeneraL 

June 29, Paul Boynton, born. He served in the United States Navy in the 

Civil War and invented a life-preserving snit. 

June SO, Edward Burgess, naval architect, bom in Massachusetts. He designed 

the "Fliritan" and "Mayflower" winners of the American Cup races in 

1885-86. 

July 4, The comer stone of the Washington monument laid at Washington, D. C. 

July 4, War with Mexico ends. 

August 9-10, Free-Soil National Convention at Buffalo, New York, nominates 

Martin Van Buren, of New York, and Charles Francis Adams, of Massachusetts, 

for President and Vice-President, respectively. 

Aug. 14, Oregon territorial government approved by act of Congress. 

S^tamber 9, Fire loss of $3,000,000, 24 acres bumed, and over 600 buildings 

destroyed at Albany, New York. 

November 7, Sixteenth presidential election held in the United States. 

For President: 

Popular Vote 

Zachary Taylor, Louisiana, Whig 1,360,101 

Lewis Cass, Michigan, Democrat 1,220,544 

Martin Van Buren, New York, Free-Soil 291,263 

Eleetoral Vote 

Taylor, Plurality 139,557 163 

Cass 127 

Van Buren -— 

Total 290 

For Vice-President: 

MiUard Fillmore, New York, Whig 163 

William O. Butler, Kentucky, Democrat 127 

Charles F. Adams, Massachusetts, Free-Soil — 

Total 290 

December 8, First gold from California deposited at the United States mint. 
Dec 15, Postal treaty between the United States and Oreat Britain concluded. 
Wyman B. S. Moor and Hannibal Hamlin, United States Senators from the 
State of Maine. 

Carlos CoUidge, €h>vemor of the State of Vermont. 

Hamilton Fish, Governor of the State of New York. 

Daniel Hainer, Governor of the State of New Jersey. 

Philip F. Thomas, Governor of the State of Maryland. 

H. V. Johnson, United States Senator from the State of Georgia. 

John J. Crittenden, Governor of the State of Kentucky. 

Thomas Metcalf, United States Senator from the State of Kentucky. 

W. B. Seabrook, Governor of the State of South Carolina. 

J. W. Matthews, Governor of the State of Mississippi. 

Epaphroditus Bawson, Governor of the State of Micnigan. 

Nelson Dewey, Governor of the State of Wisconsin. 

Henry Dodge and I. P. Walker, United States Senators from the State of 

Wisconsin. 

William B. King and Benjamin Fitzpatrick, United States Senators from the 

State of Alabama. 

John S. Boane, Governor of the State of Arkansas. 

Solon Borland and William K. Sebastian, United States Senators from the 

State of Arkansas. 

A. C. Dodge and George W. Jones, United States Senators from the State of 

Iowa. 

Austin A. I^ing, Governor of the State of Missouri. 



1848, Dea 16 227 Dea, 18i9 

P. C. Dunning, Acting Governor of the State of Indiana. 

Lientenant-Colonel J. M. Washington, Military-Oovemor of New Mexico. 

National debt, $47,044,862.23. 

University of Wisconsin established. 

Mexico cession 529,189 square miles. 

Alien immigration 226,527. 

Free-Soil party formed from the Liberty party and Democrats and Whigs 

opposed to slavery. 

Inter-State convention in favor of a railway to the Pacific. 

Horace Greeley a member of Congress. 

Brooks Adams, politician, bom. 

1849 

January 27, Convention satisfying United States claims concluded between that 
country and Brazil at Bio de Janeiro. 

February 14, Electoral vote for President and Vice-President counted at Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

MSrch 8, Territorial Government established by act and approved for Minnesota. 
Har. 8, Coinage of the sold dollar and double eagle authorized by Congress. 
Mar. 8, Department of the Interior created by act of Congress and approved. 
Mar. 8, Census office transferred by act of Congress from the Secretary of 
State to the Department of the Interior. 

Mar. 8, Second session of the thirtv-first United States Congress adjourns. 
Biar. 8, Convention of Peace, Amity, Commerce, aiSd Navigation concluded be- 
tween the United States and Guatemala at Guatemala. 

Biar. 5, Sixteenth Federal administration. Whig, inauguration of Zachary 
Taylor^ of Louisiana, President, Millard Fillmore, of New York, Vice-President. 
Mar. 7, John M. Clayton, Secretary of State. 
Mar. 8, WUliam M. Meredith, Secretary of the Treasury. 
Mar. 8, George W. Crawford, Secretary of War. 
Mar. 8, Thomas Ewing, Secretary of the Interior. 
Mar. 8, William B. Preston, Secretary of the Navy. 
Mar. 8, Beverdy Johnson, Attorney-General. 

April 2, Alex Bamsey of Pennsylvania, Territorial Governor, Minnesota. 
May 7, General William J. Worth of the United States Army, dies at the 
age of 55 years at San Antonio, Texas. 

May 10, Astor place riots in New York City growing out of rivalry between 
the actors. Forest and Macready. 

May 17, Fire losses of $3,000,000 in houses and steamboats at St. Louis, Missouri. 
June 6^ Death of General Edmund P. Gaines at New Orleans aged 72 years. 
June 16, James K. Polk, eleventh president of the United States, dies at 
Nashville, Tennessee. 

July 2, Father Mathew visits the United States arriving in New York on the 
"Ashburton." He is welcomed at the Irving House as the guest of the city. 
August 11, President Taylor issues a proclamation against the Lopez filibustering 
expedition to Cuba. 

Aug. IS^ Death at Astoria, Long Island, of Albert Gallatin, distinguished 
statesman. 

October, William Trousdale, Governor, Tennessee. 

December 8, First session of the thirty-second United States Congress assembles 
at Washington, D. C. 

Dec. 20, Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation between the United 
States and Hawaiian Islands concluded at Washington, D. C. 
Dec, P. H. Bell, Governor of the State of Texas. 

Samuel Dinsmore, Governor of the State of New Hampshire. 

Moses Norris, Jr., United States Senator from the State of New Hampshire. 

Henry B. Anthony, Governor of the State of Bhode Island. 

Joseph Trumbull, Governor of the State of Connecticut. 

Truman Smith, United States Senator from the State of Connecticut. 

William H. Seward, United States Senator from the State of New York. 

William F. Johnsoui Acting Governor of the State of Pennsylvania. 



1849, Deo. 228 May 23, 1860 

James Cooper^ United States Senator from the State of Pennsylvania. 

John Wales, United States Senator from the State of Delaware. 

David Stewart, United States Senator from the State of Maryland. 

Charles Manly, Governor of the State of North Carolina. 

William C. Dawson, United States Senator trom the State of Georgia. 

Thomas Brown, Governor of the State of Florida. 

Jackson Morton, United States Senator from the State of Florida. 

Henry Clay, United States Senator from the State of Kentucky. 

Henry W. Collier, Governor of the State of Alabama. 

Jeremiah Clemens, United States Senator from the State of Alabama. 

Pierre Soule, United States Senator from the State of Louisiana. 

Major John Monroe, Military-Governor of New Mexico. 

Seabury Ford, Governor of the State of Ohio. 

Salmon P. Chase, United States Senator from the State of Ohio. 

Joseph A. Wright, Governor of the State of Indiana. 

James Whitcomb, United States Senator from the State of Indiana. 

James Shields, United States Senator from the State of Illinois. 

Thomas Fitzgerald, United States Senator from the State of Michigan. 

Bennett Bilev, Provisional Governor of the State of California. 

John C. Fremont and William M. Gwim, United States Senators from the 

State of California. 

Joseph Lane and J. P. Gaines, Governors of Oregon Territory. 

Howell Cobb, Georgia, speaker of the House of Bepresentatives. 

Jared Sparks, President of Harvard College. 

National debt, $63,061,858.69. 

Indian War with the Apache, Navajo, and Utah tribes commences. 

Elizabeth Blackwell graduates from the medical department of Geneva College, 

the first woman physician in the United States. 

M. Poussin, French Minister, recalled because of insolence to the American 

Secretary of State. 

Alien immigrants number 297,024. 

Collins line American steamstiips founded and subsidized by the United States 

Government. 

William B. Day, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, bom. 

Bush of gold miners to California. 

1850 

Jaaaary 2, Treaty of Amity, Navigation, and Commerce concluded between the 

United States and San Salvador at Leon. 

Jan. 11, Organization of the House of Bepresentatives completed with Howell 

Cobb, of Georgia, chosen speaker over Bobert C. Winthrop, of Massachusetts, 

by a vote of 102 by 99 on the 63 ballot. 

Jan. 11» United States Senate is Democratic; in the House of Bepresentatives 

the balance of power is held by the Free-Soilers over the Democratic and Whigs. 

Jan. 29^ Besolutions introduced by Henry Clay as a basis for compromise of 

the slavery controversy between the North and South. 

February 12^ Besolution of Congress for the purchase of the manuscript of 

Washington's Farewell Address. 

Mardi 7, Daniel Webster attacks the Abolitionists in debating the compromise 

biU. 

Max. 31, John C. Calhoun, statesman, dies at Washington, D. C, aged sixty- 
eight years. 

April 17, Convention relative to the Nicaragua ship-canal between the United 
States and Great Britain concluded at Washington, D. C. 

Apr. 19, Clayton-Bulwer treaty between the United States and Great Britain 
for a joint occupancy of the proposed ship-canal across Central America signed. 
Apr. 19, Clay's compromise resolutions are referred to a committee for adjust- 
ment. 

May 4, Convention for the adjustment of Consular powers between the United 
States and New Granada concluded at Washington, D. C. 
May 83^ The '< Advance" and ''Bescue/' equipped hj Henry Grinnell and 



1850, May 23 229 Sept. 9, 1850 

under Lieutenant De Haven with Dr. Elisha K. Kane, sail from New York to 

search for Sir John Franklin. 

Juha 23» Taylor's message on the status of California, New Mexico, and Texas. 

June 23, Convention of Peace, Friendship, and Good Understanding concluded 

between the United States and Borneo at Brunei. 

July 9, President Taylor dies in Washington, D. C, at the age of 66 years. 

Ju^ 10, Vice-President Fillmore takes the oath of office as Resident of the 

United States. 

July 11, William B. Sling of Alabama, president pro tem of the United States 

Senate. 

July 18, Millard ilUmore inaugurated President of the United States. 

August 24, TresLty between the United States and the Sandwich or Hawaiian 

Islands ratified. The treaty was signed December 20, 1849. 

September 9, Utah created a territory and territorial government established. 

Sept. 9, New Mexico formed a portion of the territory ceded to the United 

States by Mexico by the treaty of February 2, 1848, organized under territorial 

government. 

FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Bepresentatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled. That the persons who have been, or 
may hereafter be, appointed commissioners, in virtue of any act of Congress, by 
the Circuit Courts of the United States, and Who, in consequence of such 
appointment, are authorized to exercise the powers that any justice of the 
peace, or other magistrate of any of the United States, may exercise in re- 
spect to offenders for any crime or offense against the United States, by arresting, 
imprisoning, or bailing the same under and by the virtue of the thirty-third 
section of the act of the twenty-fourth of September seventeen hundred and 
eighty-nine, entitled, ''An Act to establish the judicial courts of the United 
States," shall be, and are hereby, authorized and required to exercise and 
discharge all the powers and duties conferred by this act. 
Sec. 2. And be it further enacted. That the Superior Court of each organized 
Territory of the United States shall have the same power to appoint com- 
missioners to take acknowledgments of bail and affidavits, and to take deposi- 
tions of witnesses in civil cases, which is now possessed by the Circuit Court 
of the United States; and all commissioners who shall hereafter be appointed 
for such purposes by the Superior Court of any organized Territory of -the 
United States shall possess all the powers, and exercise all the duties, conferred 
by law upon the commissioners appointed by the Circuit Courts of the United 
States for similar purposes, and shall moreover exercise and discharge all 
the powers and duties conferred by this act. 

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That the Circuit Courts of the United States 
shall from time to time enlarge the number of the commissioners with a 
view to afford reasonable facilities to reclaim fugitives from labor, and to 
the prompt discharge of the duties imposed by this act. 

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted. That the commissioners above named shall 
have concurrent jurisdiction with the judges of the Circuit and District Courts 
of the United States, in their respective circuits and districts within the 
several States, and the judges of the Superior Courts of the Territories, severally 
and collectively, in term-time and vacation; shall grant certificates to such 
claimants, upon satisfactory proof being made, with authority to take and re- 
move such fugitive from service or labor, under the restrictions herein con- 
tained, to the State or territory from which such persons may have escaped 
or fled. 

Sec. 5. And be it further enacted. That it shall be the duty of all marshals and 
deputy marshals to obey and execute all warrants and precepts issued under 
the provisions of this act, when to them directed, and should any marshal 
or deputy marshal refuse to receive such warrant, or other process, when 
tendered, or to use all proper means diligently to execute the same, he shall, 
on conviction thereof, be fined in the sum of one thousand dollars, to the use 
of such claimant, on tne motion of such claimant, by the Circuit or District Court 
for the district of saeh marshal; and after the arrest of such fugitive, by such 



1850» Sept. 230 Sept 0, 1860 



marshal or his deputy, or whilst at any time in his custody under the provisions 
of this act, should such fugitive escape whether with or without the assent of 
such marshal or his deputy, such marshal shall be liable, or his official bond, to be 
prosecuted, for the benefit of such claimant, for the full value of the service 
or labor of said fugitive in the State, Territory, or District whence he 
escaped; and the better to enable the said commissioners, when thus appointed, 
to execute their duties faithfully and efficiently, in conformity with the 
requirements of the Constitution of the United States and to this act, they 
are hereby authorized and empowered, within their counties respectively, to ap- 
point, in writing under their hands, any one or more suitable persons, from 
time to time, to execute all such warrants, and other process as may be 
issued by them in the lawful performance of their respective duties, with 
authority to such commissioners, or the persons to be appointed by them, to 
execute process as aforesaid, to summon and call to their aid the bystanders, 
or posse comitatus of the proper county, when necessary to ensure a faithful 
observance of the clause of the Constitution referred to, in conformity with 
the provisions of this act; and all good citizens are hereby commanded to 
aid and assist in the prompt and efficient execution of this law, whenever 
their services may be required, as aforesaid, for that purpose; and said war- 
rants shall run, and be executed by said officers, anywhere in the State, 
within which they are issued. 

Sec. 6. And be it further enacted. That when a person held to service or 
labor in any State or Territory of the United States, has heretofore or shall 
hereafter escape into another State or Territory of the United States, the 
person or persons to whom such service or labor may be due, or his, her, or 
their agent or attornev, duly authorized, by power of attorney, in writing, ac- 
knowledged and certified under the seal of some legal officer or court of the 
State or Territory in which the same may be executed, may pursue and reclaim 
such furtive person, either by procuring a warrant from some one of the 
courts, judges, or commissioners aforesaid, of the proper circuit, district, or 
county, for the apprehension of such fugitive from service or labor, or by 
seizing and arresting such fugitive, where the same can be done without 
process, and by taking, or causing such person to be taken, forthwith before 
such court, judge, or commissioner, whose duty it shaU be to hear and determine 
the case of such claimant in a summary manner; and upon satisfactory proof 
being made, by deposition or affidavit, in writing, to be taken and certified 
by such court, judge, or commissioner, or by other satisfactory testimony, duly 
taken and certified by some court, magistrate, justice of the peace, or other 
legal officer authorized to administer an oath and take depositions under 
the laws of the State or Territory from which such person owing service 
or labor may have escaped, with a certificate of such magistracy or other au- 
thority, as aforesaid, with the seal of the proper court or officer thereto at- 
tached, which seal shall be sufficient to establish the competency of the 
proof, and with proof, also by affidavit, of the identity of the person whose 
service or labor is claimed to be due as aforesaid, that the person so ar- 
rested does in fact owe service or labor to the person or persons claiming 
him or her, in the State or Territory from which such fugitive may have 
escaped as aforesaid, and that said person escaped, to make out and deliver to 
such claimant, his or her agent or attorney, a certificate setting forth the 
substantial facts as to the service or labor due from such fugitive to the 
claimant, and of his or her escape from the State or Territory in which he or she 
was arrested, with authority of such claimant, or his or her agent or attorney, 
to use such reasonable force and restraint as may be necessary, under the 
circumstances of the case, to take and remove such fugitive person back 
to the State or Territory whence he or she may have escaped as aforesaid. 
In no trial or hearing under this act shall the testimony of such alleged 
fugitive be admitted in evidence; and the certificates in this and the first 
(fourth) section mentioned shaU be conclusive of the right of the person 
or persons in whose favor granted, to remove such fugitive to the State or 
Territory from which he escaped, and shall prevent all molestations of such 
person or persons by any process issued by any court, judge, magistrate, or 
other person whomsoever. 



1850, Sept 231 Sept 9, 1860 

Sec. 7. And be it farther enacted, That any person who shall knowingly and 
willingly obstruct, hinder, or prevent such claimant, his agent or attorney, or 
any person or persons lawfully assisting him, her, or them, from arresting such 
a fugitive from service or labor, either with or without process as aforesaid, or 
shall rescue, or attempt to rescue, such fugitive from service or labor, from 
the custody of such claimant, his or her agent or attorney, or other person, 
or persons lawfully assisting as aforesaid, when so arrested, pursuant to the 
authority herein given and declared; or diall aid, abet, or assist such person 
so owing service or labor as aforesaid, directly or indirectly, to escape from 
such claimant, his agent or attorney, or other person or persons legally 
authorized as aforesaid; or shall harbor or conceal such fugitive, so as to 
prevent the discovery and arrest of such person, after notice or knowledge 
of the fact that such person was a fugitive from service or labor as afore- 
said, shall, for either of said o£Fences, be subject to a fine not exceeding one 
thousand dollars, and imprisonment not exceeding six months, by indictment and 
conviction before the District Court of the United States for the district in 
which such offense may have been committed, or before the proper court 
of criminal jurisdiction, if committed within any one of the original Terri- 
tories of the United States; and shall moreover forfeit and pay, by way 
of civil damages to the party injured by such illegal conduct, the sum of one 
thousand dollars for each fugitive so lost as aforesaid, to be recovered by 
action of debt, in any of the District or Territorial Courts aforesaid, within 
whose jurisdiction the said. offence may have been committed. 
Sec. 8. And be it further enacted, That the marshals, their deputies, and 
the clerks of the said district and Territorial Courts, shall be paid, for 
their services, the like fees as may be allowed for similar services in other 
cases; and where such services are rendered exclusively in the arrest, custody, 
and delivery of the fugitive to the claimant, his or her agent or attorney, 
or where such supposed fugitive may be discharged out of custody for the 
want of sufficient proof as aforesaid, then such fees are to be paid in whole 
by such claimant, his or her agent or attorney; and in all cases where the 
proceedings are before a commissioner, he shall be entitled to a fee of ten 
dollars in full for his services in each case, upon the delivery of the said 
certificate to the claimant, his agent or attorney, or a fee of five dollars in 
ease where the proof shall not, in the opinion of such commissioner, warrant 
such certificate and delivery, inclusive oi all services incident to such arrest 
and examination, to be paid, in either case, by the claimant, his or her 
agent or attorney. The person or persons authorized to execute the process 
to be issued by such commissioner for the arrest and detention of fugitives 
from service or labor as aforesaid, shall also be entitled to a fee of five dollars 
each for each person he or they may arrest and take before any commissioner 
as aforesaid, at the instance and request of such claimant, with such other 
fees as may be deemed reasonable by such commissioner for such other 
additional services as may be necessarily performed by him or them; such as 
attending at the examination, keeping the fugitive in custody, and providing 
him with food and lodging during his detention, and until the final determina- 
tion of such commissioners; and, in general, for performing such other duties 
as may be required by such claimant, his or her attorney or agent, or commis- 
sioner in the premises, such fees to be made up in conformity with the fees 
usually charged by the officers of the courts of justice within the proper district 
or county, as near as may be practicable, and. paid by such claimants, their 
agents or attorneys, whether such fugitives from service or labor be ordered 
to be delivered to such claimant by the final determination of such commissioner 
or not. 

Sec. 9. And be it further enacted. That, upon affidavit made by the claimant 
of such fugitive, his agent or attorney, after such certificate has been issued, 
that he has reason to apprehend that such fugitive will be rescued by force from 
his or their possession before he can be taken beyond the limits of the state 
in which the arrest is made, it shall be the duty of the officer making the arrest 
to retain such fugitive in nis custody, and to remove him to the state whence 
he fled, and there to deliver him to said claimant, his agent, or attorney. And 
to this .end| the officer aforesaid is hereby authorized and required to employ 



1860^ Sept. 9 232 Dec. 14» 1860 

80 many persons as he maj deem necessary to overcome such force, and to 
retain them in his service so long as circumstances may require. The said offi- 
cer and his assistants, while so employed, to receive the same compensation and 
to be allowed the same expenses, as are now allowed by law for transportation 
of criminiJs, to be certified by the judge of the district within which the arrest 
is made, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. 
Sec. 10. And be it further enacted, That when any person held to service or 
labor in any state or territory, or in the District of Columbia, shall escape there- 
from, the party to whom such service or labor shall be due, his, her, or their 
agent or attorney, may apply to any court of record therein, or judge thereof in 
vacation, and maie satisfactory proof to such court, or judge in vacation, of the 
the escape aforesaid, and that the person escaping owed service or labor to such 
party. Whereupon the court shall cause a record to be made of the matter so 
proved, and also a general desoription of the person so escaping, with such con- 
venient certainty as may be, and a transcript of such record, authenticated by the 
attestation of the clerk and of the seal of the said court, being produced in any 
other state. Territory, or district in which the person so escaping may be found, 
and being exhibited to any judge, commissioner, or other officer authorized by 
the law of the United States to cause persons escaping from service or labor 
to be delivered up, shall be held and taken to be full and conclusive evidence 
of the fact of escape, and that the service or labor of the person escaping is 
due to the party in such record mentioned. And upon the production by the said 
party of otner and further evidence if necessary, either oral or by affidavit, in 
addition to what is contained in the said record of the identity of the person 
escaping, containing in the said record of the identity of the person escaping, 
he or she shall be delivered up to the claimant. And the said court, commissioner, 
judffe, or other person authorized by this act to grant certificates to claimants 
or fugitives, shaU, upon the production of the records and other evidences afore- 
said, ffrant to such claimant a certificate of his rights to take any such person 
identified and proved to be owing service or labor as aforesaid, which certifi- 
cate shall authorize such claimant to seize or arrest and transport such person 
to the State or Territory from which he escaped; Provided. That nothing nerein 
contained shall be construed as requiring the production oi a transcript of such 
record as evidence as aforesaid. But in its absence the claim shall be heard and 
determined upon other satisfactory proofs, competent in law. 

Approved, September 18, 1850. 

Sept. 9, California, formed from territory ceded to the United States by Mexico 
by the treaty of February 2, 1848, admitted to the Union. 
Sept 9, Northern and western boundaries of Texas established. 
Sept. 9, Motto adopted by the state of New Mexico, "Grescit Eundo'' (It In- 
creases by Qoing). 
Fugitive Slave Act. 

Sept. 18, Stringent amendments to the fugitive slave laws of 1793 passed 
and approved. 

Sept. 20, Act approved suppressing the slave trade in the District of Columbia 
to begin January 1, 1851. 

Sept. 28, Act passed and approved prohibiting flogging in the navy and on com- 
mercial vessels. 

Sept. SO, First session of the thirty-first United States Congress adjourns, hav- 
ing lasted 302 days, the longest session to this date. 

O^ber 22, The city council of Chicago, Illinois, passes a resolution nullifying the 
fugitive slave law and releasing the police of the city from obedience to it. 
TMs resolution is later reconsidered. 
Oct. 26, Northwest passage discovered by Captain Clure. 

November 25, Convention of Friendship, Commerce, etc., between the United 
States and the Swiss Confederation concluded at Berne. 

December 14, The British consul at Charleston, South Carolina, asks the abroga- 
tion of such portion of the state law as applies to British subjects so as to 
conform to the guarantee of the national treaty regulating subjects entering 
the port of South Carolina. 



1860, Dec. 14 ^33 Jan. 27, 1861 

John Hubbard. Oovemor of the state of Maine. 
Charles K. Williams, Governor of the state of Vermont. 

Bobert G. Winthrop, United States Senator from the state of Massachusetts. 
Thomas H. Seymour, Governor of the state of Connecticut. 
Washington Hunt, Governor of the state of New York. 
Thomas G. Pratt, United States Senator from the state of Maryland. 
John H. Means, Governor of the state of South Carolina. 

F. H. Elmore and B. W. Barnwell, United States Senators from the state of 
South Carolina. 

Center of population of the United States twenty-three miles southeast of 
Parkersburg, West Virginia. 

John A. Quitman, Governor of the state of Mississippi. 
Joseph Walker, Governor of the state of Louisiana. 
John M. Helen, Governor of the state of Kentucky. 
Beuben Wood, Governor of the state of Ohio. 
Thomas Ewing, United States Senator from the state of Ohio. 
John S. Barry, Governor of the state of Michigan. 
Stephen Hempstead, Governor of the state of Iowa. 

Territory purchased from Texas for $10,000,000, including an area amounting to 
123,784 square miles becoming a part of the United States with the admission 
of Texas. 

Samuel Gompers, English labor organizer in America, bom. 
Seventh United States Census, thirty-one states, population 23,191,876. 
National debt, $63,452,773.55. 

Inman steamship line founded and immigrants carried in steamships of this line. 
Alien immigration numbers 369,986. 

Interest bearing debt of the United States July 1, $63,452,774. 
Estimated national wealth, $7,135,780,000. 
Kansas City, Missouri, established. 
Sacramento, California, established. 

The Clayton-Bulwer treaty between the United States and Great Britain pro- 
vides for a Trans-Isthmian canal across Central America. 
Henry Clay's compromise measure on slavery adopted. 
The Fugitive Slave Act passed. 
New Mexico and Utah admitted as territories. 
Treaty of Amity and Commerce with Switzerland. 
Movement in Canada in favor of the annexation to the United States. 
Edward Bellamy, American writer and socialist, bom in Cbiicopee Falls, Massa- 
chusetts. He was the author of the novel, "Looking Backwards.^ 
Daniel Webster, Secretary of State. 
Passage of the Omnibus Bill. 
Thomas Corwin, Secretary of the Treasury. 
Charles N. Conrad, Secretary of War. 
William A. Graham, Secretary of the Nav^. 
Alex H. H. Stuart, Secretary of the Interior. 
Nathaniel K. Hall, Postmaster-General. 
John J. Crittenden, Attorney-General. 

Franklin Pierce, President of the New Hampshire State Constitutional Conven- 
tion and in favor of the removal of religious disqualification clause in the old 
Constitution, which disqualified Catholics from nolding office in the state. 
He also favors the abolition of any property qualifications. These amendments 
carried through the convention, but defeated by the people at the polls in the 
following election. 

Andrew Johnson supports the Compromise measure of 1850 as a matter of 
expediency, but opposes compromises in general as a sacrifice of principle. 
Anti-rent party in New York City. 

1851 

January 1, David S. Beid, Governor of North Carolina. 

Jan. 27, John J. Andubon, American ornithologist, dies near New York City, 

aged 71 years. 



1861» Feb. 18 234 Daa 28, 1861 

February 18» Proclamation issued by President Fillmore relative to the rescue 
of a fugitive slave arrested in Boston, Massachusetts, on February 15, de- 
manding his recapture and the punishment of all who aided in his escape. 
Feb. 26, Convention with Portugal to pay $91,727 claims, etc., to the United 
States concluded at Washington, D. G. 

Bfarch 8, James S. Calhoun, Territorial Oovernor of New Mexico. 
Mar. 3, Fresnel lighthouse system authorized. 

Mar. 3, Letter postage reduced to three cents prepaid within 3000 miles, with 
double rate for over 3000 miles. 

Mar. 3, Thirty-first United United States Congress adjourns, it being decided 
at this time that Congress expire at noon on the 4th dav of March. 
Mar. 21, First United States lighthouse board appointed by the government. 
April 21, Commodore James Barron dies at Norfolk, Virginia, at the age of 83. 
Apr. 25, The "Cleopatra" being seized with military supplies intended for the 
island. President Fillmore issues a proclamation against the promoters of a 
second expedition against Cuba. 

Apr. 28-29, First train from New York to Dunkirk over' the Erie Bailway. 
May 3-5, Fire losses of $3,500,000 at San Francisco, California. 
June 2, Maine liquor law passed. 
June 22, Loss by fire in San Francisco over $3,000,000. 

July 4, Oration by Daniel Webster at the laying of the comer-stone by the 
President for the extension of the United States Capitol building at Washington, 
D. C. (The work was finished in November, 1867.) 

July 10, Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation concluded between 
the United States and Costa Bica at Washington, D. C. 

July 28, Treaty of Friendship^ Commerce and Navigation between the United 
States and Peru concluded at Lima. 

August 3, Second expedition against Cuba by General Lopez. 
Aug. 22, American cup won by the "America" over the "Aurora" in English 
waters. 

September 10, United States war steamer "Mississippi" at the Dardanelles 
takes aboard Kossuth and others en route to Southampton, England, embarking 
at Gibraltar on the ship "Madrid." 

Sept. 14, James Fennimore Cooper, author, dies at the age of sixty-two years at 
Cooperstown, New York. 

October 8, Opening from New York to Albany of the Hudson Biver Bailroad. 
Oct. 22, Military expedition into Mexico prohibited by proclamation issued by 
President Fillmore. 

Oct., The Grinnell expedition sent out in 1850 in search of Dr. Franklin returns 
to New York. 

November 6, Treaty abolishing the Stadt or Brunshausen dues concluded be- 
tween the United States and Hanover at Berlin. 

Nov. 8, Father Mathew sails from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on the "Pacific" 
for Ireland, after an extended tour through the United States. 
Not. 25^ James Whitefield, President of the Senate, Acting Governor of Missis- 
sippi. 

December 1, First session of the thirty-second United States Congress assembles 
at Washington, D. C, with Linn Boyd, of Kentucky, Speller of the House of 
Bepresentatives. 

Dec. 17, Henry Clay resigns his seat in the United States Senate (effective 
September, 1862). 

Dec. 24, Fire in the Congressional Library at Washington, D. C, destroys 35,000 
of its 55,000 volumes. 
Dec. 28, Perry Belmont, lawyer and politician, bom. 

Benjamin B. Curtis of Massachusetts, Justice Supreme Court. 

Solomon Foot, United States Senator from the state of Vermont. 

George S. Boutwell, Governor of the state of Massachusetts. 

Charles Sumner and Bobert Bantoul, Jr., United States Senators from the state 

of Massachusetts. 

Philip Allen^ Governor of the state of Bhode Island. 

Charlea T. JameSi United States Senator from the state of Bhode Island, 



1851, Dec. 28 235 Oct 8^ 1852 



k> 



Hamilton Fish, United States Senator from the state of New York. 

George F. Foot, Governor of the state of New Jersey. 

Robert F. Stockton, United States Senator from the state of New Jersey. 

Bichard Broadhead, United States Senator from the state of Pennsylvania. 

William H. Boss, Governor of the state of Delaware. 

James A. Bayard, United States Senator from the state of Delaware. 

Enoch L. Lowe, Governor of the state of Maryland. 

John Johnson, Governor of the state of Virginia. 

B. B. Bhett, United States Senator from the state of South Carolina. 

Howell Cobb, Governor of the state of Georgia. 

Lazarus W. Powell, Governor of the state of Kentucky. 

William B. Campbell, Governor of the state of Tennessee. 

James C. Jones, United States Senator from the state of Tennessee. 

Stephen B. Mallory, United States Senator from the state of Florida. 

Benjamin F. Wade, United States Senator from the state of Ohio. 

Lewis Cass, United States Senator from the state of Michigan. 

Henry S. Geyer, United States Senator from the state of Missouri. 

John McDougall, Governor of the state of California. 

Brigham Young, Territorial Governor of Utah. 

John B. Weller, United States Senator from the state of California. 

National debt, $68,304,796.02. 

Portland, Oregon, established. 

Alien immigration, 379,466. 

Order of Good Templars formed in New York State. 

Southern Bights Convention at South Carolina. 

A cheap postage law enacted. 

Kossuth, Hungarian statesman, visits the United States. 

Charles J. Bonaparte, public man and cabinet officer, boni« 

1862 

Marcli 19, Seventy- two thousand five hundred dollars appropriated by Cbngress 
for the repair of the Congressional Library at Washington, D. C. 
April 30, Convention for regulating and extending jurisdiction of consuls be- 
tween the United States and Hamburg, Bremen and Lubeck, concluded at Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

June 1, Democratic National Convention held at Baltimore, Maryland, the prin- 
cipal candidates coming before convention for the presidency being General 
Lewis Cass, of Michigan, James Buchanan, of Pennsylvania, Ez-Governor William 
L. Marcy, of New York, and Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois. On the 35th ballot 
Franklin Pierce, of New Hampshire, appears with 15 votes and on the 49th 
ballot he receives 282 votes and is nominated. William B. King of Alabama 
nominated for Vice-President. 

June 16, National Whig Presidential Convention held at Baltimore. Maryland. 
Candidates, Millard Fillmore, of New York, Winfield Scott, of Virginia, and 
Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts. General Scott receives the nomination on 
the 53rd ballot and William A. Graham, of North Carolina, receives the Vice- 
Presidential nomination. 

June 16, Convention governing extradition between the United States and the 
Prussia and German Confederation concluded at Washington, D. C. 
June 29, Henry Clay, statesman, dies at Washington, D. C, at the age of 75 years. 
July S, United States branch mint established at San Francisco, California. 
July 8, George H. Barton, geologist, born in Massachusetts. 

August 11, Convention of the Free-Soil party held at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 
John P. Hale, of New Hampshire, is nominated for President and George W. 
Julian, of Indiana, for Vice-President. 

Aug. 26, Convention for commercial advancement between the United States 
and the Netherlands concluded at Washington, D. C. 

Aug. 31, First session of the thirty-second United States Congress adjourns. 
Aug. 31, Permanent lighthouse board authorized by the Government. 
September 23, Arthur Biddle, lawyer, bom in Pennsylvania. 
October 8^ Lighthouse board organized in the United States. 



1852, Oct 2A 236 Dec SO, 1852 

Oct. 24, Daniel Webster, statesmaiiy lawyer, orator and the great expounder and 
defender of the Constitution, dies at Marshfield, Massachusetts, at the age of 
70 years. 
NoTomber 2, Seventeenth Federal presidential election takes place. 

For President: 

Popular Vote 

Franklin Pierce, New Hampshire, Dem 1,601,474 

Winfield Scott, New Jersey, Whig 1,380,576 

John P. Hale, New Hampshire, F. D 156,149 

Daniel Webster, Massachusetts, Whig 1,670 

Electoral Vote 

Pierce (PluraHty, 220,896) 254 

Scott 42 

Total 296 

For Vice-President: 

Votes 

William B. King, Alabama, Dem 254 

William A. Qraham, North Carolina, Whig 42 

Oeorge W. Julian, Indiana, F. D — 

Total 296 

December 6^ Second session of the thirty-second United States Congress as- 
sembles. 

Dec. SO, Jose de Marcoletai, Minister from Nicaragua, dismissed for meddling 
in the Interoceanic Isthmian canal controversy. 

Noah Martin, Governor of the state of New Hampshire. 

Erastus Fairbanks, Qovemor of the state of Vermont. 

Isaac Toucey, United States Senator from the state of Connecticut. 

Horatio Seymour, Governor of the state of New York. 

William Bigler, Governor of the state of Pennsylvania. 

Joseph Johnson, Governor of the state of Virginia. 

John L. Manning, Governor of the state of South Carolina. 

William F. De Saussure, United States Senator from the state of South Carolina. 

B. M. Charlton, United States Senator from the state of (Georgia. 

Archibald Dixon and David Meriwether, T7nited States Senator from the state 

of Kentucky. 

Henry S. Foote, Governor of the state of Mississippi 

Stephen Adams, United States Senator from the state of Mississippi. 

John I. McBae, Stephen Adams and Walter Brooke, United States Senators from 

the state of Mississippi. 

Colonel E. V. Sumner and John Greiner, Acting Territorial Governors of New 

Mexico. 

William C. Lane appointed Territorial Governor of New Mexico. 

Bobert McClellan, Governor of the state of Michigan. 

Charles W. Cat heart, United States Senator from the state of Indiana. 

Sterling Price, Governor of the state of Missouri. 

Leonard J. Farwell, Governor of the state of Wisconsin. 

Elias N. Conway, Governor of the state of Arkansas. 

John Bigler, Governor of the state of California. 

Alien immigration, 371,603. 

National debt, $66,199,341.71. 

Fresnel lighthouse system generally introduced in the United States. 

American Geographical Society founded. New York City. 

Omaha, Nebraska, established. 

Des Moines, Iowa, established. 

American party, a political organization, in after years known as the ''Know 

Nothings,'' msikes its first appearance. 



1852, Dec. 30 237 Dec. 30, 1853 

Kossuth, Hungarian statesman, publicly received by Congress. 
Commodore Perry sent to Japan to make a treaty. 
Batio of representation fixed at 9,423. members 237. 
Dispute with England in regard to fisneries. 

1853 

Febnuury 8» Convention of settlement of claims between the United States and 
Great Britain concluded at London, England. 

Feb. 9, The electoral vote of the United States for President and Vice-President 
counted at Washington, D. C. 

Feb. 18, August 3elmont, banker, who organized the Bapid Transit Subway Con- 
struction Company in New York, costing over $35,000,000, bom in New York. 
Feb. 21, Coinage of the $3.00 gold piece authorized. 

Feb. 23, Convention concerning the Consular service between the United States 
and France concluded .at WasMngton, D. C. 

Bfarch 2, Washington territory formed by act of Congress and approved. 
Mar. 3, Authorization by Congress for a survey for a railroad from the Missis- 
sippi. , . 

Mar. 4, Seventeenth Federal Administration, Democratic, Franklin Pierce of 
New Hampshire, President; William B. King, of Alabama, Vice-President. 
Mar. 8, Frank S. Black, lawyer and politician, bom in Maine. He was active 
in the prosecution of Bobert Boss in the election murder riots in Troy, New York^ 
and was later Governor of the state of New York. 

Mar. 24, Oath of office of the Vice-President-Elect William B. King adminis- 
tered by United States Consul Sharkey at Cumbre, near Matanzas in Cuba, 
as authorized by roecial act of Congress. 

April 10, Thomas H. Benton, who eamed the sobriquet of "Old Bullion" on ac- 
count of his opposition to the paper currency, dies in Washington^ D. C. 
Apr. 18, Vice-President of the United States William B. King dies at Cahaba, 
Alabama, at the age of 67 years. 

July 10, Treaty with the Argentine Confederation for free navigation of Parana 
and Uruguay concluded at San Jose. 

July 14, President Fillmore dispatches Conffressman M. C. Perry, a brother of 
Oliver H. Perry, to Japan with a fleet of vessels with* a letter soliciting a 
treaty. 

July 27, Treaty of Friendship between the United States and Argentine con- 
cluded at San Jose. 

July, Filibustering expedition under William Walker to Sonera. Mexico. 
August 2, John B. Gough makes a two-year lecture tour of Efngland delivering 
his first address in Exeter Hall in London. 

S^tember 6-10, World's Temperance Convention in Metropolitan Hall, New 
York City. 

Sept. 12, Convention of Extradition between the United States and Bavaria 
concluded at London, England. 

Vovember 2S, I. I. Stevens, Territorial Governor of Washington. 
December 6, First session of the thirty-third United States Congress assembles 
at Washington, D. C. 

Dec. 23, Steamer ^'San Francisco,'' bound for California with seven hundred 
United States troops, founders at sea and two hundred and forty of the soldiers 
are swept from the deck and perish. 

Dec. 30, ''Gadsden Purchase" by James Gadsden^ of South Carolina, Minister 
to Mexico, from the United States, including territory south of the Gila Biver, 
embracing Arizona, containing 45,535 square miles, for $10,000,000. Treaty 
approved. 

Dec. 30, Treaty of Boundary, etc., between the United States and the Mexican 
Bepublic concluded at Mexico. 

William G. Crosby, Governor of the state of Maine. 

Charles Atherton and J. W. Williams, United States Senators from the state 

of New Hampshire. 

John S. Bobertson, Governor of the state of Vermont. 



1863, Dec. 30 238 Mar. 2S, 1854 

Samuel S. Phelps, United States Senator from the state of Vermont. 
John H. Clifford, Governor of the state of Massachusetts. 
Edward £verett, United States Senator from the state of Massachusetts. 
Philip Allen, United States Senator from the state of Bhode Island. 
Charles H. Pond, Governor of the state of Connecticut. 

John B. Thomson and William Wright, United States Senators from the state 
of New Jersey. 

John M. Clayton, United States Senator from the state of Delaware. 
H. v. Johnson, Governor of the state of Georgia. 
Bobert Toombs, United States Senator from the state of Georgia. 
Joseph J. Evans, United States Senator from the state of South Caroling 
James E. Broome, Governor of the state of Florida. 

John Slidell and J. P. Benjamin, United States Senators from the state of 
Louisiana. 

John B. Thompson, United States Senator from the state of Kentucky. 
John A. Winston, Governor of the state of Alabama. 

Clement C. Clay, United States Senator from the state of Alabama. (Alabama 
not represented in the 37th, 38th and 39th Congresses account of Civil War). 
Bobert W. Johnson, United States Senator from the state of Arkansas. (Arkan- 
sas not represented in the 37th, 38th and 39th Congresses account of engagement 
in the Civil War against the Union.) 
Andrew Johnson, Governor of the state of Tennessee. 
E. M. Pease, Governor of the state of Texas. 

William J. Messeroy, Acting Territorial Governor of New Mexico for four 
months previous to the appointment of David Meriwether. 
John Pettit, United States Senator from the state of Indiana. 
Joel A. Matterson, Governor of the state of Illinois. 
William Medill, Governor of the state of Ohio. 
Andrew Parsons, Governor of the state of Michigan. 
Charles E. Stuart, United States Senator from the state of Michigan. 
William A. Gorman, of Indiana, Territorial Governor of Minnesota. 
Joseph Lane, George L. Curry and John W. Davis, Territorial Governors of 
Oregon. 

Alien immigrants arriving during the year, 886,645. 
Basis for Congressional representation, 93,423. 

John A. Campbell, of Alabama, Justice of the United States Supreme Court. 
National debt, $59,803,117.70. 

The thirty-third United States Congress assembles. 

James Walker, President of Harvard College at Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
The Allen steamship line organized. 
Major-General Tasker H. Bliss born. 

Motto adopted by the state of Washington, '<Al-ki" (By and By). 
Terre Haute, Indiana, established. 
Crystal Palace Exposition opens in New York City. 
Bevolution in Mexico. 

1864 

January 4, Bill introduced into the United States Senate by Stephen A. Douglas, 
of Illinois, organizing the territory of Nebraska. 

Jan. 16, Notice of an amendment exempting the territory of Kentucky from 
the Missouri compromise prohibiting slavery by A. Dixon, of Kentucky. 
Jan. 18, President Pierce issues a proclamation against the invasion of Mexico 
called out by expedition by Walker into Lower California and Sonora. 
Jan. 23, Bill reported in Congress creating the territories of Kansas and Nebraska 
by Senator Douglas of the same territory as the former Nebraska biU, with a 
section virtually repealing the original compromise of 1820. 
Feb. 28, ' ' Black Warrior, * ' United States steamer, seized by the Cuban authori- 
ties at Havana. 

Bfarch 3, The "Kansas-Nebraska Bill" passed the United States Senate. 
Bfarch 28, Bobert J. Walker introduces the system of private bonded ware- 
houses, which is confirmed by act of Congress. 



1854, Mar. 31 239 Dea 6, 1854 



r. Sl» First treaty of Peace, Amity and Commerce between the United States 
and Japan concluded by the high contracting parties and signed at Kanagawa, 
Japan. The ports of Hakodate and Simoda opened to Uie United States, con- 
cluded by Commodore Perry. 

Apxil 29, Eli Thayer organizes and incorporates the Massachusetts Aid Society 
to aid emigration to Kansas. 
May 3, Pierce vetoes the Land Grant bill. 

May S, The Kansas-Nebraska bill taken up in the House of Bepresentatives. 
May 10, Astor Place riot in New York City. 

May 12, John Bigelow, Jr., military officer, wounded at San Juan, Cuba, July 
1, 1898, bom in New York. 

May 24, The Kansas-Nebraska bill passes the House of Bepresentatives by a 
vote of 112 to 99. 

May 30, The Kansas-Nebraska bill passes the Senate of the United States by 
a vote of 35 to 13 and approved. (The Missouri Compromise measure, section 
14 of 1820, is repealed by this act.) 

May 31, Proclamation issued by President Pierce against the threatened inva- 
sion of Cuba. 

June 2, By order of President Pierce. Anthony Bums, arrested as a slave at Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts, is taken to Norfolk, Virginia, in the revenue cutter '' Morris '^ 
and delivered to his alleged master. 

June 5, Beciprocity treaty between the United States and Great Britain in 
settlement of the fishery difficulty. 

June 13, The ship ''Cyane," under Commander George N. Hollis, bombards and 
destroys the town of Greytown on the Mosquito coast of Central America in an 
attempt to obtain redress for a personal insult to a government officer and the 
enforcement of a claim for $24,000 indemnity. 

June 14, The new frigate "Merrimac," a steam war vessel, launched at the 
Charleston navy-yard. The vessel is later seized by the Confederates at the 
Norfolk navy-yard in April, 1861. 

July 11, Convention permitting unobstructed trade between the United States and 
Loo Choo concluded at Napa. 

JvOij 22, Convention of Bights of Neutrals between the United States and Bussia 
concluded at Washington, D. C. 

August 2, Francis Marion Crawford, American novelist, bom. 
Aug. 4, President Pierce vetoes the Internal Improvements bilL 
Ang. 4, Captain Ingraham is presented a medal by a resolution of Congress as 
a testimonial of the high sense entertained of his gallant and judicious conduct 
in rescuing Koszta from illegal seizure and imprisonment on board the Austrian 
vessel "Huzzar." 

Aug. 7, First session of the thirty-third United States Congress adjourns. 
Aug. 21, Convention of Biffhts of Citizens between the United States and Bruns- 
wick and Luxemburg concluded at Washinffton, D. C. 
October 13, Thomas B. Cuming, Actin|^ Territorial Governor of Nebraska. 
Oct. 18, Issuance of the Ostend manifests. 

December 4, Second session of the thirty-third United States Congress assembles. 
Dec. 5, Jesse D. Bright, of Indiana, elected President pro tem of the United 
States Senate. 

William P. Fessenden, United States Senator from the state of Maine. 

Nathaniel B. Baker, Qoveraor of the state of New Hampshire. 

Stephen Boyce, Governor of the state of Vermont. 

Lawrence Brainerd, United States Senator from the state of Vermont. 

Emory Washburn, Governor of the state of Massachusetts. 

Julius Bockwell, United States Senator from the state of Massachusetts. 

William W. Hoppin, Governor of the state of Bhode Island. 

Henry Dutton, Governor of the state of Connecticut. 

Francis Gillette, United States Senator from the state of Connecticut. 

Myron H. Clark, Govemor of the state of New York. 

Bodman M. Prince, Governor of the state of New Jersey. 

David S. Beid, United States Senator from the state of North Carolina. 

James H. Adams, Governor of the state of South Carolina. 



1864, Dec 5 240 Oct 1, 1856 

Paul O. Hebert, Governor of the state of Louisiana. 
John J. McBae, Governor of the state of MississippL 
Albert G. Brown, United States Senator from the state of MississippL 
James M. Greines, Governor of the state of Iowa. 
Andrew H. Buder of Pennsylvania, Territorial Governor of Kansas. 
William A. Barstow, Governor of the state of Wisconsin. 
Mark W. Izard. Territorial Governor of Nebraska. 
Francis Burt, Territorial Governor of Nebraska. 
George L. Cuny, Governor of Oregon Territory. 
Alien immigration, 427,833. 
National debt, $42^42,222.42. 

First trip around the world by a merchant steamer by the English ship "Argo.'' 
Thomas B. Marshall, Vice-President of the United States, bom. 
Elihu Boot, lawyer and statesman, bom. 
Major-General Hugh L. Scott bom. 
Japan opened by Commodore Perry. 

Comanche Indian War commences and ends the same year. 
St. Paul, Minnesota, established. 

Bepublican party formed from the Whig party and the adherents of the anti- 
slavery followers from other parties. 

Anti-Nebraska party, opposers of the adoption of the Kansas-Nebraska bilL 
The United States neutral on the Eastern question. 

The Ostend manifesto recommends the purchase of Cuba by the United States. 
Commercial treaty between Canada and the United States. 
Treaty of Beciprocitv with England. 

Commercial treaty with Japan concluded through Commodore Perry. 
American Party formed. 
The Ostend Circular issued. 
Steamer ''Arctic" lost. 

1866 

January S» Congress approves the cession by Massachusetts to New York of 
''Boston Comer,'' the southwestern comer of Berkshire county. 
Jan. 13, Convention Bights of neutrals at sea between the United States and the 
two Sicilies concluded at Naples. 

Jan. 18, Convention of Extradition between the United States and Hanover 
concluded at London, England. 

Jan. 28, First train from ocean to ocean run across Panama at completion of 
railroad across the Isthmus. 

Jan., Congress discusses the annexation of the Sandwich Islands. The measure 
is strongly opposed by England. 

February 10, The ri^^ht of citizenship to children of citizens of the United States 
bom in foreign territory secured by act of Congress and approved. 
Feb. 16, Pierce vetoes the French Spoliation Claims Bill. 

Feb. 16, By resolution of Congress the grade of Lieutenant-General by brevet re- 
vived and approved. The rank is immediately conferred upon Major-General 
Winfield Scott. 

March 3, Pierce vetoes the Subsidy for. Carrying Ocean Mails Bill. 
Mar. 3, Second session of the thirty-third United States Congress adjourns. 
Mar. 16^ Treaty with the British North American possessions goes into effect. 
ApiU 7, Commodore Peary, arctic enlorer, bom. 

July 28^ President Pierce removes Governor Boeder, of Kansas, and appoints 
Wilson Shanmm, of Ohio, in his place. 

August 22, Convention pertaining to the Consular service between the United 
States and the Netherlands concluded at the Hague. 

September 12, The citizens of Greytown, Nicaragua, make Colonel Henry L. 
Kenney civil and military Governor. 

S^pt. 13, Expedition in search of Dr. Kane under Lieutenant Hartstene, United 
States Navy, locates Kane and his companions on the Isle of Disko, Greenland. 
They return to New York October 11. 

October 1, Convention of Peace, Friendship, Commerce, etc., between the United 
States and the two Sicilies concluded at Naples. 



1855, Dec 3 241 Feb. 29, 1866 

December 3, First session of the thirty-fourth United States Congress assembles. 
Nathaniel P. Banks, of Massachusetts, elected Speaker of the House of Repre- 
sentatives over William Aiken, of South Carolina, on the 133rd ballot by a 
plurality of 3 votes. This was the stormiest session ever held in the history 
of that body. 
Dec. 8, President Pierce's proclamation against the invasion of Nicaragua. 

Anson P. Morrill, Governor of the state of Maine. 

Ralph Metcalf, Governor of the state of New Hampshire. 

John S. Wells, James Bell and John P. Hale, United States Senators from the 

state of New Hampshire. 

Jacob Collamer. United States Senator from the state of Vermont. 

W. T. Minor, Governor of the state of Connecticut. 

Lafayette Foster, United States Senator from the state of Connecticut. 

Henry J. Gardner, Governor of the state of Massachusetts. 

Henry Wilson, United States Senator from the state of Massachusetts. 

James Pollock, Governor of the state of Pennsylvania. 

William Bigler, United States Senator from the state of Pennsylvania. 

Peter F. Cansey, Governor of the state of Delaware. 

Thomas Bragg, Governor of the state of North Carolina. 

Asa Biggs, United States Senator from the state of North Carolina. 

Alfred Iverson, United States Senator from the state of Geor^^a. 

David L. Yules, United States Senator from the state of Florida. 

Charles S. Morehead, Governor of the state of Kentucky. 

John J. Crittenden, United States Senator &om the state of Kentucky. 

George F. Pugh, United States Senator from the state of Ohio. 

Lyman Trumbull, United States Senator from the state of Illinois. 

Charles Durkee, United States Senator from the state of Wisconsin. 

Wilson Shannon, Ohio, Territorial Governor of Kansas. 

James Harlan, United States Senator from the state of Iowa. 

Alien immigration, 200,877. 

Interest bearing debt of the United States July 1, $35,586,956.56. 

Thirty-fourth United States Congress assembles. 

Nathaniel P. Banks, Massachusetts, Speaker of the House of BepresentativeB, 

Washington, D. C. 

William S. Benson, Bear Admiral, bom. 

War with the Apache, Navajo, and Utah Indians ends. 

The British Minister Crampton recalled and the exequaturs of three British 

Consuls cancelled for enlisting soldiers for the Crimean War in this country. 

Niagara railroad suspension bridge completed. 

The International Decimal Association is formed. 

The Court of Claims established. 

Election trouble in Kansas. 

United States Steamer ' ' Waterwitch " fires on the "Paraguay." 

Passmore Williamson released from three months' imprisonment in the Wheeler 

Slave Case. 

William Walker leads a filibustering force into Nicaragua. 

The Bessemer steel manufacturing process patented. 

1866 

January 1, John McP. Berrien, statesman, dies. 

Jan. 24, In a special message President Pierce recognizes the pro-slavery legis- 
lature of the Territory of Kansas and calls the measure an act of rebeluon, an 
attempt to establish a free state government. 
February 4, Cyrus Alger, inventor, dies. 

Feb. 11, All persons warned against unlawful combinations by President Pierce 
in a proclamation as against the constituted authority of Kansas. 
Feb. 22, American National Convention held at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
Millard Fillmore, of New York, nominated for President and Andrew J. Donel- 
son, of Tennessee, for Vice-President. 

Feb. 29, Herbert M. Bowen, who acquired world-wide repute as a diplomatist 
by managing in behalf of Venezuela negotiations with England, Germany and 



1856, Feb. 20 242 Aug. 19, 1866 

Itaty, which brought to a close the blockade of Venezuela ports, bom in New 
York. 

Marcli 4, Free state legislature in Kansas constituted. 
April 11, Kansas is refused admission into the Union. 
May 19, Pierce vetoes the Internal Improvement (Mississippi) bilL 
Congress passes over veto, as well as the veto of the St. Qair Flats (Michigan) 
biU. 

May 21, Lawrence, Kansas, captured and sacked by a mob of the Pro-slavery 
party. 

May 22, Pierce vetoes the Internal Improvements (St. Mary's Biver, Michigan) 
bill. Passed over veto by Congress. 

May 22, Preston S. Brooks, of South Carolina, criminally assaults Charles Sumner, 
of Massachusetts, because of his speech delivered in the Senate, ''The Crime 
against Kansas.'^ 

May 29, Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, etc., concluded between the United 
States and Siam at Bankok. 

June 2; James Buchanan nominated for President by the Democrats at Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, by a vote of 296 in the Convention. 

June 2, A committee in the House of Bepresentatives recommends the expulsion 
of Brooks and censure of Keitt, but the resolution fails of a necessary two- 
thirds vote and the defendants resign. 

June S, Democratic National Convention meets at Cincinnati, Ohio. James 
Buchanan, of Pennsylvania, nominated for President and John 0. Breckinridge, 
of Kentucky, for Vice-President, the names of Franklin Pierce, Stephen A. Doug- 
las and other prominent candidates being withdrawn from the convention after 
the early balloting. 

June 6^ Free-trade policy declared in the platform of the Democratic party at 
Cincinnati. 

June 17, First Bepublican National Convention at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
John Charles Fremont, of California, nominated for President of the United 
States 8^'^ William L. Dayton, of New Jersey, for Vice-President. Other promi- 
nent candidates before the convention were McLean, of Ohio, and W. H. Seward, 
of New J^ork. 

July 1, John W. Geary, of Pennsylvania, succeeds Shannon as Governor of 
Kansas. 

July 1, Committee appointed by the House of Bepresentatives consisting of John 
Sherman, of Ohio, WUliam H. Howard, of Michigan, and M. Oliver, of Missouri, 
to inquire into the Kansas trouble, reports that the free state party was illegal, 
that elections under alleged territorial laws were carried by invaders, that the 
territorial legislature was illegal and intended for unlawful ends, that dele- 
gates to Congress should be unseated, but that the constitution framed by the 
convention embodied the will of the majority of the people, etc. Attached is 
the minority report of Mr. Oliver, of Missouri. 

July 3, Convention between the United States and Austria for extradition held 
at Washington, D. C. 

July 8, Preston S. Brooks indicted by the Grand Jury at Washington, D. C, for 
assault and battery on Senator Charles Sumner, of Massachusetts, on June 22. 
Brooks pleads guilty and is fined $300. 

July 21, Anson Burlingame, member from Massachusetts, is challenged to a duel 
by Preston S. Brooks. Brooks later declines to pursue the matter. 
July 22, Convention for the regulation of rights of neutrals at sea between 
the United States and Peru concluded at Lima. 

July 28, L. M. Keitt and Preston S. Brooks are returned to Congress from South 
Carolina, a stain upon the state rather than a vindication. 

August 11, Pierce vetoes the Internal Improvements (Des Moines Biver, Michi- 
gan) bill, but Congress passes over veto. 

Pierce vetoes Internal Improvement (Patapsco Biver, Missouri) bill, but Con- 
gress passes over veto. 

Aug. 18, First session of the thirty-fourth United States Congress adjourns. 
Aug. 19, Owing to a proviso that the United States Army be not used to aid the 

Ero-slavery legislature of the Government of Kansas, the army appropriation 
in fails to pass. 



1866^ Aug. 81 243 Dee. 2S, 1856 

Aug. 21, Second Bession (extra) of the thirty-fourth United Statee Congress 

convenes at Washington, D. C. 

Aug. 25, The territory of Kansas proclaimed by the Governor as in a state of 

insurrection. 

Aug. 30, Second session (extra) of the thirty-fourth United States Congress 

adjourns after ten days, being the shortest session in the history of the country 

to date. 

September 17, Whig National Convention at Baltimore, Maryland, adopts the 

nominees of the American Party Convention, Millard Fillmore for President and 

Donelson for Vice-President. (This was the last Whig appearance in national 

politics.) 

9opt. 23, Collins line steamer "Pacific" leaves Liverpool for New York with 

240 persons on board and is never heard from. 

October 7, John W. Alexander, portrait painter, born. 

NoTember 4, Eighteenth Federal presidential election held in the country. 

Nov. 8, Loss by fire over $1)000,000 at Syracuse, New York. 

For President: 

Popular Vote 

James Buchanan, Pennsylvania. Dem 1,838,169 

John C. Fremont, California, Bep 1,341,264 

MiUard FiUmore, New York, Amer 874,538 

Electoral Vote 

Buchanan (Plurality, 496,905) 174 

Fremont 114 

Fillmore 8 

Total 296 

For Vice-President: 

J. C. Breckinridge, Kentucky, Dem 174 

William L. Dayton, New York, Bep 114 

A. J. Donelson, Tennessee, Amer 8 

Total 296 

KoT. 18, H. C. DuBois recalled at request of Washin^on for refusing to appear 
as a witness in a trial in the United States for homicide. 

December 1, Third session of the thirty-fourth United States Congress convenes 
at Washington, D. C. 

Dec. 13, Treaty of Friendship and Commerce between the United States and Per- 
sia concluded at Constantinople. 

Dec. 21, David L. Brainard, who served in the United States army and who 
rose to distinction in the Greely Arctic Expedition, bom in New York. 
Dec. 28, Woodrow Wilson, twenty-eighth President of the United States, bom. 

Samuel Wells, Governor of the state of Maine. 

B. Fletcher, Governor of the state of Vermont. 

Byron Diman, Governor of the state of Bhode Island. 

John A. King, Governor of the state of New York. 

Joseph P. Comeggs, United States Senator from the state of Delaware. 

Thomas W. Ligon, Govemor of the state of Maryland. 

Henry A. Wise, Govemor of the state of Virginia. 

B. F. W. Alston, Governor of the state of South Carolina. 

Trasten Polk, Governor of the state of Missouri. 

Salmon P. Chase, Govemor of the state of Ohio. 

Coles Bashford, Governor of the state of Wisconsin. 

John W. Geary, of Pennsylvania, Territorial Govemor of Kansas. 

J. N. Johnson, Govemor of the state of California. 

Alien immigration into the country, 195,857. 

National debt of the United States, $31,972,537.90. 

The Hamburg- American and Anchor Steamship lines established. 

Seminole IncUan War commences. 



185e, Dec. 28 244 D«x, 1867 

The British Consul, Anthony Barcha^r, at New York, sent home, as are the Britiih 
Consuls at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Bebellious contests among the settlers in Kansas. 
Atlantic Telegraph Company organized. 

1867 

January 6^ Free State Legislature at Topeka, Kansas, dispersed by Federal 
troops. 

Jan. 30, Convention of Extradition between the United States and Baden con- 
cluded at Berlin. 

Jan. SO, George L. Burr, historian, bom in New York. He was an expert in the 
history of the Venezuelan Boundary Commission in 1896*97. 
February 11, Presidential electoral vote of the country counted at Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Feb. 6, Elisha Kent Kane, arctic explorer, dies at Havana, Cuba. 
Feb. 26, Steamship '' Tempest," Anchor Line, with one hundred and fifty pas- 
sengers on board, is never heard from after leaving port. 
Mardi 3, Tariff act passed by Congress materially reducing duties. 
Mar. 3, Third session of the thirty-fourth United States Congress adjourns at 
Washington, D. C. 

Mar. 4 (to Mar. 3, 1861), Eighteenth Federal Administration — ^Democratic, James 
Buchanan, of Pennsylvania, President, and John C. Breckinridge, of Kentucky, 
Vice-President, of the United States. Cass, Secretary of State, Cobb, Secretary 
of the Treasury, Floyd, Secretary of War. From 1860-61 various changes in 
the Cabinet take place. Congress from 1857 to 1859 is Democratic, and from 
1857 to 1861, the House of Bepresentatives is Bepublican. 
Orr and Pennington, Speakers of the House of Kepresentatives. 
Biar. 6, Decision in the Dred Scott case rendered by Chief Justice Taney, of the 
United States Supreme Court. 

April 11, Convention for discontinuation of sound dues concluded between the 
United States and Denmark at Washington, D. C. 

Apr., Bobert J. Walker, of Mississippi, appointed Governor of Kansas by the 
President, vice, Geray of Pennsylvania, resigned. 

May 31, Steamship "Louisiana," from New Orleans to G^veston, burned near 
Galveston and fifty-five lives lost. 

June 17, Second treaty between the United States and Japan, conceding the third 
port, Nagasaki, open to this country, concluded at Simoda, Japan. 
August 5, Shore end of the Atlantic submarine cable fixed at Valencia Bay, Ire- 
land, by the United States steam frigate "Niagara.'' The cable breaks and is 
abandoned until the following year. 

Aug. 8, Steamer "J. W. Harris" sunk in collision with the steamer "Metrop- 
olis" in Long Island Sound and fourteen lives are lost. 
Aug. 11, Attempt to lay the first Atlantic telegraph cable fails. 
September 10, Convention for the adjustment of claims between the United 
States and New Granada concluded at Washington, D. C. 

Sept. 15, William H. Taft, twenty-seventh President of the United States, bom. 
Sept. ,15, Brigham Young, Governor of Utah, forbids by proclamation any armed 
force coming into Salt Lake City, and troops are held in readiness to repel such 
invasion and declares the city under martial law. 
Sept. 18, Mountain Meadow massacre in Utah. 

October 5, Government train attacked by Mormons and destroyed. 
Oct. 13-1^ Banks in New York and Boston suspend payment. Great financial 
stress pervades the country. 

December 3, Commodore Paulding, of the United States Navy, arrests Walker at 
Gravtown, Nicaragua, for his fiibustering expedition, and takes him to New 
York as a prisoner. 

Dec 9, Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, parts from the Southern Democracy, by 
opposing in the United States Senate the Lecompton Constitution of Kansas. 
Dec. 15, Governor Bobert J. Walker, of Kansas, resigns. 

Dec. 16, The House of Bepresentatives meets in the new hall in the south wing 
of the Capitol building extension for the first time. 
Dec, CivU War in Kansas ends. 



1857, Dee. 245 Apr. 10, 1858 



Alfred Camming, of the United States Army, appointed Governor of Utah by 

President Buchanan, and Brigham Young is removed. 

Hannibal Hamlin, Governor of the state of Maine. 

Joseph H. Williams, Governor of the state of Maine, succeeding Hamlin. 

Hannibal Hamlin, United States Senator from the state of Maine. 

Amos Nourse, United States Senator from the state of Maine. 

William Hale, Governor of the state of New Hampshire. 

Daniel Clark, United States Senator from the state of New Hampshire. 

Elisha Dyer, Governor of the state of Bhode Island. 

James F. Simmons, United States Senator from the state of Bhode Island. 

A. H. HoUey, Governor of the state of Connecticut. 

Preston King, United States Senator from the state of New York. 

William A. Newell, Governor of the state of New Jersey. 

Simon Cameron, United States Senator from the state of Pennsylvania. 

Anthony Kennedy, United States Senator from the state of Maryland. « 

James H. Hammond, United States Senator from the state of South Carolina. 

Joseph £. Brown, Governor of the state of Georgia. 

I. J. Harris, Governor of the state of Tennessee. 

Andrew Johnson, United States Senator from the state of Tennessee. 

Andrew B. Moore, Governor of the state of Alabama. 

Madison S. Perry, Governor of the state of Florida. 

William Mc Willis, Governor of the state of Mississippi. 

Jefferson Davis, United States Senator from the state of MississippL 

H. B. Bunnels, Governor of the state of Texas. 

W. H. H. Davis, Acting Territorial Governor of New Mexico. 

Abraham Bencher, Territorial Governor of New Mexico. 

Samuel Medary appointed Territorial Governor of Minnesota. 

Henry H. Sibley, Governor of the state of Minnesota. 

Zachariah Chandler, United States Senator from the state of Michigan. 

James B. Doolittle, United States Senator from the state of Wisconsin. 

William H. Bissell, Governor of the state of Illinois. 

A. P. Willard, Governor of the state of Indiana. 

G. N. Fitch, United States Senator from the state of Indiana. 

Bobert M. Stewart, Governor of the state of Missouri. 

Bobert J. Walker, of Mississippi, Governor of the territory of Kansas. 

William A. Bichardson, Governor of the territory of Nebraska. 

Truston Polk and James S. Green, United States Senators from the state of 

Missouri. 

Alfred Gumming, territorial Governor of Utah. 

F. McMullen^ territorial Governor of Washington. 

D. C. Broderick. United States Senator from the state of California. 

Motto adopted by the state of Oregon, ''The Union." 

Alien immigration, 246,945. 

National debt of the United States, $28,699,831.85. 

Thirty-fifth United States Congress assembles. 

James L. Orr, of South Carolina, Speaker of the House of Bepresentatives. 

Sioux City, Iowa, established. 

The "Great Western" broken up for firewood at VauxhaU. 

The North Lloyd steamship line established. 

The Dred Scott decision. 

A great financial panic with over five thousand commercial faOures throughout 

the country. 

1858 

January SI, Launching of the "Great Eastern." 

Mardi 4, Memorable speech in the United States Senate by James H. Hammond 
of South Carolina in reply to W. H. Seward. 

April 6, Proclamation by President Buchanan in regard to the Mormon rebellion 
in Utah. 

Apr. 10, Thomas H. Benton, statesman, dids at the age of 76 years in Wash- 
ington, D. C. 
liay 4^ Act of Congress to admit Kansas under the Lecompton Constitution. 



f 
1858, BCay 4 246 Dec. 21, 1868 

May 11, Dr. Frederick H. Bose of the British Navy rewarded by Congress with 
a gold medal for services rendered humanity in caring for yellow fever patients 
from Jamaica to New York on the United States Steamship ''Susquehanna." 
BCay 11, Minnesota admitted to the Union, formed from a portion of the ter- 
ritory ceded to the United States by France by the treaty of April 30, 1803. 
Motto adopted by the state of Minnesota, "Etoile du Nord" (the Star of the 
North). 

May 13, Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Commerce and Navigation concluded be- 
tween the United States and Bolivia at La Paz. 
June 14, Loan of $20,000,000 authorized by Congress. 
June 14, First session of the thirty-fifth United States Congress adjourns. 
June 18, Second treaty of Amity and Commerce between the United States and 
China concluded at Tientsin. 

June-July, Senatorial contest debate between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. 
Douglas in Illinois. 

July 2, Bemains of James Monroe, fifth President of the United States, conveyed 
from New York to Virginia for burial. 
July 9, Bichard A. Balunger, lawyer, bom in Iowa. 

July 17, Convention of Peace, Amity, Commerce, etc., between the United States 
and Belgium concluded at Washington, D. C. 

July 29, Treaty of Peace, Amity and Commerce between the United States and 
Japan concluded at Tokio. 

August 2, The people of Kansas reject the Lecompton ConstituHon by a vote 
of 11,088 to 1,788. 

Aug. 5, Atlantic submarine cable completed. 

Aug. 16, Queen Victoria of England sends the first message to President Bu- 
chanan over the Atlantic cable. 

Aug. 21, Lieutenant John M. Maffit, in the United States brig ''Dolphia," seizes 
the "Echo," a slave trader, with 318 slaves on board. 

September, Mormon troubles in Utah suppressed by United States troops from 
Fort Laramie. 

October 5, Fire loss in New York City. Crystal Palace destroyed. 
Oct. 9, First overland mail from San Francisco reaches St. Louis, MissourL 
Oct 9, Donati's comet attains its greatest brilliancy, having first appeared in 
June. 

Oct. 27, Theodore Boosevelt, twenty-sixth President of the United States, born 
in New York City. 

Nc^ember 8, Convention of adjustment of claims concluded between the United 
States and China at Shanghai. 

Not. 10, Convention of arbitration of "Macedonian" claims concluded between 
the United States and Chile at Santiago. 

No¥. 30, The crew of the slave ship ''Echo," before the Grand Jury of Colum- 
bia, South Carolina, fails to be indicted. 
December 21, Henry Austin, statesman, bom in Massachusetts. 

Nathan Clifford, of Maine, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. 

Lot M. Morrill, Governor of the state of Maine. 

Hiland Hall, Governor of the state of Vermont. 

Nathaniel P. Banks, Governor of the state of Massachusetts. 

William A. Buckingham, Governor of the state of Connecticut. 

Edwin D. Morgan, Governor of the state of New York. 

William F. Packer, Governor of Pennsylvania. 

Martin Bates, United States Senator from the state of Delaware. 

Thomas H. Hicks, Governor of the state of Maryland. 

Thomas L. Clingman, United States Senator from the state of North Carolina. 

William H. Gist, Governor of the state of South Carolina. 

Arthur P. Hayne, United States Senator from the state of South Carolina. 

Robert C. Wickliffe, Governor of the state of Louisiana. 

J. P. Henderson and Matthias Ward, United States Senators from the state of 

Texas. 

Alex. W. Bandall, Governor of the state of Wisconsin. 

J. W. Denver, Territorial Governor of Kansas. 



1858, Dmx 21 247 Dec 2, 1859 

Samuel Medar7, Territorial Governor of Kansas. 

J. S. Morton, Acting Territorial Governor of Nebraska. 

B. P. Lowe, Governor of the state of Iowa. 

James M. Bice and William W. Philips, United States Senators from the state of 
Minnesota. 

C. H. Mason, Acting Governor, Territorial Governor of Washington. 
John B. Wells, Governor of the state of California. 

Alien immigration, 119,501. 

National debt, $44,911,881.03. 

Major-General G. W. Goethals bom. 

Vice-Admiral William S. Sims bom. 

Colonel Edward M. House bom. 

Nicaragua seeks the protection of the United States. 

The Indian mutin7 suppressed. 

British Government assumes control of the East Company interests. 

1859 

Janiiary 4, The United States Senate occupies the new chamber in the north wing 
of the National Capitol extension. 
Jan. 7, Buchanan vetoes the Overland Mail bill. 

Jan. 14, Convention satisfjinff Aves Island claims between the United States 
and Venezuela concluded at Valencia. 

Jan. 24, The United States Senate passes a bill appropriating $30,000,000 at the 
disposal of the President for the purchase of Cuba. 

Jan. 28y Death of William H. Prescott, author and historian, at Boston, Mass., 
aged sixty-three yeard. 

Fabmary 4, Convention of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation between the 
United States and Paraguay concluded at Asuncidn. 

Fab. 14, Oregon admitted as the thirty-third state of the Union. It was formed 
from territory ceded to the United States by the treaty with France, April 30> 
1803, the treaty with Spain of Febraary 22, 1819, and the treaty with Great 
Britain of June 15, 1846. 

Feb. 27, Philip Barton Key killed at Washington, D. C, by Congressman Daniel 
£. Sickles for adultery with his wife. 

Feb. 24, Buchanan vetoes the Land Grants Bill for Agricultural College. 
Bfarch 3, Second session of the thirty-fifth United States Congress adjourns. 
Biar. 14, Joseph Holt^ Postmaster-General. 

April 14, TriiU of Congressman Daniel E. Sickles, for the killing of Key, began 
at Washington, D. C. (The trial results ih his acquittal.) 

May 10, Rich gold mine on the north fork of Clear Creek in Colorado opened. 
June 4, Unexaznpled frost during the night prevails throughout the northern 
sections of the United States, doing great damage to crops. 
June 30, Charles Blondin, the French acrobat, crosses the Niagara Biver just 
below the falls for the first time on a tight rope. 

July 9, General Harney, U. S. A., occupies San Juan Island, which is claimed by 
Great Britain as belonging to Vancouver Island. 

September 13, Little John rescued at Wellington, Ohio, having been arrested 
at Oberlin as a slave. 

Sept. 13^ Judge Terry mortally wounds Senator David C. Broderick of California, 
in a duel near Lake Merced, California. 

Seipt 16^ Senator Broderick dies as a result of wound he received in duel. 
Sept. 30, Steamship "Niagara," U. S. N., sails for Liberia, Africa, from Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, with the negroes taken from the slave ship "Echo.'* 
October 16-18, Negro insurrection at Harper's Ferry, West Virginia, under the 
leadership of John Brown. 

Oct 29, General Winfield Scott arrives at Portland, Oregon, having been ordered 
to the Pacific Coast in view of British claims to San Juan. 
Oct., Democratic State Convention of Mississippi addressed by Jefferson Davis in 
behalf of slavery and the extension of slave territory in the United States. 
November 28^ Death of Washin|^on Irving, essayist and novelist. 
December 2, John Brown, having been convicted for the insurrection at Har- 
per's Ferry, West Virginia, is hanged at Charleston, W. Va. 



1859, Dec 5 248 Apr. 17, 1860 

Dea 5, IHrst session of the thirty-sixth United States Congress assembles at 

Washington, D. G. 

Dec. iC Gopeland, Cook, Coppoe and Green hanged for participating in the 

Brown insurrection at Harper's Ferry. 

Dec. 16^ Besolution introduced into the House of Bepresentatives by Mr. Clark, 

of Missouri, that no one who improved "The Impending Crisis," by Helper,' is 

fit to be Speaker of the House of Bepresentatives. 

I. Goodwin, Governor of the state of New Hampshire. 

Thomas G. Turner, Governor of the state of Bhode Island. 

Henry B. Anthony, United States Senator from the state of Bhode Island. 

John C. Ten Eyck, United States Senator from the state of New Jersey. 

William Burton, Governor of the state of Delaware. 

Willard Saulsbury, United States Senator from the state of Delaware. 

John B. Floyd, Governor of the state of Virginia. 

John W. Ellis, Governor of the state of NoAh Carolina. 

Thomas Bragg, United States Senator from the state of North Carolina. (State 

not represented in the 37th to 39th Congresses inclusively account of the Civil 

War.) 

James Chestnut, Jr., United States Senator from the state of South Carolina. 

A. O. P. Nicholson, United States Senator from the state of Tennessee. 

B. Magoffin, Governor of the state of Kentucky. 

Lazarus W. Powell, United States Senator from the state of Kentucky. 

Sam Houston, Governor of the state of Texas. 

John Hemphill, United States Senator from the state of Texas. 

Moses Wisner, Governor of the state of Michigan. 

Kinsley S. Bingham, United States Senator from the state of Michigan. 

Alexander Bamsey, Governor of the state of Minnesota. 

Morton S. Wilkinson, United States Senator from the state of Minnesota. 

B. D. Gholson, Territorial Governor of Washington. 

James W. Grimes, United States Senator from the state of Iowa. 

Henry P. Haon, United States Senator from the state of California. 

Samuel Black, Territorial Governor of Nebraska. 

Delazon Smith, United States Senator from the state of Oregon. 

John Whitaker, Governor of the state of Oregon. 

Joseph Lane, United States Senator from the state of Oregon. 

Alien immigration into the United States, 118,616. 

National debt of the United States, $58,496,837.88. 

William Pennington, of New Jersey, Speaker of the House of BepresentativeSi 

Washington, D. C. 

Denver, Colorado, established. ^ 

Bear Admiral A. T. Niblack bom. 

E. H. Crowder, Brigadier-General, bom. 

Thirty-sixth United States Congress assembles. 

1860 

Janiiary 1, Actual strength of the Union Army, 16,435 men. 
February 1, Buchanan vetoes the Internal Improvements bill for St. Clair Flats, 
Michigan, and Mississippi Biver improvements. 

Feb. 5, Resolution offered in the House of Bepresentatives by John Covode, of 
Pennsylvania, for a committee to investigate the conduct of the President. 
March 16, Albert Hazlett and A. C. Stephens, prisoners captured at Harper's 
Ferry during the John Brown insurrection, hanged at Charleston, West Vir- 
ginia. 

iCar. 17, Bepublican Convention at Chicago adopts the protective tariff principle 
as a method of taxation in their platform. 
Mar. 18, John Wood, Acting Governor of the state of Illinois. 
Biar. 21, Convention of Extradition between the United States and Sweden and 
Norway concluded at Washington, D. C. 
April 17, Buchanan vetoes the Belief Bill of A. Edwards and Company. 



1860, Apr. 28 249 Not. 2^ 1860 

Apr. 28, National Democratic Convention held at Charleston, South Carolina. 
After much discord and the secession of Southern members, the convention ad- 
journs to meet at Baltimore, Maryland, June 18, having failed to nominate 
candidates. 

May 9, The Constitutional Union Party holds a convention at Baltimore, Mary- 
land. John Bell, of Tennessee, and Sam Houston, of Texas, the candidates 
for nomination, BeU being nominated for President and Edward Everett, of 
Massachusetts, receiving the nomination for Vice-President. 
BCay 10, The Morrill Protective Tariff Bill, i.e., high and specific duties, passes 
the House of Bepresentatives. (It passed the Senate after the Southern mem- 
bers withdrew.) 

May, Japanese embassy arrives at Haxnpton Boads en route for Washington. 
May 14, Japanese embassy received at Washington, D. C. 

BCay 16» National Bepublican Convention meet at Chicago, Illinois, all free states 
being represented and also Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri, 
District of Columbia and the Territories of Kansas and Nebraska. George 
Ashmun, of Massachusetts, is President of the Convention. Abraham Lincoln, 
of Illinois, is nominated for President and Hannibal .Hamlin, of Maine, for 
Vice-President. Other prominent candidates are William H. Seward, of New 
York, Simon Cameron, of Pennsylvania, Salmon P. Chase, of Ohio, and Edward 
Bates, of Maryland. 

June 11, Southern members, who seceded from the Democratic Convention, meet at 
Bichmond, Virginia, and adjourn awaiting the Baltimore Convention decision. 
June 17-27, First voyage of the ''Great Eastern'' across the Atlantic. 
June 18, Bejected delegates to the regular Democratic Convention meet with 
seceders at Baltimore, Maryland. Twenty-one states with one hundred and five 
delegates are reprefiented, and John C. Breckinridge, of Kentucky, is nominated 
for President and Joseph Lane, of Oregon, for Vice-President. 
June 22, Buchanan vetoes the Homestead Bill. 

June 22, Caleb Cushing, of Massachusetts, resigns as chairman of the Demo- 
cratic Seceders convention at Baltimore, Maryland, and David Todd, of Ohio, 
is chosen. Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, is nominated for President and Ben- 
jamin Fitzpatrick, of Alabama, for Vice-President. The latter declines and 
Herschel V. Johnson, of Georgia, is selected by the national committee. 
June 22; Congress by act authorizes a loan of $21,000,000 to the Government. 
June 25, First session of the thirty-sixth United States Congress adjourns. 
July 2, Convention for adjustment of claims concluded between the United States 
and Costa Bica, at San Jos6. 

July 5, A convention to draft a second constitution meets in Kansas. The 
Wyandotte Constitution prohibiting slavery is passed and Kansas later admitted 
to the Union as a state. 

July 9, The Prince of Wales (later Edward VII) sails from England to visit the 
United States. 

August 27, Treaty of Amity, Commerce, Navigation and Extradition between 
the United States and Venezuela concluded at Caracas. 

September 12, The Nicaraguan filibusterer, William Walker, captured and shot 
at TruxiUo, Nicaragua. 

The arrival of the Prince of Wales from Canada at Detroit, Michigan. He visits 
Chicago, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Washington, D. C, Baltimore, Philadelphia, 
New York and Boston. He then embarks from Portland, Maine, for En|^ 
land. 

NoTember 2^ The Crittenden Compromise voted down in the United Slates 
Senate. 
Presidential election returns for President and Vice-President: 

For President: 

Popular Vote 

Abraham Lincoln, Illinois, Bep. 1,866,352 

Stephen A. Douglas, Illinois, Dem 1,375,157 

J. 0. Breckinridge, Illinois, Dem T.. 845,763 

John Belly Tennessee, Union 589,581 



I860. Not. 22 250 Dec 30^ 1860 

Electoral Vote 

Lmcoln (PluraUtj, 491495) 180 

Douglas 12 

Breckinridge 72 

Bell 39 

Tqtal 803 

For Vice-President: 

Electoral Vote 

Hannibal Hamlin, Maine, Bep 180 

H. V. Johnson, Georgia, Dem 12 

Joseph Lane, Oregon, Dem 72 

Edward Everett, Massachusetts, Union 39 

' Total 303 

December 3, Second session of the thirty-sixth United States Congress as- 
sembles. 

Dec. 4, President Buchanan contends in his message to Congress that the South 
has no legal right to secede, and the government no power to prevent secession. 
Dec. 4f The House of Bepresentatives appoint a special committee to investigate 
the condition of the country. Of the propositions submitted, only one ever 
reached the Senate, viz., one proposing a Constitutional Amendment. 
Dec 10, Secretary of the Treasury Howell Cobb, of Georgia, resigns the port- 
folio. 

Dec. 14, Secretary of State Lewis Cass, of Michigan, resigns, on refusal of the 
President to reinforce Major Anderson at Fort Moultrie, South Carolina. 
Dec. 17, Congress authorizes a loan of $10,000,000. 

Dec. 18, The United States Senate appoints a committee to submit a plan for 
adjusting conditions and difficulties in the country. No agreement is reached. 
Dec. 18, In the Senate, John J. Crittenden, of Kentucky, speaks for union and 
offers resolutions for a Constitutional Amendment, known as the Crittenden 
Compromise Measure of 1860-61, which is defeated. 
Dec. 20, South Carolina, by a unanimous vote, secedes from the Union. 
Dec. 21, South Carolina appoints a commission, cdnsisting of Robert W. Bam- 
well, James H. Adams and James L. Orr, to treat for the possession of United 
States property within the limits of that state. (On their arrival in Washington 
the President persistently refuses to receive them officially.) 
Dec. 26, Major Robert Anderson abandons Fort Moultrie, Charleston Harbor, 
South Carolina, and occupies Fort Sumter. 

Dec. 27, Last survivor of the Battle of Bunker Hill, Balph Famham, dies at 
Acton, New Hampshire, aged 104 years 6 months. 

State troops of South Carolina seize Castle Pinckney and Fort Moultrie in 
Charleston Harbor. 

Dec. SO, South Carolina state troops seize the United States arsenal at Charles- 
ton with 75,000 stands of arms. 

Champ Clark, later Speaker of the House of Bepresentatives, bom. 

IL Fairbanks, Governor of the state of Vermont. 

William Sprague, ' * Civil War * ' Governor of the state of Bhode Island. 

Charles S. Olden, Governor of the state of New Jersey. 

John Litcher, Governor of the state oi Virginia. 

Francis W. Pickens, Governor of the state of South Carolina. 

John J. Pettus, Governor of the state of Mississippi. 

Thomas O. Moore, Governor of the state of Louisiana. 

Henry M. Sector, Governor of the state of Arkansas. 

Louis T. Wigfall, United States Senator from the state of Texas. 

William Dennison, Governor of the state of Ohio. 

A. A. Hammond, Aeting Governor of the state of Indiana. 

Death of A. P. WiUard, Governor of Indiana. 

Samuel J. Kirkwood, Governor of the state of Iowa. 



1860, Dec. 30 251 Jan. 9, 1861 

Edward D. Baker, United States Senator from the state of Oregon. 
Henrj M. McGill, Acting Territorial Governor of Washington. 
J. G. Downey, Governor of the state of California. 
M. S. Latham, Governor of the state of California. 
M. S. Lathain, United States Senator from the state of California. 
Eighth United States census, thirty-three states, with a population of 31,443,321 
inhabitants. 

Alien immigration into the United States, 150,237. "^ 

Interest bearing debt of the United States, $64,640,838. 
Estimated national wealth of the United States, $16,159,616,000. 
Center of population of the United States twenty miles south of Chillicothe. 
Ohio. 

Discovery t>f oil wells in Pennsylvania. 
William Jennings Bryan, American politician, bom. 
Major-General Leonard Wood bom. 
General John J. Pershing bom. 
Ironclad steamships introduced. 
C. C. Felton, President of Harvard CoUeee. 

Constitutional Union Party, Democrats who believe in the Union, the Constitn- 
tion and the enforcement of laws. 

Douglas Democrats, composed principally of Northern Democrats in the dis- 
ruption of the Democratic slave influence of the south which dominated that 
wing in national affairs. 

Breckinridge Democrats, southern supporters of Breckinridge principals in the 
campaign of this year. 

Anglo-French forces occupy Pekin to enforce existing treaties. 
Batio of representation fixed at 127,000. 
''The Palmetto Flag" hoisted in Charleston Harbor. 

August Belmont, delegate to the Democratie National Convention. (When a 
portion of the delegates withdrew he was one of that number who organized the 
convention in Baltimore, and became chairman of the National Democratic 
Committee, holding the office until 1872 and remaining an active worker in 
the party until 1876.) 

1861 

January 1, Actual strength of the Union Army, 16,367 men. 
Jan. 2, Judah P. Benjamin's plea in the United States Senate for the right 
of secession answered by Edward D. Baker, of Oregon. 

Jan. 2, The- authorities of Georgia seize the public property of the United States 
within its borders. 

Jan. 3, Georgia state troops seize Fort Pulaski at the mouth of the Savannah 
Biver in Georgia. 

Jan. 4, Governor Pickens, having duly proclaimed the "Sovereign Nation 
of South Carolina," assumes the office of chief ma^strate of the new empire 
and appoints the following cabinet ministers: D. F. Jameson, Secretary of war, 
A. G. Magrath, Secretary of State, A. C. Garlington, Secretary of the Interior, 
and W. W. Harllu, Postmaster-General. 

Jan. 4, Alabama state troops seize the United States arsenal at Mount Vernon, 
Alabama. 

Jan. 5, Alabama state troops seize Forts Morgan and Gaines at the entrance of 
Mobile Bay. 

Jan. 6, The Mayor of New York, Fernando Wood, recommends secession to the 
city common council. 

Jan. 6^ Florida state troops seize the United States arsenal at Apalachieola. 
Florida. 

Jan. 7, Florida state troops seize Forts Marion and St. Augustine. 
Jan.- 7, Last speech of Bobert Toombs, from €teorgia, delivered in the United 
States Senate. 

Jan. 9, United States Government reinforcements for Fort Sumter, under Lieu- 
tenant Charles B. Wood, in the "Star of the West,'' fired on from Morris 
Island and forced to retire. 



1861» Jan. 9 252 Feb. 18» IMl 

Jan. 9, MissiBsippi adopts ordinance of BeeesBion from the Union in convention 
bj a vote of 84 to 15. 

Jan. 9, Citizens of Smithville, North GaCtolina, seize Fort Johnston. 
Jan. 10, Citizens of SmithvUle and Wilmington, North Carolina, seize Fort 
CaswelL 

Jan. 10, Florida adopts ordinance of secession from the Union in convention by a 
vote of 62 to 7. 

Jan. 10, Louisiana state troops seize the United States arsenal and barracks at 
Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 

Jan. 11, Louisiana state troops seize Forts Jackson and Philips below New Or- 
leans, Louisiana. 

Jan. 11, Alabama adopts ordinance of secession in convention hj a vote of 61 
to 39. 

Jan. 18, Lieutenant Slemmer refuses on demand to surrender the Fort (Pickens) 
at the entrance of Pensacola Bay, Florida. 

Jan. 12^ The five representatives from Mississippi withdraw from Congress. 
Jan. 14, United States troops garrison Fort Taylor, Key West, Florida. 
Jan. 19, Georgia, by a vote of 208 to 89, leaves the Union. 
Jan. 21, Withdrawal from the United States Senate, Clement C. Clay, of Alabama, 
Thomas L. Clingman, of North Carolina, Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, Stephen 
B. Mallory and David L. Tules, of Florida, after delivering fiery and defiant 
speeches against the government of the United States. 

Jan. 23, Bepresentatives from the state of Georgia, with the exception of Joshua 
Hill, withdraw from Congress. (Hill refuses to go, but later resigns.) 
Jan. 24, The annual session of the Anti-Slavery Society of Massachusetts broken 
up by a mob. 

Jan. 26, Buchanan vetoes the Bill for Belief of Hockaday and Liggett. 
Jan. 26, Louisiana adopts ordinance of secession in convention by a vote of 
113 to 17. 

JaxL 28, In a defiant speech, Senator Alfred Iverson, of Georgia, withdraws from 
the United States Senate. 

Jan. 29, Kansas admitted to the Union. It was formed from territory ceded to 
the United States by France by the treaty of April 30, 1803, and by the 
state of Texas in the settlement of her boundaries m 1850. 
JaxL 29, Motto adopted by the state of Kansas, ''Ad Astra per Aspera" (To 
the Stars Through Difficulties). 

February 1, Texas adopts ordinance of secession in convention by a vote of 
166 to 7. 

Teh, 4, At the request of the legislature- of Virginia a Peace conference was 
held at the Capitol, Washington, D. C. (21 states represented and ex-President 
John Tyler chosen president of the conferences, which proposed constitutional 
Amendments which were rejected in the Senate.) 

Feb. 4, Judah P. Benjamin and John Slidell, of Louisiana, withdraw from the 
United States Senate. 

Febw 4, First Confederate Congress assembles at Montgomery, Alabama. 
Feb. 4, The Confederate States constituted under the presidency and leadership of 
Jefferson Davis. 

Feb. 7, The Choctaw Indian nation adheres to the Confederate States. 
Feb. 8, Loan of $25,000,000 authorized by act of Congress. 
Fil». 8, State troops seize the United States arsenal at Little Bock, Arkansas. 
Feb. 9, The Confederate Congress chooses Jefferson Davis, President, and Alex- 
ander H. Stephens, Vice-President, of the Southern Confederacy. 
Feb. 11, The House of Bepresentatives resolve that neither the Congress nor the 
people of the governments of the non-slave-holding states have a constitutional 
right to legislate upon or interfere with slavery in any slave-holding state of 
the Union. 

Feb. 13, The electoral vote of the Federal Government counted at Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Feb. 16, Texas state troops seize the United States arsenal at San Antonio. 
Feb. 18, General David E. Twiggs, U. 8. A., surrenders the United States mili- 
tary posts in Texas to the state. 
Feb. 18^ Jefferson Davis inaugurated President of the Southern Confederacy. 



1861, Feb. 18 253 BCar. 4, 1861 

Feb. 18» Establishment of territorial government in Colorado. 
Febw 28» Jefferson Davis, President of the Southern Confederacy, vetoes a bill 
for legalizing the African slave trade. 

March 1, Dismissal of General David E. Twiggs from the United States Armj. 
Mar. 2, Establishment of territorial government in Dakota and Nevada. 
Mar. 3, General Winfield Scott submits to Secretary Seward a plan for dealing 
with seceding states, viz.: by conciliation, or by blockading seceding states, or 
by conquest holding them as conquered provinces, or by allowing them to go in 
peace. 

Mar. 4, Second session of the thirty-sixth United States Congress adjourns. 
Mar. 4 (to Mar. 3, 1865), Nineteenth Federal Administration — Republican, Abra- 
ham Lincoln, of Illinois, President, and Hannibal Hamlin, of Maine, Vice- 
President, of the United States; William H. Seward, Secretary of State, Salmon 
P. Chase and William P. Fessenden, Secretaries of the Treasury; Simon Cameron 
and Edwin M. Stanton, Secretaries of War; Gideon Welles, Secretary of the 
Navy. Congress is Bepublican in both branches. Galusha Grow and Schuyler 
Colfax, SpefU^ers of the House of Representatives. 

LINCOLN'S FIRST INAUGURAL ADDRESS 1861. 

Fellow Citizens of the United States: In compliance with the custom as old as 
the Government itself, I appear before you to address you briefly, and to 
take in your presence the oath prescribed by the Constitution of the United 
States to be taken by the I^esident before he enters on the execution of his 
office. 

I do not consider it necessary at present for me to discuss those matters of 
administration about which there is no special anxiety or excitement. 
Apprehension seems to exist among the people of the Southern States that 
by the accession of a Republican Administration their property and their 
peace and personal security are to be endangered. There nas never been any 
reasonable cause for such apprehension. Indeed, the most amole evidence to 
the contrary has all the while existed and been open to their inspection. 
It is found in nearly all the published speeches of him who now addresses 
you. I do but quote from one of these speeches when I declare that ''I have 
no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery 
in the States where it exists. 1 believe I have no lawful right to do so, and 
I have no inclination to do so." Those who nominated and elected me, diid so 
with full knowledge that I had made this and many similar declarations, and 
had never recanted them. And, more than this, they placed in the platform 
for my acceptance, and as a law to themselves and to me, the clear and 
emphatic resolution which I now read: ''Resolved, That the maintenance inviolate 
of the rights of the States, and especially the rights of each State to order 
and control its own domestic institutions according to its own judgment ex- 
clusively is essential to that balance of power on which the perfection and 
endurance of our political fabric depend, and we denounce the lawless 
invasion by armed force of the soil of any State or Territory, no matter 
under what pretext, as among the gravest of crimes. I now reiterate these 
sentiments; and, in doing so, I only press upon the public attention the most 
conclusive evidence of which the case is susceptible, that the property, peace, 
and security of no section are to be in any wise endangered by the new 
incoming Administration. I add, too, that all the protection which, consis- 
tently with the Constitution and the laws, can be given, will be cheerfully 
given, to all the States when lawfully demanded, for whatever cause as aheer- 
fully to one section, as to another. There is much controversy about the 
delivering up of fugitives from service or labor. The clause I now read is as 
plainly written in the Constitution as any other of its provisions: 
''No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, 
escaping into another, shall in consequence, of any law or regulation therein 
be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim 
of the party to whom such service or labor may be due." 

It is scarcely questioned that this provision was intended by those who made 
it for the reclaiming of what we call fugitive slaves; and the intention 
of the lawgiver is the law. All Members of Congress swear their support to 



1861, BCar. 4 254 BCar. 4, 1861 

the whole Constitution — ^to this provision as much as to any other. To the 
proposition, then, that slaves whose cases come within the terms of this 
clause, ''shall be delivered up" their oaths are unanimous. Now, if they 
would make the effort in good temper, could they not with nearly equal 
unanimity frame and pass a law by means of which to keep good that unanimous 
oath. There is some difference of opinion whether this clause should be enforced 
by National or State authority; but surely that difference is not a very material 
one. If the slaves be surrendered, it can be of but little consequence to him or 
to others, by which authority it is done. And should any one, in any case, be 
content that his oath shall go unkept, on a merely unsubstantial controversy as 
to how it shall be keptf 

Again, in any law upon this subject, ought not all the safeguards of liberty 
known in civilized and humane jurisprudence to be introduced so that a 
free man be not, in any case, surrendered as a slave f And might it not be 
well at the same time to provide by law for the enforcement of that clause 
in the Constitution which guarantees that "the citizen of each State shall 
be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States f" 
I take the official oath today with no mental reservations and with no 
purpose to construe the Constitution or laws by any hvpercritical rules. And 
while I do not choose now to specify particular acts of Congress as proper to 
be enforced, I do suggest that it will be much safer for all, both in official 
and private stations, to conform to and abide by idl those acts which stand 
unrepealed, than to violate any of them trusting to find impunity in having 
them held to be unconstitutional. 

It is seventy-two years since the first inauguration of a President under our 
National Constitution. During that period fifteen different and greatly dis- 
tinguished citizens have, in succession, administered the Executive branch of 
the Government. They have conducted it through many perils, and generally 
with ffreat success. Tet, with all this scope of precedents, I now enter 
upon the same task for the brief constitutional term of four years under great 
and peculiar difficulty. A disruption of the Federid Union, heretofore only 
menaced, is now formidably attempted. 

I hold that, in contemplation of universal law and of the Constitution, the 
Union of these States is perpetual. Perpetuity is implied if not expressed, 
in the fundamental law of all national governments. It is safe to assert 
that no government proper ever had a provision in its organic law for its own 
termination. Continued to execute all the express provisions of our National 
Constitution, and the Union will endure forever — ^it being impossible to de- 
stroy it except by some action not provided for in the instrument itself. 
Again, if the United States be not a governm'ent proper, but an association 
of States in the nature of contract merely, can it, as a contract, be peacefully 
unmade by less than all the parties who made itf One party to a contract 
may violate it, break it, so to speak, but does it not require aU to lawfuUy 
rescind itf 

Descending from those general principles, we find the proposition that, in 
legal contemplation, the union is perpetual, confirmed by the history of the 
Union itself. The Union is much older than the Constitution. It was formed, 
in fact, by the Articles of Association in 1774. It was matured and con- 
tinned by the Declaration of Independence in 1776. It was further matured, 
and the faith of all the then thirteen States expressly plighted and engaged 
that it should be perpetual, by the Articles of Confederation in 1778. And 
finalhr, in 1787, one of the declared objects for ordaining and establishing 
the Constitution was, "to form a more perfect Union." 

But if the destruction of the Union by one, or bv a part only, of the States be 
lawfully possible, the Union is less perfect than before the Constitution, having 
lost the vital element of perpetuity. It foUows from these views that no 
State, upon its own mere motion, can lawfully get out of the Union, that 
resolves and ordinances to that effect are legally void; and that acts of violence, 
within any State or States, against the authority of the United States, are 
insurrectionary or revolutionary, according to circumstance. I therefore con- 
sider that, in view of the Constitution and the laws the Union is unbroken; and 
to the extent of my ability I shall take care, as the Constitution itself 



1861, BCar. 4 255 BCar. 4, 1861 

expressly enjoins upon me, that the laws of the Union be faithfuUy executed 
in all of the States. Doing this I deem to be only a simple duty on my part; 
and I shall perform it, so far as practicable, unless my rightful masters, the 
American people, shall withold the reauisite means, or in some authoritative 
manner direct the contrary. I trust this will not be regarded as a menace, 
but only as the declared purpose of the Union that it will constitutionally 
defend and maintain itself. 

In doing this there needs to be no bloodshed or violence; and there shall be 
none, unless it be forced upon the national authority. The power confided 
to me will be used to hold, occupy, and possess the property and places be- 
longing to the government, and to collect the duties and imposts; but beyond 
what may be necessary for these objects, there will be no. invasion, no using of 
force against or among the people anywhere. Where hostility to the United 
States, in any interior locality, shall be so great and universal as to .j>revent 
competent resident citizens from holding the Federal offices, there will be 
no attempt to force obnoxious strangers among the people for that object. 
While the strict legal right may exist in the Government to enforce the 
exercise of these offices, the attempt to do so would be so irritating, and so 
nearly impracticable withal, that I deem it better to forego for the time 
the uses of such offices. 

The mails, unless repelled, will continue to be furnished in all parts of the 
Union. So far as possible, the people everywhere shall have that sense 
of perfect security which is most favorable to calm thought and reflection. 
The course here indicated will be followed unless current events and experience 
shall show a modification or change to be proper, and in every case and 
exigency my best discretion will be exercised according to circumstances 
actually existing, and with a view and a hope of a peaceful solution of the 
national troubles, and the restoration of fraternal sympathies and affections. 
That there are persons in one section or another who seek to destroy the 
Union at all events, and are fflad of any pretext to do it, I will neither affirm 
or deny; but if there be suc\ I need address no words to them. To those, 
however, who really love the Union may I not speak. 

Before entering upon so jrrave a matter as the destruction of our national 
fabric, with all its benefits, its memories, and its hopes, would it not be 
wise to ascertain precisely why we do itT Will you hazard so desperate a 
step while there is any possibility that any portion of the ills you fly from have 
no real existence f Will you, while the certain ills you fly to are greater 
than all the real ones you fly from — ^will you risk the commission of so 
fearful a mistake f 

All profess to be content in the Union, if all constitutional rights can be 
maintained. It is true, then, that any right, plainly written in the constitu- 
tion, has been denied f I think not. Happily the human mind is so con- 
stituted, that no ^arty can reach to the audacity of doing this. Think, 
if you can, of a single instance in which a plainly written provision of the 
Constitution has ever been denied. If by the mere force of numbers a 
majority should deprive a minority in any clearly written constitutional 
right, it might, in a moral point of view, justify revolution — certainly would 
if such a right were a vital one. But such is not our case. All the vital 
rights of majorities and of individuals are so plainly assured to them by 
affirmations and negations, guarantees and prohibitions, in the Constitution, 
that controversies never arise concerning them. But no organic law can ever be 
framed with a provision specifically applicable to every question which may 
occur in practical administration. No foresight can anticipate, nor any docu- 
ment of reasonable length contain, express provisions for all possible questions. 
Shall fugitives from labor be surrendered by National or by State au- 
thority f The Constitution does not expressly say. May Congress prohibit 
slavery in the Territories f The Constitution does not expressly say. Must 
Congress protect slavery in the Territories f The Constitution does not ex- 
pressly say. 

From questions of this class spring all our constitutional controversies, and we 
divide upon them into majorities and minorities. If the minoritv will not 
acquiesce, the majority must, or the Government must cease. There is no 



1861, Mar. 4 256 BCar. 4» 1861 

other alternative; for eontinuing the Government is acquiescence on one side 
or the other. 

If a minority in such case will secede rather than acqniesce, they make a 
precedent which in turn will divide and rain them; for a majority of their 
own will secede from them whenever a majority refuses to be controlled by 
such minority. For instance, why may not any portion of a new confederacy 
a year or two hence arbitrarily secede again, precisely as portions of the 
present Union now claim to secede from itf All who cherish sentiments are 
now being educated to the exact temper of doing this. 

Is there such perfect identity of interests among the States to compose a 
new Union as to produce harmony only, and prevent renewed secession f 
Plainly, the centrid idea of secession is the essence of anarchy. A majority 
held in restraint by constitutional check and limitations, and always changing 
easily with deliberate changes of popular opinions and sentiments, is the only 
true sovereign of a free people. Whoever rejects it does, of necessity, fly 
to anarchy or to despotism. Unanimity is impossible; the rules of a minority, 
as a permanent arrangement, is wholly inadmissible; so that, rejecting the 
majority principle, anarchy or despotism in some form is all that is left. 
I do not forget the position, assumed by some, that constitutional questions 
are to be decided by the Supreme Court; nor do I deny that such decisions 
must be binding, in any case, upon the parties to a suit, as to the object of 
that suit, while they are also entitled to very high respect and consideration in all 
parallel cases by all other departments of the government. And while it is 
obviously possible that such decision may be erroneous in any given case, still 
the evil effect following it, being limited to that particular case, with the 
chance that it may be overruled and never become a precedent for other cases, 
can better be borne than could the evils of a different practice. At the same 
time, the candid citizen must confess that if the policy of the government, upon 
vital questions affecting the whole people, is to be irrevocably fixed by 
decisions of the Supreme Court, the instant they are made, in ordinary litiga- 
tion between parties in personal actions, the people will have ceased to be 
their own rulers, having to that extent practically resigned their government 
into the hands of that eminent tribunal. Nor is there in this view any 
assault upon the courts or the judges. It is a duty from which they may not 
shrink to decide cases properly brought before them, and it is no fault of 
theirs if others seek to turn their decisions to political purposes. 
One section of our country believes slavery is right, and ought to be extended, 
while the other believes it is wrong, and ought not to be extended. This is 
the only substantial dispute. The fugitive-slave clause of the Constitution, 
and the law for the suppression of the foreign slave trade, are each as well 
enforced, perhaps, as any law can ever be in a community where the moral 
sense of the people imperfectly supports the law itself. The great body 
of the people abide by the dry legal obligation in both cases and a few breax 
over in each. This, I think, cannot be perfectly cured, and it would be worse 
in both cases after the separation of the sections, than before. The foreign 
slave trade, now imperfectly suppressed, would be ultimately revived without 
restriction in one section, while fugitive slaves, now only partially surrendered, 
would not be surrendered at all by the other. 

Physically speaking, we cannot separate. We cannot remove our respective 
sections from each other, nor build an impassable waU between them. A 
husband and wife may be divorced, and go out of the presence and beyond 
the reach of each other; but the different parts of our country cannot do 
this. They cannot but remain face to face, and intercourse, either ami<fable 
or hostile, must continue between them. Is it possible, then, to make that 
intercourse more advantageous or more satisfactory after separation than 
before f Can aliens make treaties easier than friends can make lawsf Can 
treaties be more faithfully enforced between aliens than laws can among 
friends f Suppose you go to war, you cannot fight always, and when, after much 
loss on both sides, and no gain on either, you cease fighting, the identical 
old questions as to terms of intercourse are again upon yon. 
This country, with its institutions, belongs to the people who inhabit it. 



1861, Mar. 4 257 BCar. 4, 1861 

Whenever they shall grow weary of the ezistinff govemment, they can exercise 
their constitutional right of amending it, or their revolutionary right to dis- 
member or overthrow it. I cannot be ignorant of that fact that many worthy and 
patriotic citizens are desirous of having the National Constitution amended. 
While I make no recommendation of amendment, I fully recognize the rightful 
authority of the people over the whole subject, to be exercised in either of the 
modes prescribed in the instrument itself, and I should, under existing cir- 
cumstances, favor rather than oppose a fair opportunity being afforded the 
people to act upon it. I will venture to add that to me the convention mode 
seems preferable, in that it allows amendments to originate with the people 
themselves, instead of only permitting them to take or reject propositions 
originated by others, not especially chosen for the purpose, and whicn might 
not be precisely such as they would wish to either accept or refuse. I understand 
a proposed amendment to the Constitution — ^which amendment, however, I have 
not seen — has passed Congress, to the effect that the Federal Govemment 
shall never interfere with the domestic institutions of the States, including 
that of person held to service. To avoid misconstruction of what I have said, I 
depart from my purpose, not to speak of particular amendments, so far as to 
say that| holding such a provision to now be implied constitutional law, I have no 
objection to' its being made express and irrevocable. 

The Chief Magistrate derives all his authority from the people, and they 
have conferred none upon him to fix terms for the separation of the States. The 
people themselves can do this also if they choose; but the Executive, as such, 
nas nothing to do with it. His duty is to administer the present government, 
as it came to his hands, and to transmit it, unimpaired by mm, to his 
successor. 

Why should there not be a patient confidence in the ultimate justice of the 
people f Is there any better or equal hope in the world f In our present 
differences, is either party without faith of being in the right. If the 
Almighty Buler of Nations with his eternal truth and justice, be on your 
side of the North, or on yours of the South, that truth and that justice 
will surely prevail by the judgment of this great tribunal of the American 
people. 

By the frame of the government under which we live, this same people have 
wisely given their public servants but little power for mischief; and have, 
with equal wisdom, provided for the return of that little to their own hands 
at very short intervals. While the people retain their virtue and vigilance, 
no administration, by any extreme of wickedness or folly, can very seriously 
injure the government in the short space of four years. 

My countrymen, one and all, think calmly and well upon this whole subject. 
Nothing valuable can be lost by taking time. If there be an object to 
hurry any of you in hot haste to a step which you would never take deliber- 
ately, that object will be frustrated by taking time; but no ffood object can 
be frustrated by it. Such of you as are now dissatisfied, still have the old 
constitution unimpaired, and, on the sensitive point, the laws of your own 
framing under it; while the new administration will have no immediate 
power, if it would, to change either. If it were admitted that you who are 
dissatisfied hold the right side in the dispute, there still is no single good 
reason for precipitate action. Intelligence, patriotism, Christianity, and a 
firm reliance on Him who has never yet forsaken this favored land are still 
competent to adjust, in the best way, all our present difSculty. 
In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the 
momentous issue of civil war. The government will not assail you. Ton 
can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. Tou have no 
oath registered in Heaven to destroy the govemment, while I shall have the 
most solemn one to ''preserve, protect, and defend it." 

I am loth to close. We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be 
enemies. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of 
affection. The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battle-field 
and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad 
land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union when again touched, as surely 
they will be, by the better angels of our nature. 



1861, BCar. 7 258 Bfay 21, 1861 

BCar. 7, Bullion in New Orleans mint to the amount of $536,000 seized by the 
State of Louisiana for th*e Confederate Government. 

llCar; 12, The Confederate States dispatch John Forsyth of Alabama, and 
Martin J. Crawford, of Georc^a, with credentials to the Secretary of State 
of the United States. The uttter declines to have official intercourse with 
them. 

ApirU 1, Tariff bill raising the tariff rate of 1857 about %, which was in- 
troduced in the House of Bepresentatives by Mr. Morrill, and passed and 
approved on March 2, goes into effect. 

Apr. 11, Fort Sumter summoned to surrender by General P. T. G. Beauregard 
of the Confederacy. 

Apr. 12, (Friday) Fort Sumter fired upon. 
Apr. 14, Fort Sumter surrenders. 

Apr. 15, President Lincoln calls for 75,000 troops and calls Congress to con- 
vene on July 4. 

Apr. 15, The Governor of North Carolina refuses to furnish the United States 
her quota of militia. 

Apr. 16, State troops of North Carolina take possession of Forts Caswell and 
Johnson. 

Apr. 17, Virginia adopts ordinance Of secession in convention by a vote of 
88 to 55. 
Apr. 17, The Governor of Missouri refuses to furnish the United States her 

2uota of militia. 
Lpr. 18, Abandonment and burning of the United States armory at Harper's 
Ferry. 

Apr. 18, State troops seiie the United States arsenal at Liberty, Missouri. 
Apr. 19, Mob in Baltimore, Maryland, attack Massachusetts troops en route 
to Washington, D. C, for the defense of the Capitol. 

Apr. 19, Ports of seceding States proclaimed blockaded by President Lincoln. 
Apr. 20, Command of General Benjamin F. Butler, at Annapolis, Maryland. 
Apr. 20, The Confederates seizp the Norfolk Navy Yard, Virginia. 
Apr. 23, The first South Carolina regiment starts for the Potomac. 
Apr. 23, Seizure of United States officers at San Antonio, Texas, as prisoners 
of war. 

Apr. 23, The Governor of Arkansas refuses to furnish her quota of militia to 
the United States. 

Apr. 24, Agreement signed by convention between the Commonwealth of Vir- 
ginia and the Confederate States of America, viz.: John Tyler, William B. 
Preston, and S. McD. Moore, and James P. Halcombe, James C. Bouie, Lewis E. 
Harris, and Alexander H. Stephens. 

Apr. 19, Second Confederate Provisional Congress meets. 

May 1, United States Supreme Court Justice John A. Campbell, of Alabama, 
resigns. (Of the three southern justices, Campbell alone joined the Con- 
federacy, he becoming Secretary of War.) 

May 3, President Lincoln calls for 42,000 volunteers for the regular army and 
navy for three years. 

Blay 4, Seizure of United States ordnance stores at Kansas C^t^. 
May 6^ Arkansas adopts ordinance of secession in convention by % vote of 
69 to 1. 

May 6, Tennessee secedes from the Union, joining the Southern Confederacy 
at the outbreak of the Civil War. 

May 10, Habeas Corpus in Key West, the Tortugas, and Santa Bosa suspended 
and martial law proclaimed by President Lincoln. 
May 11, The blockade of Charleston, South Carolina, established. 
May 13, The blockade of the Mississippi Biver at Cairo established. 
May 13, United States troops occupy Baltimore, Maryland. 

May 13, Department of Ohio, embracing a portion of the State of West 
Virginia, under command of General George B. McClellan. 
May 13, Neutrality proclamation issued by Queen Victoria of England. 
May 18-19, Engagement in Virginia at Sewells Point. 

May 21, North Carolina in convention adopts ordinance of secession by a 
unanimous vote. 



1861, May 21 259 Ang. 8» 1861 

May 21, The Confederate Congress at Montgomery adjourns to meet at Bich- 

mond, Virginia, July 20. 

May 24, The seat of the Confederate Government permanently removed from 

Montgomery, to Richmond, Virginia. 

May 2iif Alexandria and Arlington Heights, Virginia, occupied by United States 

troops. 

Bfay 24, Colonel E. E. Ellsworth, of New York, shot at Alexandria, Virginia. 

May 25, Chief Justice Taney issues a writ of Habeas Corpus to General Geor^ 

Cadwallader, on appeal by John Merryman, of Baltimore, Maryland, who is 

at that time confined in Fort McHenry. 

May 26^ New Orleans blockaded. 

May 27, Mobile and Savannah blockaded. 

May 28, Department of Northeastern Virginia, under command of General 

Irwin McDowell, U. 8. A 

June 3, Battle of Phillips, Virginia. 

June 5, Theophilus Parsons supports the President's power to suspend the 

Habeas Corpus. 

June 8, Legislature of the State of Tennessee adopts ordinance of secession. 

June 8, State troops of Virginia transferred to the Confederate Government. 

June 15^ The Confederate States recognized as belligerents by Great Britain and 

Prance. 

June 15, The Confederates abandon Harper's Ferry, W. Virginia. 

June 17, Battle of Boonesville, Missouri. 

June 27, George P. Kane, chief of police at Baltimore, Maryland, arrested by 

General Banks. 

July 1, Actual force of the Union army, 186,751 men. 

July 1, Alien immigration into the country, 89,724. 

July 1, Interest bearing debt of the United States, $90,380,874. 

July 2, Habeas Corpus act extended further in Key West and Santa Bosa. 

July 3, Western Department of the U. S. A constituted. 

July 5, Attorney-General Bates asserts the President's power to declare martial 

law and suspend the writ of Habeas Corpus. 

July 5, Federals under Colonel Sigel, forced to retreat at Carthage, Missouri, 

from the Confederates under General Jackson. 

July 11, Senators Mason and Hunter, of Virginia, Clingman and Bragg, of 

North Carolina, Chestnut, of South Carolina, Nicholson, of Tennessee, Sebastian 

and Mitchell, of Arkansas, and Hemphill and Wigfall, of Texas, expelled from 

the United States Senate. 

July 11, Battle of Bich Mountain, Virginia. 

July 14, Battle of Carricks Fort, Virginia. 

July 17, A loan of $250,000,000 authorized by act of Congress. 

July 17, Inflation legislation amounting in legal tender paper issued by the 

government having a limited legal tender quality to $660,338,902. 

July 20, Third Confederate Congress assembles at Bichmond, Va. 

July 21, Battle of Bull Bun in Virginia. 

July 22, General George B. McClellan ordered to Washington, D. C. 

July 22, Enlistment of 500.000 men 'authorized by act of Congress. 

July 23, The Department of Ohio put under the command of General William S. 

Bosecrans. 

July 25, General John C. Fremont assumes command of the Western Department. 

July 27, General George B. McClellan assumes command of the IHvision of 

the Potomac. 

July 31, State troops of Tennessee transferred to the Confederate Government. 

August 5, Amended tariff act raising duties passed by Congress. 

Aug. 5, Direct tax €ff $20,1)00,000 laid annually and apportioned to the States 

by act of Congress, the first to be levied previous to April 1, 1865. 

Aug. 6, First session (extra) of the thirty-seventh United States Congress 

adjourns. 

Aug. 6^ An act of Congress confiscating the property of enemies of the United 

States including slaves. 

Aug. 8, The District of Irontoui Missourii under command of General U. 8. 

Grant. 



1861, Aug. 10 260 I>MX 9, 1861 

1 I I IM I 1111, ■ I III ■!■ I I !■■ I I I ■ * 

Aug. 10, Battle of Wilson's Creek, Missouri. 

Aug. 10, Death of General Lyon at Battle of Springfield or Wilson's Creek, 
Missouri. 

Atig. 15, Department of the Cumberland constituting Kentucky and Tennessee 
under command of General Bobert Anderson. 

Aug. 16, Proclamation of President Lincoln forbids commercial intercourse 
with seceding States. 

Aug. 19, Major Berrett of Washington, D. C, arrested on a charge of treason 
and conveyed to Fort Lafayette in the Narrows, New York Harbor. 
Aug. 29, Forts Hatteras and Clark at the entrance of Hatteras Inlet captured 
by General Butler. 

Aug. 31, Martial law proclaimed in Missouri and freedom to the slaves of 
active rebels by General Fremont. (Lincoln disapproved this act.) 
September 1, General Grant assumes command of Southeastern Missouri. 
Sept. 3-12, The Confederates advance into Kentucky and capture Columbus. 
Sept. 6, General Grant occupies Paducah, Kentucky. 

Sept. 10, Camp ''Dick Bobinson,'' in the eastern part of Kentucky, assigned 
to the command of General George H. Thomas. 
Sept. 10, Battle of Camifex Ferry, Virginia. 
Sept. 11-20, Siege and surrender of Lexington, Missouri. 
Sept. 18, Confederates occupy Bowling Green, Kentucky. 

Sept. 20, General O. M. Mitchell assumes command of the Department of Ohio. 
October 8, General Anderson succeeded by General William T. Sherman in the 
Department of the Cumberland. 
Oct. 9, Battle of Santa Besa Island. 

Oct 10, Organization of an expedition by General O. M. Mitchell for occupation 
of east Tennessee. 

Oct 12, Confederate envoys to Great Britain and France, James M. Mason, of 
Virginia, and John Slidell, of Louisiana, run the blockade of Charleston Harbor, 
South Carolina, in the steamship ''Theodora." 
Oct 21, Battle of Balls Bluff, Virginia. 

Oct, One hundred and seventy-four persons committed to Fort Lafayette. 
Oct-Nov., Expedition of Port Boyal, South Carolina. 

November 1, Betirement of General Scott, U. S. A., at the age of seventy-five 
years. 

Nov. 2, General Fremont relieved by General David Hunter, U. 8. A., at 
St. Louis, Missouri. 

Nov. 7, Port Boyal, South Carolina, taken. 
Nov. 7, Battle of Belmont, Missouri. 

Nov. 7-8, The British Royal Mail contract packet "Trent," en route from 
Havana, Cuba, for England, is stopped by the United States war steamer 
''San Jacinto'' (Captain Wilkes) and Mason and Slidell, the Confederate 
envoys, taken off. 

Nov. 9, Department of Missouri constituted. 
Nov. 10, William S. Bayley, geologist, bom. 

Nov. 15, Beorganization of the Department of Ohio, including Kentucky and 
Tennessee. General Don Carlos Buell assumes command. 
Nov. 18, Fourth Confederate Congress meets. 

Nov. 19, General Halleck assumes command of the Department of Missouri. 
Nov. 30, Jefferson Davis elected President of the Confederate States for the 
term of six years. 

December 2, Second session of the thirty-seventh United States Congress as- 
sembled. 

Dec 3, First annual message to Congress by President Lincoln. 
Dec 4, The United States Senate expels John C. Breckinridge, of Kentucky, 
having remained in the Senate until the end of the previous session. 
Dec 9, Senate resolves that a joint committee of the Senate and the House 
be appointed to inquire into the condition of the war. (House concurs on 
the following day. Senators Benjamin F. Wade, of Ohio, Zachariah Chandler, of 
Michigan, and Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee (Dec. 17). Congressman Daniel 
W. Good| of Massachusetts, John Covode, of Pennsylvania, George W. Julian, 



1861, Dec. 9 261 Dec. 81, 1861 

of Indiana, and Moses F. Odell, war Democrat, of New York (Dec. 19). Ben- 
jamin F. Wade, Chairman. 

Dea 11, Trea^ of Extradition between the United States and Mexico, con- 
cluded at Mexiee. 

Dea 20, Skirmish at Dranesville, Virginia. 

Dea 21, Many medals bestowed by Congress upon petty officers, seamen, 
and marines, in the navy, for distinguished service and g^lantry in action. 
Dea 24^ Act passed increasing the tariff on tea, coffee, and sugar in the 
United States. 

Dea 28, Confederate commissioners taken from the British steamer "Trent'' 
surrendered by the United States Government. 
Dea 81, Suspension of cash payments in the Federal States. 

G. A. Grow, of Pennsylvania, speaker of the House of Bepresentatives. 

Noah H. Swayne, of Ohio, Justice of the United States Supreme Court. 

Israel Washburn, Jr., Governor of the State of Maine. 

Nathaniel S. Berry, Governor of the State of New Hampshire. 

Frederick Hollbrook, Governor of the State of Vermont. 

Lot M. Morrill, United States Senator from the State of Maine. 

John A. Andrews, War Governor of the State of Massachusetts. 

Ira Harris, United States Senator of the State of New York. 

Andrew G. Curtin, War Governor of the State of Pennsylvania. 

Edgar Cowan and David Wilmot, United States Senators from the State of 

Pennsylvania. 

John S. CarUle and W. T. Willey, United States Senators from the State of 

Virginia. 

Henry T. Clark, Acting Governor of the State of North Carolina. 

Evacuation of Fort Sumter, South Carolina. 

John Milton, Governor of the State of Florida. 

John G. Shortes, Governor of the State of Alabama. 

Andrew Johnson, Provisional Governor of the State of Tennessee. 

J. F. Bobinson, Governor of the State of Kentucky. 

John C. Breckinridge, United States Senator from the State of Kentucky. 

Garrett Davis, United States Senator from the State of Kentucky. 

F. B. Lublock, Governor of the State of Texas. 

Henry Connelly, Territorial Governor of New Mexico. 

Edward Clark, Governor of the State of Texas. 

John Sherman and Salmon P. Chase, United States Senators from the State of 

Ohio. 

Bichard Yates, Governor of the State of Illinois. 

Orville H. Browning, United States Senator from the State of Illinois. 

Oliver P. Morton, Acting Governor of the State of Indiana. (Elected Governor 

in the following election, and later United States Senator, ''Civil War Governor" 

of Indiana.) 

Henry S. Lane, Governor of the State of Indiana. (Later elected United States 

Senator.) 

J. A. Wright, United States Senator from the State of Indiana. 

Austin Blair, Governor of the State of Michigan. 

C. F. Jackson, Governor of the State of Missouri, succeeding H. B. Gamble, 

Provisional Governor of the State. 

Waldo P. Johnson, United States Senator from the State of Missouri. 

Charles Bobinson, Governor of the State of Kansas, succeeding George M. 

Bebee, Territorial Governor. 

James H. Lane and Samuel C. Pomeroy, United States Senators from the 

State of Kansas. 

William Jayne, Territorial Governor of North Dakota. 

A. Sanders, Territorial Governor of Nebraska. 

T. O. Howe, United States Senator from the State of Wisconsin. 

John W. Dawson, Territorial Governor of Utah. 

William Gilpin, Territorial Governor of Colorado. 

John W. Neswithi United States Senator from the State of Oregon. 



1861» Boa 81 262 Feb. ».1S» 1862 

W. H. Wallace, Territorial Governor of Washington, succeeding Acting Governor 
L. J. S. Tumey. 

James A. McDougall, United States Senator from the State of California. 
National debt, $90,580,873.72. 
Siege of Fort Pickens, Florida. 

Thomas W. Gregory, bom, Attorney General of the United States. 
Motto of the State of Colorado adopted, "Nil Sine Nomine" (Nothing without 
God). 

Senators of the Confederate States, viz.: 
Alabama, Clement C. Clay and William M. Tancey. 
Arkansas, Robert W. Jolmson and Charles B. Mitchell. 
Florida, James M. Baker and Augustus E. Maxwell. 
Georgia, Benjamin H. Hill and John W. Lewis. 
Kentucky, Henry C. Burnett and William E. Simms. 
Louisiana, Thomas J. Semmes and Edward Sparrow. 
Mississippi, Albert G. Brown and James Phelan. 
Missouri, John B. Clark and B. L. T. Pe3rton. 
North Carolina, William T. Dortch and George Davis. 
South Carolina, Robert W. Barnwell and James L. Orr. 
Tennessee, G. A. Henry and L. C. Haynes. 
Virginia, R. M. T. Hunter and William B. Preston. 
Texas, L. W. Wigfall and W. S. Oldham. . 
Adoption of the Southern Confederacy's Constitution. 

The Attorney-General of the United States given charge of the United States 
district attorneys and marshals. 

Charles Francis Adams, of Massachusetts, Minister to Great Britain. 
Spain, France, and England unite in the Convention of London, to enforce 
their Mexican claims and send fleets to Mexico. 
General Scott resigns as Commander-in-chief of the Army. 
Federal troops cross the Potomac. 
All postal service in the seceding States suspended. 
Kentucky declares neutrality. 
The Wheeling Government. 
The President acknowledges Virginia. 
Confiscation bill passed. 

The President suspends all commerce with the seceded States. 
President Lincoln orders General Fremont to modify his emancipation procla- 
mation. 

Peace Congress meets at Washington, D. C. 
Jefferson Davis offers letters of marque to privateers. 

1862 

January 1, Actual strength of the Union Army, 575,917 men. 

JaxL 3, Battle of Stone River, or Murfreesboro, Tennessee. 

JaxL 7, General A. E. Bumside appointed commander of the Department of 

North Carolina. 

Jan. 10, Battle of Middle Creek, Kentucky. 

Jan. 10, Waldo P. Johnson and Truston Polk, of Missouri, expelled from the 

United States Senate. 

JaxL 18, Expedition under General Bumside arrives at Hatteras Inlet, North 

Carolina. 

Jan. 10, Engagement at Mill Spring or Logans Cross Roads, Kentucky. 

Jan. 20, Jesse Bright, of Indiana, expelled from the United States Senate on a 

charge of disloyalty. 

February 6^ Forces under General Grant and Commodore Foote capture Fort 

Henry, Tennessee. 

Feb. 7-8, Battle of Roanoke Island, North Carolina, by forces under General 

Bumside. 

Feb. d-13. The House Treasury Note bill, with legal tender clause, passes the 

United States Senate. 



1862, Feb. 14 263 BCay 7-8, 1862 

Feb. 14^ General Grant assigned to the command of the District of West 
Tennessee. 

Feb. 16^ Fort Donelson, Tennessee, under General U. 8. Grant, surrenders to 
the Federal forces. 

Feb. 18, First Congress of the Permanent Confederate Government meets at 
Richmond. Virginia. 

Feb. 21, Battle of Valverde, New Mexico. 

Feb. 22, Permanent Confederate Government organized, at Richmond, Virginia. 
Jefferson Davis, President, and Alexander H. Stephens, Vice-President, R. M. 
Hunter, President pro tem of the Confederate Senate, and Thomas S. Bocock, 
speaker of the House of Representatives. 
Members in the Confederate Congress from each State: 
Alabama, 9 Members. Missouri, 6 Members. 

Arkansas, 4 Members. North Carolina, 10 Members. 

Florida, 2 Members. South Carolina, 6 Members. 

Georgia, 10 Members. Tennessee, 11 Members. 

Kentucky, 12 Members. Texas, 7 Members. 

Louisiana, 6 Members. Virginia, 16 Members. 

Mississippi, 7 Members. 

Total representation of the Confederacy, 106 Members. 

Biarch 13, A new article of war, prohibiting the return of escaped slaves to 
Confederate owners, promulgated by the War Department at Wasnington. 
Mar. 14, United States forces occupy Newbern, North Carolina. 
Mar. 17, Heintzelman 's corps embarks for Fortress Monroe. The army of the 
Potomac at Alexandria, Virginia, also commences to embark for the Peninsula. 
Mar. 21, Departments of the Gulf and South created. 

Mar. 23, Brigadier-General James Shields defeats "Stonewall" Jackson, at 
the Battle of Kernstown, or Winchester. Virginia. 
Mar. 31, Actual strength of the Union forces, 637,126 men. 

ApirU 1, Headquarters of the army of the Potomac transferred to the vicinity 
of Fortress Monroe. 

Apr. 3, Bill abolishing slavery in the District of Columbia passed by the 
Senate. 

Apr. 4, Departments of the Shenandoah and Rappahannock created. 
Apr. 4, McDowell's forces detached from the army. 

Apr. 4, Torktown line of defence of 11,000 Confederates is attacked and 
repulsed. 

Apr. 4-Ma7 6, The so-called siege of Torktown. 
Apr. 6, General McClellan commences the siege of Torktown, Virginia. 
Apr. 6-7, Battle of Shiloh (Pittsburgh Landing), Tennessee. 

Apr. 7, Treaty for the suppression of the slave trade between the United States 
and Great Britain concluded at Washington, D. C. 
Apr. 7, Island Number 10 surrenders. 

AjfT. 8, National Tax bill passes the House of Representatives. 
Apr. 11, Bill for the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia passes 
the House of Representatives. 

Apr. 11, United States forces, under General O. M. Mitchell, occupy Hunting- 
ton, Alabama. 

Apr. 16, Bill passes the House of Representatives approving a compensation 
averaging $300 payment by the government for each slave. 
Apr. 18-27, Battle of Forts Jackson and St. Philip. 
Apr. 21, The Confederate Congress at Richmond, Virginia, breaks up. 
Apr. 24, Fleet of Admiral Farragut passes Forts Jackson and St. Philip, guard- 
ing the Mississippi below New Orleans, Louisiana. 
Apr. 25, New Orleans, Louisiana, occupied by Admiral Farragut. 
Apr.-May, Siege of Torktown, Virginia. 

May 1, New Orleans occupied by the Federal troops under General Benjamin F. 
Butler. 

May 4, Torktown, Virginia, evacuated by Confederates under General Magruder, 
May 6, General B^anklin's division arrives at West Point. 
May 7-8, Battle of Pea Ridge, Arkansas, 



1862, BCay 9 264 June 8, 1862 

BCay 9» Proclamation of Emancipation of slaves by General Hunter, and au- 
thorization to arm negroes in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina. (Order 
not approved by President Lincoln.) 

Bfay 10, General Butler seizes $800,000 in gold in the Netherlands Consulate at 
New Orleans, Louisiana. 

Bfay 10, United States forces occupy Norfolk, Virginia, under General Wood, 
the Confederates evacuting. 

May 11, The Confederates blow up the ''Merrimac." 

BCay 12; President Lincoln proclaims that commencing June 1, the port of 
Beaufort, North Carolina, Port Boyal, South Carolina, and New Orleans, 
Louisiana, will be closed. 

Feb. 25, Federal troops occupy Nashville, Tennessee. 

Feb. 25, Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between the United States and 
the Ottoman Empire, concluded at Constantinople. 

Feb. 25, $150,000,000 authorized by Congress in United States notes, the Legal 
Tender bill. 

Feb. 20, The Legal Tender bill approved by the President. 

Feb. 28, Confederate steamer '* Nashville" runs the blockade at Beaufort, 
North Carolina. 

MajTdi 1, Schooner ''British Queen," captured while trying to run the blockade, 
at Wilmington, North Carolina. 

Mar. 6^ President Lincoln asks Congress to declare that the United States ought 
to co-operate with any State which may adopt a gradual abolition of slavery. 
Mar. 7-11, The army of the Potomac advances to Manassas Junction, Virginia. 
Mar. 9, The Federal ''Monitor," under Lieutenant Worden, defeats the Con- 
federate iron-clad "Merrimac," under Captain Franklin Buchanan, in a naval 
battle at Hampton Beads. 

Mar. 11, Besolutions passed by the House of Bepresentatives recommending 
gradual emancipation adopted. 

Mar. 11, General George B. McClellan relieved from being commander-in-chief. 
Mar. 11, Merging of the Departments of Kansas, Missouri, and part of Ohio, 
with that of Mississippi, under Major-General Halleck. 

May 15, Commodore Bogers moves up the James Biver to the vicinity of 
Richmond, Virginia, but is compelled to retire after an unequal contest with 
batteries on Drurys Bluff or Fort Darling. 

May 15, Department of Agriculture established by the government. 
May 15, General orders No. 28, issued by General Butler, at New Orleans, re- 
garding the conduct of women in the city, which produced great excitement 
and called forth a proclamation from President Davis, of the Confederacy, 
denouncing the order. 

May 16, General McClellan 's headquarters established at the "White House," 
property belonging to Mrs. Bobert £. Lee. 

May 17, General McDowell, in order to co-operate more effectively with Gen- 
eral McClellan, moves toward Bichmond, Virginia. 
May 20, Homestead act approved by the President. 

May 21, District of Columbia provides for the education of colored children. 
May 22, The United States Senate organized as a High Court of Impeachment 
for the trial of W. H. Humphreys, a United States district judge, for treason. 
May 24, "Stonewall" Jackson assumes the offensive by threatening Washington. 
McDowell is held to defend Washington, which results in changes in the 
Federal campaign in Northern Virginia. 
May 24, Battle of Hanover Court House, Virginia. 
May 25, Battle of Winchester, Virginia. 
May 27, Confederates routed at Hanover Court House. 
May 29, Commodore Porter returns to Gaines's Mill. 

Bfay 80, Confederates evacuate Corinth, Mississippi, which is occupied by the 
forces of the United States under Major-General Halleck. 
May 81, Battle of Seven Pines or Fair Oaks near Bichmond, Virginia. 
Bfay-June, By special authority granted by New York, Hlinois, and Indiana, over 
15,000 troops are furnished for three months. 

June 8, Major-General Bobert E. Lee assigned to the command of the Con- 
federate foreea at Bichmond, Virginia. 



1862, June 6 265 July 12, 1862 

June 6, The President authorizes diplomatic representatives to be appointed to. 

the republics of Haiti and Liberia. 

June 6^ Battle of Memphis, Tennessee. 

June 6, Tax bill passed the United States Senate. 

June 7, Treaty between the United States and Great Britain for 'the suppression 

^f the African slave trade. 

June 7, William Mumford hanged at New Orleans, Louisianai by General 

Benjamin F. Butler. 

June 8, Battle of Cross Keys, Virginia. 

June 9, Battle of Port Bepublic, Virginia. 

June 12-13, The Confederate cavalry, under General Stuart, pass around the 

army of the Potomac. 

June 10, An act confiscating the slaves of Confederates passes the United 

States House of Bepresentatives. 

June 19, Slavery in territories of the United States forever prohibited. 

June 20, Commodore Porter arrives before Vicksburg. 

June 20, Free Territory act signed by President Lincoln. 

June 23, Lincoln vetoes the Bank Notes Bill in the District of Columbia. 

June 26, Major-General John Pope placed in command of the army of Virginia. 

June 26^ Hi^h court of impeachment orders Judge Humphreys to be removed from 

office and disqualified. 

June 26-July 2, Army of the Potomac in seven days' fighting forced to retreat 

before Bichmond to Harrison's Landing on the James Biver, Virginia. The 

following battles take place: 

June 26 — Mechanicsville. 

June 27 — Gaines's Mill. 

June 29 — Savage's Station. 

June 30 — Glendale. 

June 30 — ^Frazier's Farm, or White Oak Swamp. 

July 1 — ^Malvern Hill. 
June 27, Vicksburg Canal, designed by General Thomas Williams, changes the 
course of the Mississippi Biver and isolates Vicksburg. 
June 27, Battle of Gaines's Mill (see above). 

June 27, Keyes corps ordered to the James and first siege of Bichmond, Vir- 
ginia, abandoned. 

June 27, The governors of eighteen of the loyal states petition the President to 
call out additional United States troops. 

June 29, Summer repulses Magruder at the Battle of Savage's Station (see 
above). 

June 30, The army of the Potomac crosses the "White Oak Swamps" in safety. 
June 30, Battle of Glendale (see above). 

June-July, Battle of seven days before Bichmond, Virginia (see above). 
July 1, Act for a railroad from the Missouri Biver to the Pacific Ocean ap- 
proved. 

July 1, Commissioners of internal revenue office created. 
July 1, The President issues a call for 600,000 additional volunteers. 
July 1, Army of the Potomac concentrates around Malvern Hill. 
July 1, Act passed to provide internal revenue to supply the government and to 
pay interest on the public debt, including miscellaneous articles, salaries, bonds, 
business, etc., taxed. 

July 1, Battle of Malvern Hill (see above). 

July 2, Three hundred thousand volunteers for the year called for by President 
Lincoln. 

July 2, Lincoln vetoes the Medical Officers Army Bill. 
July 2, The Morrill tariff act passes Congress. 

July 7, General McClellan visited by the l^esident at Harrison 's Landing. 
July 7, Letter to President Lincoln, giving advice on policy of the government, 
from General McCleUan, at Harrison's Landing, Virginia. 
July 11, General Halleck made commander-in-chief of the army. 
July IS^ Congress resolves that Medals of Honor be distributed among non- 
commissioned officers and privates, who distinguished themselves in the service 
of their oountrjr. 



1862, July 14 266 Sept 1, 1862 

July 14» Armj of Virginia taken command of by Major-General John Pope. 
July 14, Act passed by Congress raising the tariff duties temporarily. 
July 16, Congress bestows many medals npon naval men for gallantry and dis- 
tinguished service, etc. 

Ju]& 17, Congress authorizes the use of postage and other stamps as currency 
to supply the deficiency in small change. 

July 17, Militia between eighteen and forty-five authorized enrolled by act of 
the United States Congress. 

July 17, Seizure and confiscation of rebel property authorized by the United 
States Congress. 

July 17, Second session of the thirty-seventh United States Congress ad- 
journs. 

July 22, President Lincoln issues an order for the seizure of supplies in all the 
states wherein insurrection prevails, that people of African descent should re- 
ceive wages, and that foreigners snould not be required to take the oath of 
allegiance. 

July 23, General Pope ordered to arrest all disloyal citizens within the limits 
of his command. 

July 24, Death ot» Ex-President Martin Van Buren at Lindenwood, New York, 
aged eighty years. 

July 25, President Lincoln notifies the , Confederates of the provisions of the 
Confiscation act. 

July 29, The ''Alabama/' Confederate corvette, sails from Liverpool, England, 
to prey upon Federal commerce. 

August 1, The Confederate government issues a retaliatory order and General 
Pope and his officers are declared not to be entitled to the consideration of 
prisoners of war. 

Aug. 2, A draft of the militia to serve for nine months ordered by President 
Lincoln. 

Aug. 4, Call for 300,000 men to serve nine months. 
Aug. 4, General Hooker re-occupies Malvern Hill. 
Aug. 4, General McClellan's forces withdrawn to Aquia Creek. 
Aug. 5, Battle of Baton Bouge, Louisiana. 

Aug. 6, The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, in respect to all persons ar- 
rested under it, suspended. 
Aug. 0, Battle of Cedar Mountain, Virginia. 

Aug. 11, The property in Louisiana belonging to John Slidell, Confederate Com- 
missioner to France, confiscated by order of General Butler. 
Aug. 12, Second session of the permanent Congress under the Confederate gov- 
ernment meets. 

Aug. 16, Harrison 's Landing evacuated by the army of the Potomac. 
Aug. 18, The Confederate Congress reassembles at Richmond, Virginia. 
Aug. 10, Frontier settlements of Minnesota attacked by Sioux Indians. 
Aug. 19, The Department of Ohio formed from the states of Ohio, Michigan, 
Indiana, Illinois, Missouri and Kentucky, east of the Tennessee River, and in- 
cluding Cumberland Gap. 

Aug. 21-24, General Braxton Bragg crosses the Tennessee River at Harrison above 
Chattanooga, and invades Kentucky. 

Aug. 24, Aquia Creek reached by General McClellan's forces. 
Aug. 25, The military governor of the coast islands of South Carolina directed by 
the Secretary of War to enlist volunteers of African descent. This the first 
permission of the government to employ negroes as soldiers of the United States 
army. 

Aug. 26, (General McClellan reports at Alexandria, Virginia. 
Aug. 29, Advance forces of General Lee's army and General Pope's meet in 
battle at Groveton, Virginia. 

Aug. 30, Battle of Manassas, or second battle of Bull Run, fought, a continua- 
tion of the encounter at Groveton, Virginia. 

Aug. 80, Union forces defeated at Richmond, Kentucky, by Kirby Smith, with a 
section of Bragg 's army. 
SepteAiber 1, Battle of Chantilly, Virginia. 
Bapt I9 Spirit rations in the navy of ti&e United States abolished. 



1862; Sept 2 267 Oct 82, 1862 

Sept 2; General McClellan placed in command of the troops for the defence of 
Washington, D. C. 

S^pt 2, Martial law declared in Cincinnati, Ohio. 

S^pt 3, General Pope requests to be relieved from his command of the army of 
Virginia and transferred to the Department of the Northwest 
Sept 3, Joseph Holt, of Kentucky, appointed United States Judge-Advocate- 
General. 

Sept 4-6, Confederate forces cross the Potomac Biver and occupy Frederick 
County, Maryland. 

Sept 6, General Pope in command of the Department of the Northwest, em- 
bracing Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the territories of Dakota and Nebraska, 
having been relieved of the command of the army of Virginia. 
Sept 8, Proclamation issued by General Robert £. Lee on entering Maryland. 
Sept 8, Bestrictions on travel rescinded and arrests for disloyalty forbidden ex- 
cept by direction of the Judge-Advocate at Washington. 

Sept 10, Governor Custer, of Pennsvlvania, issues an order calling on all able- 
bodied men in the state to organize immediately for its defence. 
Sept 14-16, Munifordville, Kentucky, captured by the Confederate forces under 
General Bragg. 

Sept 14, Battle of South Mountain, Maryland. 

Sept 15, ''Stonewall" Jackson receives the surrender of Harpers Ferry. 
Sept 16^ General Kirby Smith advances before Covington, Kentucky, and is 
forced to retreat. 
Sept 16-17, Battle of Antietam. 

Sept 18^19, Confederate army forced to retire across the Potomac Biver. 
Sept 19-20, General Bosecrans forces the Confederates, under General Price, 
to retreat in the Battle of luka, Mississippi. 

Sept 22, President Lincoln's preliminary proclamation announcing the freedom 
of slaves in territory in rebellion on June 1, 1863. 

Sept 24, Convention of governors from loyal states at Altoona, Pennsylvania, 
approves the emancipation proclamation. 

8^)t 24, Suspension of the writ of habeas corpus made general in the United 
States. 

Sept 25, United States forces arrive at Louisville, Kentucky, under General 
Buell, in advance of the Confederate forces. 

Sept 26, The Secretary of War creates the office of provost-marshal-general. 
S^;^ 29, General Buell ordered to turn over the command of his troops to Gen- 
eral Thomas. 

Sept 29, General William Nelson shot and mortally wounded at the Gait-House, 
Kentucky, by Brigadier-General Jefferson C. Davis. 

Sept 30, Betaliatory resolutions introduced into the Confederate Congress on 
account of the Emancipation Proclamation. 

Sept, The legislature of Kentucky, becoming alarmed by continued Confederate 
raids, adjourns from Frankfort to Louisville. 

October 1, General Halleck urges McCleUan to cross the Potomac and attack 
the Confederate forces. 
Oct 3-4, Battle of Corinth, Mississippi. 
Oct 8, Battle of Perryville, Kentucky. 

Oct 10, Confederate cavalry and artillery, under General J. E. B. Stuart, crosses 
the Potomac for a raid in Fennsylvania. 

Oct 11, General Wood assumes command of Pennsylvania troops at Harrisburg 
for the defence of the state. 

Oct 12, Confederate raiders reach Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, returning to Vir- 
^nia, through Maryland, recrossing the Potomac Biver at White's Ford. 
Oct 14, The Bepublicans are defeated in the state election in Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
and Indiana. 

Oct 18, Confederate prisoners at Palmyra, Missouri, shot by orders of General 
McNeiL 

Oct 21, Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between the United States and 
Liberia concluded at London, England. 

Oct 22; The Governor of Kentucky calls upon the people of Louisville to defend 
the menaced city. 



1862, Oct 2A 268 Dec. 81, 1862 

Oct 24, Oeneral Bosecrans eacceeds General Buell in command of the army of 
Kentucky. 

Oct. 26, Offensive assumed by General McClellan, crossing the Potomac from 
Maryland. 

bet. 26, Confederate forces, under General Bragg, pass through Cumberland Gap 
on their retreat from Kentucky. 

Oct. SO, General O. M. Mitchell, U. S. A., dies at Beaufort, South Carolina, aged 
fifty-two years. 

Oct. 30, Major-General Bosecrans supersedes Major-General Buell as commander 
of the army of the Ohio. 

November I, Election in Northern States shows large Democratic gains. Horatio 
Seymour, Democratic Governor of New York. 

Not. 5, General McClellan ordered to Trenton, New Jersey. He is relieved of 
the command of the army of the Potomac and General Bumsides appointed in 
his place. 

Nov. 8, General Porter ordered to Washington, D. C, to answer charges pre- 
ferred by General Pope. 

Nov. 9, General Benjamin F. Butler relieved from the command of New Orleans, 
Louisiana. 

Nov. 17, Beport of Lord Lyons, British Minister to the United States, to his 
government upon prospects of Confederate success and the probability of suc- 
cess of mediation by foreign governments in the war. 

Nov. 17, Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederacy, orders retaliation for 
the execution of ten Confederates in Missouri. 

Nov. 25, Convention of mutual adjustment of claims conducted between the 
United States and Ecuador at Guayaquil. 

Nov. 27, Nearly all political prisoners released from forts and government 
prisons. 

December 1, Third session of the thirty-seventh United States Congress con- 
venes. 

Dec 7, Battle of Prairie Grove, Arkansas. 

Dea 19, Army of the Potomac moved to the Bappahannock opposite Fredericks- 
burg, by General Burnside. 

Dec 11-12, General Burnside 's army crosses the Bappahannock Biver. 
Dec 13, Battle of Fredericksburg. 

Dec 14, General N. P. Banks succeeds General B. F. Butler in command of the 
Department of the Gulf. 

Dec 16, General Banks assumes command of the Department of the Gulf, and 
establishes headquarters at New Orleans, Louisiana. 
Dec 17, Jews expelled by General Grant from his department. 
Dec 20, Battle of Holly Springs, Mississippi 

Dec 20, Convention for the adjustment of claims between the United States 
and Peru concluded at Lima. 

Dec 23, Proclamation issued by Jefferson Davis ordering retaliatory measures to 
be taken because of the course of General Butler at New Orleans, dooming Butler 
and his oficers to death by hanging if caught, and directing that no commanding 
oficer be released, paroled, or exchanged until General Butler is punished. 
Dec 23, General B. F. Butler oroclaimed a felon, outlaw and common enemy of 
mankind by Jefferson Davis, wno also directs that if captured he be hanged im- 
mediately without trial. 

Dec 26, Vicksburg assaulted by General W. T. Sherman, aided by Admiral Por- 
ter. This is- known as the Battle of Chickasaw Bayou. 

Dec 30, ' * Monitor * * founders off Cape Hatteras during a storm in the night, with 
loss of life. 

Dec 31, West Virginia admitted as the thirty-fifth state of the Union by act 
of Congress. 

Dec, Cotton famine at its height in Lancaster, England, on account of the 
Civil War in the United States. 
Samuel F. Miller, of Iowa, Justice of the United States Supreme Court. 

Dec Sl-Jan. 2; Battle of Murfreesboro, or Stone Biver. 

David Davis, of Illinois, Justice of the United States Supreme Court. 



1862, Dec 31 269 Jan. 1, 1863 

Alien immigrants arriving daring the year, 89,207. 

Interest bearing debt of the United States, $365|304,827. 

Abner Cobnrn, Oovernor of the state of Maine. 

Samuel G. Arnold, United States Senator from the state of Bhode Island. 

Horatio Seymour, Governor of the state of New York. 

Bichard S. Field, United States Senator from the state of New Jersey. 

Augustus W. Bradford, Governor of the state of Maryland. 

Siege of Torktown, Virginia. 

Z. fi. Vance, Governor of the state of North Carolina. 

M. L. Bouham, Governor of the state of South Carolina. 

Harris Flanagin, Governor of the state of Arkansas. 

Bobert Wilson, United States Senator from the state of Missouri. 

John B. Henderson, United* States Senator from the state of MissoorL 

Thomas Carney, Governor of the state of Kansas. 

Jacob Thompson, Governor of the state of Mississippi. 

David Todd, Governor of the state of Ohio. 

Jacob M. Howard, United States Senator from the state of Michigan. 

John Evans, Governor of the territory of Colorado. 

Stei>hen S. Harding, Governor of the territory of Utah. 

Louis P. Harvey, Governor of the state of Wisconsin. 

Edward Solomon, Governor of the state of Wisconsin. 

Addison C. Gibbs, Governor of the state of Oregon. 

Benjamin Stark and Benjamin F. Harding, United States Senators from the 

state of Oregon. 

William Pickering, Governor of the territory of Washington. 

Leland Stanford, Governor of the state of California. 

National debt, $524,176,412.13. 

Siege of Corinth, Mississippi. 

Siege of Fort Pulaski, Georgia. 

Siege of Island Number 10, Kentucky. 

Ferdinand Lassalle founds the German Social Demoeratie party. 

Thomas Hill, President of Harvard College. 

French steamship line established. 

Charles M. Schwab, steel manufacturer, bom. 

Josephus Daniels, secretary of the Navy in Wilson's Cabinet, bom. 

Charles Evans Hughes, American lawyer and Governor of New York, bora. 

Sioux Indian War commences and ends same year. 

War with England threatened. 

France declares war against Mexico. 

Albert J. Beveridge, lawyer and senator, bom in Ohio. 

1863 

Janoaxy 1, All slaves in the seceding states proclaimed free by President Lin- 
coln. 

January 1, Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation sets 3,063,392 slaves free in the 
states of Arkansas, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South 
Carolina, Texas, Virginia and Louisiana. Others were emancipated by the 
thirteenth amendment to the Constitution, making a total of nearly 3,900,000 
in the nation set free. 

EMANCIPATION PBOCLAMATION. 

Whereas, on the twenty-second day of September, in the year of our Lord one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, a proclamation was issued by the Presi- 
dent of the United States, containing, among other things, the following, to 
wit: 

That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State, or designated 
part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United 
States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Gov- 
ernment of the United States, including the military and naval authorities 
thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do 



1868, Jan. 1 270 Jan. 4, 1863 

no acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make 
for their actual freedom. 

That the Executive will, on the first day of January aforesaid, by proclama- 
tion, designate the States and parts of States, if any, in which the people thereof 
respectively, shall then be in rebellion against the United States; and the fact 
that any State, or the people thereof, shall on that day be in good faith repre- 
sented in the Congress of the United States by members chosen thereto at elec- 
tions wherein a majority of the qualified voters of such State shall have par- 
ticipated, shall in the absence of strong countervailing testimony, be deemed con- 
clusive evidence that such State, and the people thereof, are not then in ro- 
bellion against the United States. 

Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by virtue 
of the power in me vested as commander-in-chief of the Army and Navy of the 
United States, in time of actual armed rebellion against authority and gov- 
ernment of the United States, and as a fit and necessary war measure for sup- 
Eressing said rebellion, do, on this first day of January, in the year of our 
ord one thousand ei^ht hundred and sixty-three, and in accordance with my 
purpose so to do, publicly proclaim for the full period of one hundred days from 
the day first above mentioned, order and designate as the States and parts 
of States wherein the people thereof, respectively, are this day in rebellion 
against the United States, the following, to wit: 

i^kansas, Texas, Louisiana (except the parish of St. Barnard, Plaquemines, 
Jefferson, St. John, St. Charles, St. James, Ascension, Assumption, Terrebonne, 
Lafourche, St. Mar, St. Martin and Orleans including the city of New Orleans), 
Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina and 
Virginia (except the forty -eight counties designated as West Virginia, and also 
the counties of Berkley, Accomac, Northampton, Elizabeth City, York, Princess 
Ann and Norfolk, including the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth), and which 
excepted parts are, for the present, left precisely as if this proclamation were 
not issued. 

And by virtue of the power and for the purpose aforesaid, I do order and de- 
clare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States and parts of 
States are, and henceforward shall be free, and that the Executive government 
of the United States, including the military and naval authorities thereof, will 
recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons. 

And I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free to abstain from all 
violence, unless in necessary self-defence; and I recommend to them that, in all 
cases when allowed, they labor faithfully for reasonable wages. 
And I further declare and make known, that such persons of suitable condition, 
will be received into the armed service of the United States to garrison forts, 
positions, stations, and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in said 
service. 

And upon this act, sincerely believed to be an act of justice, warranted by the 
Constitution, upon military necessity, I invoke the considerate judgment of man- 
kind and the gracious favor of Almighty Ood. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal of the 
United States to be affixed. 

Done at the city of Washington, this first dav of Januarv, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and of the Independence of 
the United States of America the eighty-seventh. 

Abraham Lincoln. 
(L.S.) 
By the President; 

William H. Seward, 

Secretary of State. 
Jan. 1, Actual strength of the Union forces, 918,19^1 men. 
Jan. 1, The Confederates capture Galveston, Texas. 
Jan. 2, New York quotes gold at 133^ to 133*%. 

Jan. 8, The Department of the East created and General Wood is assigned to 
its command. 

Jan. 4, The Confederate General, Magruder, declares the port of Galveston* 
Texas, open to the commerce of the world. 



1863, Jan. 5 271 Mar. S, 1863 



Jan. 6^ An < indignation meetins" held in Springfield, niinois, in opposition and 
as a protest against President Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation. 
Jan. 9, The French Minister of Foreign Affairs. M. Drouyu de C 'Huys, addresses 
the French Minister at Washington, D. C, M. Mercier, relative to mediation be- 
tween the United States government and the Confederate States. 
Jan. 12, Convention for the adjustment of claims between the United States and 
Pern concluded at Lima. 

Jan. 12; Jefferson Davis recommends the Confederate Congress adopt retaliatory 
measures against the operation of the Emancipation Proclamation. 
Jan. 12, Third session of the Confederate Congress under its permanent govern- 
ment at Bichmondy Virginia. 

Jan. 13, Peace resolutions introduced into the New Jersey legislature. 
Jan. 17, Congress resolves to issue $100,000,000 in United States notes. 
Jan. 19, West Virginia admitted to the Union, formed from a portion of the 
state of Virginia. 

Jan. 20-24, Active operations resumed by General Bumside, but checked by 
severe storms. 

Jan. 20, General Hunter assumes command of the Department of the South. 
Jan. 21, General Fitz-John Porter dismissed from the service of the United 
States, having been adjudged under the 9th and 52nd Articles of War. 
Jan. 21, General Burnside at his own request relieved from the command of the 
army of the Potomac. 

Jan. 25, Colonel T. W. Higginson, commander of the newly organized 1st South 
Carolina Colored Loyal Volunteers at Port Boyal. 
JaiL 25, Major-General Hooker relieves Major-General Burnside. 
Jan. 26, Peace resolutions offered by "iir, Foote in the Confederate Con- 

fress. 
an. 27, Boileau, proprietor of the Philadelphia Evening Journal, arrested and 
taken to Washington, D. C. 

February 2, House of Bepresentatives passes a bill providing for the employ- 
ment of negroes as soldiers. 

Feb. 6, Secretary Seward replies to the French government upon mediation. 
Feb. 7, Mutiny of the lOOtii Illinois regiment. 

Feb. 9, Commissary-general of subsistence appointed with the rank of Brigadier- 
General. 

Feb. 11, Confederates attempt to assassinate General Banks on his way to the 
Opera House in New Orleans. 

Feb. 12, National Currency Bill passes the United States Senate. 
Feb. 16, Conscription Bill passes the United States Senate. 
Feb. 20, National Currency Bill passes the United States House of Bepresenta- 
tives. 

Feb. 23, The United States Senate authorizes the suspension of the habeas 
corpus. 

Feb. 24, Arizona organized under territorial government. It was formed from 
territory ceded to the United States by Mexico, part by the treaty of Guadalupe 
Hidalgo, of Feb. 2, 1848, and part by what is known as the Gadsden Purchase 
in 1852. 

Feb. 25, National Currency law secured by United States bonds passes Congress 
and is approved. 

Feb. 26, The Emancipation Proclamation published in Louisville. 
Feb. 26, Cherokees' National Council repeal the ordinance of secession. 
Feb. 28, Confederate war steamer ''Nashville" destroyed in the Ogeechee 
Biver, Georgia, by the "Montauk.*' 

Harch 2, Act of Congress creating besides the regular army officers a list of 
Major-Generals and Brigadier-Generals, for the volunteer service of the United 
States. 

Mar. 3, Act passed by Congress authorizing free delivery of city maiL 
Mar. 3, The President is empowered by Congress to suspend the writ of habeas 
corpus. 

Mar. 3, Congress resolves that it is the unalterable purpose of the United States 
to vigorously prosecute the war until the rebellion is suppressed and that any 
attempt at mediation will prolong rather than shorten the conflict. 



1863, Mar. 3 272 May l^ 1868 

Mar. 8, Army and non-commissioned officers invested by Congress with medals 
for distinction and gallantry in tl^e service of the country. 
Mar. 3, Congress authorizes a loan of $900,000,000 for the years 1863*65 in 
amounts of ^00,000,000 and $600,000,000 respectively. 

Mar. 3, To prevent frauds upon the revenue and to punish offenders, act is 
passed providing that all invoices of goods be made in triplicate, one to be 
given the person producing the goods, a second filed in the office of the consular 
office nearest the place of shipment, and the third to be transmitted to the col- 
lector at the port of entry for his records. 

Mar. 4, Second session of the thirty-seventh United States Congress adjourns. 
Mar. 6, General Hunter orders the drafting of negroes in the Department of the 
South for the Federal service. 

Mar. 8, The United States frigate ''Congress," and sloop-of-war "Cumberland" 
engage in a naval duel at Hampton Beads, Virginia, with the Confederate iron- 
clad "Virginia" (formerlv the U. S. "Merrimac"). 

Mar. 10, President Lincoln publishes proclamation relative to army desertions 
as ordered. 

Mar. 11, Governor Cannon, of Delaware, declares the national authority supreme 
throughout the country. 

Mar. 18, The House of Bepresentatives of the state of New Jersey pass peace 
resolutions. 

Mar. 26^ Impressment of privateproperty in the Confederate states authorized. 
Mar. 26^ Major-General M. G. Wrignt superseded by Major-General Bumside in 
the Department of th'e Ohio. 

Mar. 28, The first negro regiment from the northern states leaves Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. 

Mar. 81, General Herron appointed to the command of the army of the frontier. 
April 1, Confederate batteries at Grand Gulf, Mississippi, passed by Admiral 
Farragut with a fleet of gunboats. 

Apr. 6, President Lincoln visits the army of the Potomac. 

Apr. T-May 8, Baid of mounted infantiy from Tuscumbia, Alabama, towards 
Bome, Georgia. The entire force, including Colonel A. D. Streight, is inter- 
cepted and captured by the Confederate forces. 

Apr. 7, The French government intimates its abandonment of the European in- 
tervention policy in the national affairs of America. 
Apr. 7, Confederates evacuate Island Number Ten in the Mississippi Biver. 
Apr. llf-May 6, Battle Griesons Baid. 

Apr. 18, Death penalty ordered by Major-General Bumside for aiding the Con- 
federates. 

Apr. 16, Admiral Porter, with a fleet of gunboats and transports, passes the 
Confederate batteries at Vicksburg. 

Apr. 20, Great mass meeting in Union Square, New York, in commemoration of 
the uprising of the loyal people of 1861. 

Apr. 28-29, The Bappahannock crossed at Kellys Ford by Major-General Hooker. 
Apr. SO, Day of fasting in the United States. 

Apr. 30, The Mississippi Biver crossed at Bruinsburg, below Vicksburg, by Qen- 
eral Grant. 

May 1, Battle of Post Gibson, Mississippi. 
May 1, Vallandigham arrested by government authorities. 
May 2-4, Battle of Chancellorsville, Vircdxiiay in which the Confederate general, 
"Stonewall" Jackson, is mortally wounaed and dies on May 10, following. 
May 3, The Confederates abandon Grand Gulf, below Vicksburg. 
May 4, By orders of Major-General Bumside, Clement L. Vallandigham is ar- 
rested at Dayton, Ohio, for alleged treasonable utterances. 
May 6, The BappiJiannock recrossed by General Hooker. 
May 12, Battle of Baymond, Mississippi. 
May 14, Jackson, Mississippi, occupied oy General Grant. 

May 15, Corbin and Gran hanged at Sandusky for recruiting within the Union 
lines. 

Biay 16^ (leneral Bumside approves the finding against Vallandigham, by court- 
martial at Cincinnati. 
May 16^ Battle of Champion Hills, Mississippi 



1863, May 17 273 July 1-3, 1863 



May 17, Battle of Big Black Biver, MiBsisnippi. 

May 18, Democratic Convention in New York City expresses sympathy with 

Vallandigham. 

May 18, Confederates retire as the siege begins within the defences at Vicks- 

burg. 

May 20, Convention completing the treaty of 1858, concluded between the United 

States and Belgium, at Brussels. 

May 21-22, Vicksburg works assaulted by United States forces without much 

succesSa 

May 22, General Bumside 's orders relative to disposition of the case of Vallandig- 
ham rescinded by President Lincoln, and he is sent into the Confederacy. 
May 27, Confederate works at Port Hudson assaulted by Major-General Banks's 
forces without success. 

May 28, First negro regiment sent from the North, the 44th Massachusetts, de- 
parts for Hilton Head, South Carolina. 

June 1, Democratic Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, sympathizes with 
Vallandigham. 

June 8, Movement for the invasion of the North begun by General Lee. 
June 3, Peace party meeting in New York City, under the leadership of Fer- 
nando Wood. 

Jane 8, Departments of Monongahela and Susquehanna created. 
June 9, Cavalry battle at Beverly's Ford, Virginia, between the Federal forces 
under Generals Pleasanton, Buford and Gregg, and the Confederate forces under 
General Stuart. 

Jane 10, Lyman Beecher, preacher and theologian, dies. 

June ii. The Ohio Democratic Convention nominates C. L. Vallandigham for 
Governor. 

Jane 12; Governor Curtin, of Pennsylvania, calls out the militia and asks for 
troops from New York to repel threatened Confederate invasion of that state. 
Jane 12, General Gillmore, in command of the Department of the South. 
Jane 13-15, Movement of the Federal army northward from the Bappahanock 
begins under General Hooker. 

Jane 14» The Consuls of England and Austria dismissed from the Confed- 
eracy. 

Jane 14-15, United States troops, under General Milroy, defeats General Ewell 
at the Battle of Winchester, Virginia. 

Jane 15, Under proclamation the government calls for 100,000 men for six months' 
service to resist the invasion of Pennsylvania by the Confederates — 10,000 from 
Maryland, 50,000 from Pennsylvania, 10,000 from West Virginia, and 30,000 from 
the state of Ohio. 

Jane 15, Confederate cavalry raid Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. 
Jane 19, Confederate invasion of Indiana. 
Jane 24-25, The Confederate army crosses the Potomac Biver. 
Jane 24-Jidy 7, The Confederates forced to cross the Tennessee Biver at Bridge- 
port, Alabama, by General Bosecrans, in the Tullahoma campaign. 
Jane 24, Advance of. General Bosecrans from Murfreesboro against General 
Bragg 's forces at Tullahoma, Tennessee. 
Jane 26, The army of the Potomac crosses the Potomac Biver. 
Jane 27, The Confederates advance within a few miles of Harrisburg, the capital 
of Pennsylvania. 

Jane 27, Major-General George G. Meade succeeds Major-General Hooker in 
command of the army of the Potomac. 

Jane 28, The authorities of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, petition the President 
to relieve General McClellan of. command. 
Jane SO, Battle of Hanover Junction, Pennsylvania. 
Jane 30, Martial law proclaimed in Baltimore, Maryland. 

Jnly 1, Treaty relative to the Hudson Bay and Puget Sound claims between 
the United States and Great Britain concluded at Washingon, D. C. 
July 1, At Gettysburg the 27th Maine volunteers, who remained for the battle 
after the expiration of their term of service, are invested by Congress with 
Bronze Medalls. 
July 1-3, United States and Confederate forces at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. 



1863^ July 1-3 274 Sept. 23, 1863 

Battle of Gettysburg begins July 1 and ends July 3 by the Confederates being 
defeated. 

July 4, Ex-President Franklin Pieree alludes to Vallandigham as a martyr for 
free speech in an address at a Democratic mass meeting at Concord, New Hamp- 
shire. 

July 4, General Grant receives the surrender of Vicksburg. 
July 4, Battle of Helena, Arkansas. 

Ju^r 7, Confederate raiders, under John H. Morgan, cross the Ohio Biver at 
Brandenburg, Kentucky, into Indiana. 
July 8, Surrender of Port Hudson to General Banks. 
July 10-18, Battle of Fort Wagner, South Carolina. 
July 10, Martial law proclaimed in Louisville, Kentucky. 
July 11, Conscription under the draft begins in New York City. 
July 12, Martial law proclaimed in Cincinnati, Ohio. 

July 13, The Potomac Biver recrossed by the Confederates at Williamsport dur- 
ing the night. 

July 13-16, Draft riots in New York City. 
July 14, Draft riots in Boston, Massachusetts. 

July 15, Draft riots in Brooklyn, Jersey Cit^, Staten Island and other places. 
July 16^ Second battle of Jackson, MississippL 

July 18, United States troops repulsed in their assault on Fort Wagner, Morris 
Island, South Carolina. 

July 20, Treaty to extinguish Scheldt dues between the United States and 
Belgium concluded at Brussels. 

July 25, Death of Sam Houston, American general and president of Texas, 
at the age of seventy years, at Huntersville, Texas. 

July 26, Morgan's great raid in Indiana and Ohio, which commenced June 
24, ends. 

July 26, Death of John J. Crittenden, statesman, at Frankfort, Kentucky, at 
the age of seventy-seven years. 

July 30, Proclamation of President Lincoln for protection of colored troops 
against retaliation by the Confederates. 

August 3, Bequest of Governor Seymour, of New York, to President Lincoln for 
the suppression of the draft for troops in that State. 
Aug. 6, Day of National Thanksgiving observed. 

Aug. 7, President Lincoln rejplies to Governor Seymour's request and intimates 
that the draft should be earned out throughout the country. 
Aug. 12; General Bobert Toombs exposes the bankruptcy of the Confederate 
States. 

Aug. 15, The Common Council of New York City votes $3,000,000 for con- 
scription. 

Aug. 25, A number of regiments required to enforce the draft in New York. 
Aug. 26, John B. Floyd, Ex-Secretary of War and Confederate Brigadier-General, 
dies at Abingdon, Virginia. 

Aug. 28, The Supervisors of New York County appropriate $2,000,000 for the 
relief of conscripts. 

Aug. 29-8ept. 3, The Tennessee crossed by the army of the Cumberland in 
pursuit of General Bragg. 

Sex»t. i, Knoxville, East Tennessee, occupied by the advance forces of General 
Burnside's command. 
Sept. 4, Bread riots in Mobile, Alabama. 

Sept. 7, The British government seizes the Confederate rams building in the 
Mersey, forbidding their departure. 

Sept. 7, Fort Wagner evacuated by the Confederates during the night. 
Sept. 9, The 2l8t Division Corps under General Wood, army of the Cumberland, 
occupies Chattanooga, Tennessee. 

S^pt. 15, Writ of Habeas Corpus suspended by proclamation of President Lincoln. 
Sept. 17, Lincoln orders a levy of 300,000 men, announcing that if not furnished 
by Jan. 1, 1864, a draft for the deficiency will be made. 
Sept. 19-20, Battle of Chickamauga. 

SeptL 23, Major-General Hooker, with the 11th and 12th Corps, army of the 
Potomac, ordered to reinforce the army of the Cumberland in middle Tennessee. 



1863, Sept 26 275 Ko7. 19, 1868 

Bept 26^ Motto adopted by the State of West Virginia, <<Montaiii Semper 
Liberi," (Mountaineers Always Freemen). 

Sept. 26, Henry Segus, Minister from Salvador, recalled for having attempted 
to violate the neutrality laws of the United States of America. 
Sept. SO, Union meeting at Little Bock, Arkansas. 

October 14, Engagement between the rear of the army of the Potomac and the 
Confederate forces under A. P. Hill, at Bristow Station, Virginia. 
Oct. 16, Major-General U. S. Grant appointed to the Division of the Mississippi, 
including the Departments of Tennessee, Cumberland, and Ohio. 
By general orders of the War Department, Major-General Bosecrans is re- 
lieved of the command of the army of the Cumberland, and Major-Geaeral 
Thomas succeeds. 

Oct. 17, President Lincoln calls for 300,000 men for three years. 
Oct. 23, Begulations for the re-enlistment of soldiers issued in the field. Veterans 
Volunteer Begiments. 

Oct. 27, General Hooker crosses the Tennessee Biver at Bridgeport, Alabama, and 
advances to the foot of Lookout Mountain in the Wauhatchie Valley. 
Oct. 27, Pontoon bridge thrown across the Tennessee, below Chattanooga at 
Browns Ferry. 

Oct. 27, Battle of Wauhatchie. 

Oct. 31, The two-screw propeller steamboat, ''Far East," launched. 
NovMnber 1, Plot to liberate Confederate prisoners in Ohio discovered. 
Not. 4, General Longstreet, detached from the Confederate army before Chat- 
tanooga, advances in East Tennessee toward Knoxville. 

Not. 7, In an engagement at Bappahannock Station and Kellys Ford, Virginia, 
the army of the Potomac succeeds in crossing the river, forcing Lee to retire 
to the line of the Bapidan. 

Not. 9, General Bobert Toombs denounces the course of the Confederate Govern- 
ment in a speech in Georgia. 

Not. 11, Lord Lyons, the British Minister to the United States, officially informs 
the government of contemplated raids by the Confederates from Canada to 
destroy Buffalo and to liberate Confederate prisoners on Johnson's Island. 
Nov. 16, Battle of Campbell's Station, Tennessee. 

Not. 19, Confederate forces before Knoxville under General Longstreet. 
Not. 19, Gettysburg battle field consecrated as a National Cemetery for Union 
soldiers. 

LINCOLN 'S GETTYSBUBG ADDBESS. 

Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a 
new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men 
are created equal. 

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or 
any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met 
on a great battle field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of 
that field as a final resting place for those who have given their lives that the 
nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. 
But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate — ^we cannot consecrate — ^we cannot 
hallow — ^this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here 
have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world 
will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget 
what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here 
to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly 
advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remain- 
ing before us — ^that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to 
that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion — ^that we 
here highlv resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain — ^that this nation, 
under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the 
people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. 

PBOCLAMATION OP AMNESTY. 

Whereas in and by the Constitution of the United States it is provided that the 
President ''shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for o^ences against 
the United States, except in cases of impeachment;^' and 



1863, Nov. 19 276 Nor. 19, 1863 

Whereas a rebellion now exists whereby the loyal State governments of several 
States have for a long time been subverted, and many persons have com- 
mitted and are now guilty of treason against the United States; and 
Whereas, with reference to said rebellion and treason, laws have been enacted 
by Congress declaring forfeitures and confiscation of property and liberation of 
slaves, all upon terms and conditions therein stated, and also declaring that the 
President was thereby authorized at any time thereafter, by proclamation, to 
extend to persons who may have participated in the existing rebellion of any 
State or part thereof pardon and amnesty, with such exceptions and at such 
times and on such conditions as he may deem expedient for the public 
welfare; and 

Whereas the congressional declaration for limited and conditional pardon ac- 
cords with weU-established judicial exposition of the pardoning power; and 
Whereas, with reference to said rebellion, the President of the United States, 
has issued several proclamations with provisions in regard to the liberation 
of slaves; and 

Whereas, it is now desired by some persons heretofore engaged in said re- 
bellion to resume their allegiance to the United States, and to reinaugurate 
loyal State governments within and for their respective States. Therefore— 
I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, do proclaim, declare, and 
make known to all persons who have, directly or by implication, participated 
in the existing rebellion, except as hereinafter excepted, that a full pardon is 
hereby granted to them and each of them, with restoration of all rights of 
property, except as to slaves, and in property cases where rights of third 
parties shall have intervened, and upon the conditions that every such person 
shall take and subscribe an oath, and thenceforward keep and maintain said 
oath inviolate; and which oath shall be registered for permanent preservation, 
and shall be of the tenor and effect following, to wit: 

"I, , do solemnly swear, in presence of Almighty God, that I will 

henceforth faithfully support, protect, and defend the Constitution of the 
United States and the Union of the States thereunder; and that I will, in like 
manner, abide by and faithfully support all acts of Congress passed during the 
existing rebellion with reference to slaves, so long and so far as not repealed, 
modified, or held void by Congress, or by decision of the Supreme Court; and 
that I will, in like manner, abide by and faithfully support all proclamations 
of the President made during the existing rebellion having reference to slaves, 
so long and so far as not modified or declared void by decision of the Supreme 
Court, So help me God." 

The persons excepted from the benefits of the foregoing provisions are all 
who are, or shall haVe been, civil or diplomatic officers or agents of the 
so-called Confederate Government; all who have left judicial stations under 
the United States to aid the rebellion; all who are, or shall have been, military 
or naval officers of said so-called Confederate Government above the rank of 
colonel in the army or of lieutenant in the navy; all who left seats in the 
United States Congress to aid the rebellion; all who resigned commissions in 
the army or navy of the United States and afterwards aided the rebellion; 
and all who have engaged in any way in treating colored persons, or white 
persons in charge of such, otherwise than lawfully as prisoners of war, and 
which persons may have been found in the United States service as soldiers, 
seamen, or in any other capacity. 

And I do further proclaim, declare, and make known that whenever, in any 
of the States of Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, Alabama, 
Georgia, Florida, South Carolina and North Carolina, a number of persons, not 
less than one tenth in number of the vote cast in such State at the presidential 
election of the year of our Lord one thousand ei^ht hundred and sixty, each 
having taken the oath aforesaid, and not having since violated it, and being a 
qualified voter by the election laws of the State existing immediately before the 
so-called act of secession, and excluding all others, shall re-establish a State 
government which shall be republican, and in nowise contravening said oath, 
such shall be recognized as the true government of the State, and the State 
shall receive thereunder the benefits of the constitutional provision which de- 
elares that '*the United States ahaU guarantee to every State in this Union 



1863, KOT. 19 277 Dea 24, 1863 

a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; 
and on application of the legislature, or the executive (when the legislature 
cannot be convened), against domestic violence." 

And I do further proclaim, declare, and make known that any provision which 
may be adopted by such State government in relation to the freed people of 
such State, which shall recognize and declare their permanent freedom, provide 
for their education, and which may yet be consistent as a temporary arrangement 
with their present condition as a laboring, landless, and homeless class, will not 
be objected to by the National Executive. 

And it is suggested as not improper that, in constructing a loyal State govern- 
ment in any State, the name of the State, the boundary, the subdivisions, the 
constitution, and the general code of laws, as before the rebellion, be main- 
tained, subject only to the modification made necessary by the conditions 
hereinbefore stated, and such others, if any, not contravening said conditions, 
and which may be deemed exj^edient bv those framing the new State government. 
To avoid misunderstanding, it may be proper to sav that this proclamation, 
so far as it relates to State governments, has no reference to States wherein 
loyal State governments have all the while been maintained. And, for the 
same reason, it may be proper to further say, that whether members sent to 
Congress from any State shall be admitted to seats constitutionally rests ex- 
clusively with the respective houses, and not to any extent with the Executive. 
And still further, that this proclamation is intended to present the people of the 
States wherein the national authority has been suspended, and loyal State 
governments have been subverted, a mode in and bv which the national authority 
and loyal States governments may be re-established within said States, or in 
any of them, and, while the mode presented is the best the Executive can sug- 
gest, with his present impressions, it must not be understood that no other 
possible mode would be acceptable. 

Given under my hand at the City of Washington, on the 8th day of December, 
A. D. 1863, and of the Independence of the United States of America the 
eighty-eight. 

Abraham Lincoln. 
IStar. 24, Battle of Lookout Mountain. 
Not. 26, Battle of Chattanooffa or Missionary Bidge. 
Nov. 26, First Fenian Convention meets at Chicago, Illinois. 
Nov. 26^ National Forefathers or Thanksgiving Day observed. 
Nov. 27-30, Advance of the army of the Potomac, under General Meade, at Mine 
Bun, Orange County, Virginia, meets the Confederates under General Lee. 
Meade attacks and retires. 

KoF. 29^ Knoxville defences assaulted by General Longstreet, and Fort Saunders 
forces repulsed with heavy losses. 

December 1-4, General Longstreet raises the siege of Knoxville and retreats 
towards Virginia, wintering in northeastern Tennessee, joining General Lee, at 
Bichmond, Virginia, in the spring. 

Dea 3-6^ The 4th Corps, army of the Cumberland, reinforces Knoxville from 
Chattanooga, under command of General Sherman. 

Dec. 7, First session of the thirty-eighth United States Congress convenes at 
Washington, D. C. 

Dec 7, The fourth and last session of Congress under the Confederate Government 
held. 

Dec 8, Proclamation of amnesty by President Lincoln to all Confederates on 
laying down their arms and returning to their allegiance. 

Dec 8^ The Congress of the United States thanks General Grant and his 
army, ordering a gold medal to be struck in honor of the General. 
Dec 12; Notice siven to the authorities of the refusal of the Confederates to 
receive or distribute supplies sent to starving Union prisoners in Bichmond, 
Virginia. 

Dec 17, Major-General Ulysses 8. Grant awarded a gold medal by Congress for 
distinguished services in the victories of Fort Donelson, Vicksburg, and Chat- 
tanooga. 

Dec 24, Death of ^VHlliam M. Thackeray, great English novelist. 
Stephen J. Field, of California, Justice of the United States Supreme Court. 



1863, Dec 24 278 Feb. S^ 1864 

Schuyler Colfax, of Indiana, speaker of the House of Bepresentatiyes. 

J. A. Gilmore, Governor of the State of New Hampshire. 

J. G. Smith, Governor of the State of Vermont. 

William G. Gozzens, Governor of the State of Bhode Island. 

James Y. Smith, Governor of the State of Bhode Island. 

William Sprague, United States Senator from the State of Bhode Island. 

Edwin D. Morgan, United States Senator from the State of New York. 

Joel Parker, Governor of the State of New Jersey. 

James W. Wall and William Wright, United States Senators from the State 

of New Jersey. 

Charles B. Buckalew, United States Senator from the State of Pennsylvania. 

Thomas H. Hicks, United States Senator from the State of Maryland. 

William Cannon, Governor of the State of Delaware. 

John J. Bowden, United States Senator from the State of Virginia. 

Arthur I. Boreman, Governor of the State of West Virginia. 

W. T. Willey and Peter Van Winkle, United States Senators from the State 

of West Virginia. 

Thomas H. Watts, Governor of the State of Alabama (interregnum of two 

months). 

Thomas £. Bramletts, Governor of the State of Kentucky. 

P. Murray, Governor of the State of Texas. 

William A. Bichardson, United States Senator from the State of Illinois. 

Thomas A. Hendricks and David Turpie, United States Senators from the State 

of Indiana. 

Henry A. Swift, Governor of the State of Minnesota. 

Stephen Miller, Governor of the State of Minnesota. 

Alexander Bamsay, United States Senator from the State of Minnesota. 

Newton Edwards, Governor of the Territorv of North Dakota. 

James Duane Doty, Governor of the State of Utah. 

William H. Wallace, Governor of the Territory of Idaho. 

F. F. Low, Governor of the State of California. 

John Conness, United States Senator from the State of California. 

Alien immigration, 174,524. 

Basis for Congressional representation, 127,381. 

Income tax receipts. $2,741,857. 

Interest bearing debt of the United States, $707,531,634. 

Total national debt, $1,119,772,138.63. 

William G. McAdoo, Secretary of the Treasury and first Director-General of 

Bailroads in the United States, bom. 

H. A. Garfield, son of Ex-President J. A. Garfield and Fuel Administrator under 

Wilson during the World War, bom. 

Henry Ford, assistant director of the United States Shipping Board during 

the World War, born. 

University of Texas established. 

State of Arizona motto, ''Ditat Deus" (God enriches). 

Bureau of Currency and National Banks established. 

The Union and Confederate campaigns continue. 

Mexico conquered and Maximilian, the Archduke of Austria, elected Emperor. 

Confederate invasion of the North ends. 

1864 

Janoaxy 1, The Confederate debt totals $1,220,866,042.50. 

Jan. 1, Actual strength of the Union Army, 860,737 men. 

Jan. 11, General Banks issues a proclamation for an election in Louisiana. 

Jan. 22, Provisional government of Arkansas inaugurates Isaac Murphy. 

Jan. 28, Convention reducing import duties between the United States and 

Japan, concluded at Tokyo. 

Jan. 28, Cornelius Vanderbilt awarded a gold medal by Congress for the gift of 

the ship *' Vanderbilt." 

Febmary 1, President Lincoln issues a call for 500,000 men for three year^ 

service. 

Feb. 8| Meridian expedition under General Sherman leaves Vieksburg, Mississippi. 



1864, Fob. 279 May 2, 1864 

Feb. 9, Many Union prisonera, including Colonels Thomas E. Bose and Streigbt, 
escape from Libby Ihrison at Bichmond, Virginia, by tunnelling. 
Feb. 15, First Federal prisoner confined at Andersonville, Georgia. 
Feb. 19, Second Confederate Congress assembles at Bichmond, Virginia. 
Feb. 20, Battle of Olustee^ Florida. v 

Feb. 22, A provisional free-state goyemmeat inaugurated at Little Bock, 
Arkansas. 

Feb. 22-25, Battle of Tunnel Hill, Georgia. 

Feb. 24, Congress votes Union masters a compensation for slaves enlisted in the 
Federal army and yolunteers to be free. 

Feb. 26^ The United States Circuit Court at Louisville, Kentucky, decides that 
guerillas are common enemies and that there is no redress for carriers to re- 
cover at law for stolen goods. 

Feb. 29, Grade of Lieutenant-General in the United States Army revived by act 
of Congress. 

ICardi 2, U. S. Grant made a Lieutenant-General. 

Mar. 3, The government authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury to borrow 
$200,000,0000 upon < ' 5.40 bonds. ' ' 

Mar. 4, Colonel Dahlgren loses his life in Elilpatrick 's attempt to release Union 
prisoners confined at Libby Prison. 

Mar. 6, The Confederates hang twenty-three Union prisoners of war at Eang- 
ston, North Carolina. 

Mar. 7, Vallandigham advises forcible resistance to United States authorities. 
Mar. 8, New York State votes by a majority of over 300,000 for the soldiers' 
voting law. 

Mar. 10, President orders a draft for 500,000 men for three years or the dura- 
tion of war. 

Mar. 10, Lieutenant-Gteneral U. S. Grant takes full command of the Union forces. 
Mar. 1^ President Lincoln drafts 200,000 men for the navy. 
Biar. 15, Lincoln calls for 200,000 men in addition to the 500,000 called on 
February 1. 

Mar. 16, Governor of Kentucky remonstrates against employing slaves in the 
army. 

Mar. 16, Arkansas votes to become a free labor State. 
Biar. 17, Act passed by Congress to increase internal revenue. 
Mar. 17, General Grant assumes command of all the armies of the Bepublic. 
Mar. 21, Congress passes an enabling act for the admission of Colorado and 
Nevada. 

Mar. 28, Louisiana State Constitutional Convention meets at New Orleans. 
April 8-9, Battles of Sabine Cross-roads, Pleasant Hill, and Pleasant Grove, 
Louisiana. 

Apr. 12, Confederates, under Forrest, capture Fort Pillow, Tennessee, and colored 
garrison slaughtered. 

Apr. 18, Governor Bramlette, Kentucky, proclaims protection to slaves from the 
claims of Confederate owners. 

Apr. 13, New York State unanimously passes the soldiers' voting bill. 
Apr. 17, Bread riots in Savannah, Georgia. 
Apr. 19, The enabling act passed by Congress to admit Nebraska. 
Apr. 21, Offer of 85.000 hundred day men for the war by the Governors of Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Iowa, accepted by the President. 
Apr. 22, Motto authorized by act of Congress, "In God We Trust," fitst 
stamped upon the two cent bronze coins. 

Apr. 22, Michael Hahn elected Governor of Louisiana by the loyal voters df 
the State. 

Apr. 23- July 18, Militia 'mustered into the service for one hundred days. 
Apr. 26, Honorable Daniel Clark, of New Hampshire, elected President of the 
United States Senate pro tem. 

Apr. 29, Joint resolution raising all duties approximately 50% for sixty days 
(afterward extended to ninety days), a war measure. 
May 1, Shenandoah Valley Campaign with Grant against Lee commences. 
May 2, First session of second Con^derate Congress meets at Bichmond, Virginia. 
May 2t Ohio National Guards, 38,000 strong, report for duty. 



1864, May S 280 June 17, 186i 



Biay S, Motto of the State of Arkansas adopted, ''Begnant Popnli" (The 

People Bule). 

May 4, The army of the Potomaei 130,000 strong, crosses the Bapidan. 

Biay 4, General Sherman marches southward from Chattanooga. 

May 4 Defeat of the Confederate ram «' Albemarle" by the ^'Snssacns" in 

Albemarle Sound. 

May 6-6^ Battle of the Wilderness. Virginia. 

May 7, Number of Confederate prisoners held by the National Troops to date, 

viz: 

Lieutenant-Generals 1 

Major-Generals ^ 

Brigadier-Generals 25 

Colonels 186 

Lieutenant-Colonels 146 

Majors 214 

Captains 2,497 

Lieutenants 5,811 

Non-Commissioned Officers 10,562 

Privates 121,156 

Citizens 5,800 

May 10, Battle of Spottsylvania Court-House, Virginia. 
May 10, Battle of Bermuda Hundred. 

May 14-16» Battle of Besaca, Georgia. Confederates evacuate. 
May 16, Appointment of Michael Hahn as Military Governor of Louisiana. 
May 15, Battle of New Market, Virginia. Confederates repulse the Federals 
under General Sigel. 

May 17, Congress passes an act for a money-order system. 
May 19, By order of the Secretary of War, offices of the New York Jowrnai 
of Commerce and World, seized and held for publishing a forged proclamation 
of President Lincoln calling for 400,000 volunteer troops. 

May 19, Death of Nathaniel Hawthorne, great American short-story writer, at 
Plymoulh, New Hampshire, aged sixty years. 

May 24, Motto adopted by the State of Montana, **Oxo y Plata" (Gold and 
saver). 

May 25, Battle near Dallas, Georgia. 

May 26^ Act of Congress creating Montana Territory out of part of Idaho 
approved. 

May 26^ Major-General Foster takes command of the Department of the South. 
May 81, Convention at Columbus, Ohio, by radicals with protest against the 
policy of the government. General John C. Fremont and General John Cochrane, 
nominated by acclamation for President and Vice-President. 
May, Persons held under suspicion by writ of Habeas Corpus in the United 
States discharged. 

June 1, Naval prizes captured bv the Federals from the Confederates, viz.: 
232 steamers, 627 schooners, 159 sloops, 29 barks, 32 brigs, 15 ships, 133 yachts 
and smaU craft, making 1,227 vessels valued al; over $17,000,000 altogether. 
Juna^ Kentucky raided bv Morgan. 
June 1, Battle of Cold Harbor, Virginia. 

June 3, Establishment of the Currency Treasury Bureau and an act creating 
a comptroller of the currency appointed by the President. 
Jmie 5, Grant relieves Sigel and appoints Hunter, who defeats the Confed- 
erates under General Jones at Piedmont. 

June 7, National Bepublican Convention meets at Chicago, Illinois, Abraham 
Lincoln, of Illinois, renominated on the first ballot for President, and Andrew 
Johnson, of Tennessee, for Vice-President. 

June 13, The National House of Bepresentatives repeals the Fugitive Slave Law. 
June 15, Vallandigham returns from Canada to the United States, and settles at 
Dayton, Ohio. 

June 16-18, The Federals make a general assault on Petersburg, Virginia. 
June 17, Over six hundred Confederate conscripts near Atlanta desert and flee 
to the Union lines. 



1864, Jmid 19 281 July 1^, 1864 

June 19, The United States steamship "Kearsarge'' meets the Confederate cruiser 
"Alabama," and defeats her off Cherbourg, Franee. The "AUibama," in a 
sinking condition, surrenders. 
Jima 21-2^ Battle of Weldon Bailroad, Virginia. 
June 22, Sidney Edgerton, Governor of the Territory of Montana. 
June 23, Bepeal of the Fugitive Slave Law by the United States. 
June 2!l, Maryland Constitutional Convention passes an emancipation clause. 
June 27, Bepublican renomination accepted by letter from Idncoln, at Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

June 27, Battle of Kenesaw Mountain, Georgia. 
June ^ Bepeal of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 approved. 
June SO, Act of Congress authorizing the issue of United States bonds, not 
exceeding $400,000,000 or treasury notes not exceeding $200,000,000 and Donds 
for the same amount. 

Jane SO, The Tosemite Valley and Mariposa Big Tree Grove granted to the 
State of California for a public park by act of Congress. 

June SO, Besignation of Secrets^ Chase, and Wilfiam P. Fessenden appointed 
by the President. 

June SO, Act passed by Consress Au|fust 5, 1861, repealed. 
June SO, General revision of the tanfF increasing duties passed by Congress. 
July 1, Marietta, Georgia, evacuated by the Confederates. 
Alien immigrants to the United States, 193,195. 
Income tax receipts, $20,294,733. 

Interest bearing debt of the United States, $1,359,930,764. 

July 2; The National Hall of Statuary in the Capitol at Washington, D. C. 
established by act of Congress, to which the States of the Union are invitea 
to contribute marble or bronze statues of their two most illustrious or distinguished 
citizens of the past. 

July 2; Coastwise slave trade prohibited by act of Congress. 
July 2, First session of the thirty-eighth United States Congress adjourns. 
July 2-S, Confederate forces, under General Early, move down the Shenandoah 
to the Potomac, threatening Baltimore and Washington. 

July S, Governor Brown, of Georgia, calls out the reserve militia from fifteen 
to fifty-five years of age. 

July S, A mass meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, at which are adopted resolu- 
tions of sympathy with the United States and approbation of the emancipation 
measure of the government. 

July S, President Lincoln, in a proclamation, puts forth his plan for reorganizing 
the disorganized States of the union. 

July 5, Resident Lincoln proclaims martial law and suspends the Habeas Corpus 
in the State of Kentucky. 

JuJ^ 7, Under resolution of Congress, President Lincoln appoints the first 
Thursday of August as a day of humiliation and prayer. 

July 8, President Lincoln explains veto of a Beconstruction bill passed by 
Congress a few hours preceding the adjournment of the United States Congress. 
July 9, Battle of Monocacy, Maryland. 
July 10, Confederate cavalry approach Baltimore, Maryland. 
July 12, General Early repulsed at Fort Stevens, within about five miles of 
Washington, D. C. 

July 16, Maximum price of gold reaches 285%. 
July 17, Johnston superseded by Hood, in defence of Atlanta, Georgia. 
July 18, Lincoln on Peace and War to Southern Commissioners Clay and Holcomb, 
executive Mansion, Washington. 
"To whom it may concern. 

"Any proposition which embraces the restoration of peace, the integrity of 
the whole Union, and the abandonment of slavery, and which comes by and 
with an authority that can control the armies now at war against the United 
States, will be received and considered by the executive government of the 
United States, and will be met by liberal terms on other substantial and 
collateral points, and the bearer thereof shall have safe conduct both ways.'' 

Abraham Lincoln. 



1864, July 18 282 Oct 16, 1864 



July 18, President Lincoln calls for 500,000 volunteers for one, two and three 
year enlistments. 

July 18, Horace Greeley holds a fruitless conference at Niagara Falls at the 
suggestion of the President, in answer to a letter from George H. Sanders, 
sent from Canada, averring that Clement C. Clay, of Alabama, James P. Hoi- 
combe, of Virginia, and the writer wished to proceed to Washington for a 
conference in the interest of peace. 
July 20, Battle of Peach Tree Creek, Georgia. 
July 22, Battle of Decatur or Atlanta, Georgia. 

July 22, Louisiana State Convention adopts a constitutional clause abolishing 
slavery. 

July 28, Battle of Ezra's Church, Georgia. 
July 28, Battle of Atlanta, Georgia. 
July 30, Petersburg, Virginia, mine explosion. 

July SO, Johnston^s raid into Pennsylvania, burning the town of Chambers- 
burg, Pennsylvania, in default of demands for a ransom of $100,000 from the 
inhabitants. 

July 30, (General Bumside conducts an unsuccessful mine explosion under a 
Confederate fort near Petersburg, Virginia. 

July-August, United States merchantmen destroyed by the Confederate steamer 
''Tallahassee,'' built in Great Britain. 

Aug. 5-22, Fleet under Farragut and land forces under General Granger made 
successful attack on the harbor of Mobile. Forts Gaines, PoweU, and Morgan 
are captured. 

Aug. 7, Grant relieves Hunter and organizes the army of the Middle Division, 
placing Sheridan in command. 

Aug. 7, Appointment of Major-General Phillip H. Sheridan to the army of the 
Shenandoah. 

Aug. 15, The "Georgia," an English built cruiser in the service of the Con- 
federacy, captured at sea by the United States ship ''Niagara." 
Aug. 18, The Weldon Railroad seized by General U. S. Grant. 
Aug. 31, Democratic Convention meet at Chicago, Illinois, Ctoneral George B. 
McClellan, of New Jersey, nominated for President, and George H. Pendleton, 
of Ohio, for Vice-President, of the United States. 
Aug. Sl-Sept. 1, Battle of Jonesborough, Georgia. 

September 1, Atlanta, Georgia, evacuated by the Confederate forces under 
General Hood. 

Sept. 2, Occupation of Atlanta, Georgia, bjr the Federal forces. 
Sept. 4, Killing of General John H. Morgan, at Greenville, Tennessee. 
Sept. 8, Generid George B. McClellan, in letter from Orange, New Jersey, accepts 
the Democratic nomination for the preaidency. 

Sept. 14, Governor Brown, of Georgia, withdraws the State troops, 15,000 
strong, from the Confederate army. 

Sept. 17, General John C. Fremont withdraws from the presidential contest in 
favor of Lincoln and Johnson. 

Sept. 19, Sheridan defeats the Confederates under Early at Opequan Creek, 
near Winchester. 

Sept. 10, Battle of Winchester, Virginia. 
Sept. 22, Battle of Fisher 's Hill, Virginia. 

Sept. 22, Sheridan routs Early, who had fallen back to Fisher's HiU, south of 
Winchester. 

Sept. 24, William Dennison, Postmaster-General. 

Sept. 24, Joshua Bates, principal founder of the Boston Public Library, dies. 
Sept. 24-Oct. 28, Missouri invaded by forces uader General Price. 
October 6, Battle of Allatoona Pass, Georgia. 

Oct. 7, The "Florida" captured in Brazilian harbor of Bahia by the United 
States warship "Wachusett," built in England for the Confederacy, taken to 
Hampton Roads and sunk. 

Oct. 10, Maryland adopts a new State Constitution abolishing slavery within 
the State. 

Oct 12, Death of Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, in Washington, D. 0. 
Oct. 16, Sheridan forces Early back to the mountains. 



ISM, Oct 17 283 Dec ft 1864 

Oct 17, The governmentB of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, 
Alabama, and Missouri, hold a conference at Augusta, Georgia, and resolve 
to strengthen the Confederate army with white men and negroes. 
Oct 18, English and American women open a fair in Liverpool for the benefit 
of the Confederate cause. 

Oct 18, Early returns to Fisher's Hill with reinforcements and starts to at- 
tack the Federal forces in the absence of General Sheridan, who was visiting 
in Washington at the time. 
Oct 19, Battle of Cedar Creek, Virginia. 

Oct 19, Federal forces under Wright surprised and driven back with heavy 
losses. 

Oct 19, Sheridan, at Winchester on the night of the Oct. 18, having re- 
ceived news of the routing of his army, by strenuous efforts arrives on the 
field in time to stop the retreat. The campaign in the valley is ended by 
Early's forces being crushed and routed. 

Oct 19, The Confederates make raid on St. Albans, Vermont, from Canada. 
Oct 22, Convention for Indemnities between the United States and Great 
Britain, France, and Holland, signed with Japan, concluded at Yokohama. 
Oct. 23, Linn County, Kansas, entered by the Confederates under General 
Price. 

Oct 27, Lieutenant Gushing, U. S. N., blows up the Confederate ram "'Albemarle'' 
at Plymouth, North Carolina. 
Oct 27, Battle of Hatchers Bun, Virginia. 

Oct 31, Nevada, the thirty-sixth State, admitted to the Union. It was formed 
from a portion of the territory ceded to the United States by Mexico, by the 
treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, of Feb. 2, 1848. 
November 1, The money order system goes into operation. 

KoT. 2, Secretary Seward notifies the Mayor of New York, by telegraph, of a 
conspiracy to bum the principal cities of the country in the north. 
Not. 3, Treaty of Amity, Commerce, Navigation, etc., between the United 
States and Haiti, concluded at Port-au-Prince. 

Nov. 7, The second session of the second Confederate Congress convenes at 
Bichmond, Virginia, with B. M. Hunter, President pro tem of the Confederate 
Senate. 

KoT. 8, General George B. McClellan resigns his commission in the United 
States Army. 

Nov. 8, Lincoln and Johnson, Bepublican candidates for President and Vice- 
President, are elected by carrving twenty-two States. McClellan and Pendleton 
carry only three States (New Jersey, Delaware, and Kentucky). Eleven 
southern States do not vote. 
Election returns for President: 

A. Lincoln, of Illinois, Bepublican, 2,216,067 popular votes. 
G. B. McClellan, New Jersey, Democrat, 1,808,725 popular votes. 
Lincoln's plurality, 407,342. Electoral vote, 212. 

McClellan electoral vote, 21. Total, 233. ' 

For Vice-President: 

A. Johnson, of Tennessee, Bepublican, 212 electoral votes. 
G. H. Pendleton, of Ohio, Democrat, 21 electoral votes. 
Total electoral vote cast, 233. 

Not. 14, Atlanta, Georgia, burned and General William T. Sherman begins his 
memorable march to the sea. * 

Not. 19, Blockade of Norfolk, Virginia, Femandina and Pensacola, Florida, 
raised by proclamation of President Lincoln. 

Nov. 24, Thanksgiving Day observed by the army of the Potomac. 
Nov. 26, A number of hotels in New York City fired by Confederate incendiaries. 
Nov. 30, Battle of Franklin, Tennessee. 

December, 2, James Speed, Attorney-General of the United States. 
Dec 2, The Pope of Borne declines to commit himself in favor of the Confederate 
cause as against that of the North. 

Dec. 6, Henry G. Blasdel, Governor of the State of Nevada. 
Dec 6, Second session of the thirty-eighth United States Congress convenes. 
Doc 6, President Lincoln submits his fourth annual message to the Congress. 



1864, Dec 10 284 Jan. 15» 1885 

Dec 10, Death of Henry Bowe Schoolcraft, LLJ)., at Washington, D. O. 
Dec 13, Hazen's Division of General Sherman's army captures Fort McAllister, 
at Savannah, Georgia. 

Dec 15-16^ General Thomas, U. 8. A., defeats the Confederate forces under 
General Hood, at Nashville, Tennessee. 

Dec 17, The Secretary of State issnes a manifesto prohibiting all persons from 
foreign countries from entering the United States, except by passports. 
Dec 19, Call for 300,000 volunteers by President Lincoln, to make np deficiency 
of previous call to be followed by draft if necessary in order to fiU the 
quota needed. 

Dec 21, By act of Congress, grade of Yice-Admiral established for the United 
States navy. 

Dec 21, Promotion of Farragut to Yice-Admiral in the navy of the United 
States. 

Dec 21, Confederate forces evacuate Savannah, Ctoorgia, and the city is oc- 
cupied by the Federal forces under General Sherman. 

Dec 24, General Porter bombards Fort Fisher, North Carolina, and on the 
following day the fort is unsuccessfuUy attacked by Generals Butler and Porter. 
Dec 31, Savannah, Georgia, occupied by the Federal forces under General 
Sherman. 

Salmon P. Chase, of Ohio, Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court. 

Samuel Corey, Governor of the State of Maine. 

B. E. Fenton, Governor of the State of New York. 

George Bead Biddle, United States Senator from the State of Delaware. 

William Smith, Governor of the State of Yirginia. 

A. G. Magrath, Governor of the State of South Carolina. 

Michael Hahn, Governor of the State of Louisiana. 

Henry G. Allen, Governor of the State of Louisiana. 

James M. Wells, Governor of the State of Louisiana. 

Isaac Murphy, Governor of the State of Arkansas. 

Willard P. Hall, Acting Governor of the State of Missouri. 

Charles Clarke, Governor of the State of Mississippi 

John Brouffh, Governor of the State of Ohio. 

James T. Lewis, Governor of the State of Wisconsin. 

William M. Stone, Governor of the State of Iowa. 

Caleb Lyon, Governor of the Territory of Idaho. 

S. J. Cranford, Governor of the State of Kansas. 

James W. Nye, Governor of the State of Nevada. 

National debt, $1,815,784,370.57. 

Siege of Charleston, South Carolina. 

The Bed Cross founded through a diplomatic convention at Geneva, Switzerland. 

Guion Steamship Line established. 

Edward N. Hurley, later vice-president of Federal Trade Commission, bom. 

Bobert Lansing, Secretary of State, bom. 

General Peyton C. March, born. 

Motto adopted by the State of Bhode Island, "Hope.'' 

Dynamite introduced by NobeL 

The Civil War continues. 

1866 

Janiiar7 1, Actual strength of the Union army, 959,460 men. 

Jan. 5, Yice-President Hamlin resumes the chair in the United States Senate. 

Jan. 5, President Lincoln vetoes the Correcting Clerical Errors biU. 

Jan. 5, After a raiding expedition, General Grierson's forces reach Yicksburg, 

Yirginia, with prisoners and contraband goods. 

Jan. 10, Meeting held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, raising charitable aid 

for Confederate sufferers in Savannah, Georgia, and other places in the south. 

Jan. 15, Fort Fisher, North Carolina, captured. 

Jan. 15, Death of Edward Everett, orator and statesman, at Boston, Massar 

chusetts, at the age of seventy-one years. 



186IS Jan- 15 285 Mir. 4^ 1865 

Jan. 15, Sinking of the ''Monitor" and ''Patapseo/' off Charleston, South 
Carolina, by a torpedo. 

Jan. 16; Jefferson Davis 'sjpolicj unsparingly assailed by members of the Southern 
Confederate Congress, at Bichmond, Virginia. 

Jan. 25, Designated in a proclamation by Jefferson Davis as a day of public fast 
in the South. 

Jan. 31, Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, abolish- 
ing slavery by joint resolution, passes the House of Bepresentatives. 
Jan. 31, Robert £. Lee, of Virginia, made commander-in-chief of all the 
Confederate forces. 

February 1, General Sherman starts northward from Savannah, Georgia, with his 
forces. 

Feb. 1, Illinois Legislature ratifies the Emancipation Amendment to the National 
Constitution, being the first State to do so. 

Fab. 1, John S. Bock, the first negro to be admitted to practice law in the 
United States Supreme Court, at Washington, D. C. 
Feb. 1, Article Thirteen ratified by a majority of the States. 
Feb. 2^, President Lincoln and Secretary Seward meet the Vice-President of 
the Southern Confederacy, Alexander H. Stevens, Commissioner B. M. T. 
Hunter, and Judge Campbell, in Hampton Beads, to treat for peace between 
the North and South. 

Feb. 3, Confederate raiders on Lake Erie surrendered to the United States 
authorities by the Canadian Government. 
Feb. 5, Battle of Hatcher's Bun, Virginia. 

Feb. 1^ Soldiers in Early's army send a petition to President Davis of the 
Confederacy to stop the war at once. 

Feb. 7, The Confederate Senate rejects the plan to raise 200,000 . negroes for 
soldiers in the Confederate army. 

Febb 8, The presidential electoral vote counted at Washington, D. C. 
Fab. 17, Extra session of the United States Senate called oy President Lincoln. 
Feb. 17, The forces of General Gillmore occupy Charleston, South Carolina. 
Fab. 17, Confederates surrender Columbia, South Carolina, to General William 
T. Sherman. 

Feb. 17, General Hardee, Confederate general, evacuates and bums Charleston, 
South Carolina. 

Feb. 18, Federal troops occupy Charleston, South Carolina. 

Feb. 18, General Bobert E. liee advocates the employment of negroes as soldiers 
in a letter to the Confederate Congress. 

Feb. 18, The combined Confederate armies taken command of by Ctoneral Bobert 
K Lee. 

Feb. 18, Federal forces under General Cox capture Fort Anderson. 
Feb. 22, General Schofield captures Wilmington, North Carolina. 
Feb. 24, John T. Beall, of Virginia, hanged as a spy at Fort Lafavette, New York. 
Febk 25, General Johnston supersedes Beauregard, in command of the Confederate 
forces in North Carolina. 

Feb. 27, Federal forces, under General Sheridan, drive the Confederates from 
Waynesboro. 

Harch 1, New Jersey rejects the Emancipation Amendment to the National 
Constitution. 

Mar. 2, The Confederate secret council at Paris ends. 

Mar. 3, Authorization by the Secretary of the Treasury to borrow $600,000,000 
on bonds at interest not to exceed 6%. 

Mar. 3, Freedman and Befugee act passed by the United States Congress, estab- 
lishing a bureau. 

Mar. 3, Notes of State banks taxed by the government 10%, to. be imposed 
as effective July 1, 1866. 

Mar. 3, The Confederate debt disowned by the United States Senate, and the 
House of Bepresentatives concurring as to liability. 

Mar. 3, Hannibal Hamlin administers the oath to Andrew Johnson, in the 
Senate chamber, when inaugurated as Vice-President of the United States. 
Mar. 3, Second session of the thirty-eighth United States Congress adjourns. 
Bfar. 4 (to Mar. 3, 1869), Twentieth Federal Administration Bepublican. Abra- 



1866, Mar. 4 286 Mar. 4^ 1866 

ham Lincoln, of Illinois, President, and Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, Vice- 
President, of the United States. 

William H. Seward, Secretary of State, Hugh McOulloeh, Secretary of the 
Treasury, Edward M. Stanton, Secretary of War. 

The United States Senate assembles in special session, Golfa^ speaks of the 
House of Bepresentatives. 
Congress Bepublican. 

LINCOLN'S SECOND INAUGUBAL ADDRESS. 

FeUow-Countrymen: At this second appearing to take the oath of the Presi- 
dential office, there is less occasion for an extended address than there was 
at first. Then, a statement, somewhat in detail, of a course to be pursued, seemed 
fitting and proper. Now, at the expiration of four years, during which public 
declarations have been constantly called forth on every point and phase of the 
great contest which still absorbs the attention and engrosses the energies of 
the nation, little that is new could be presented. The progress of our arms, 
upon which all else chiefly depends, is as well known to the public as to 
myself; and it is, I trust, reasonably satisfactory and encouraging to alL 
With high hope for the future, no prediction in regard to it is ventured. 
On the occasion corresponding to this four years ago, all thoughts were 
anxiously directed to an impending civil war. All dreaded it— all sought to 
avert it. While the inaugural address was being delivered from this place, 
devoted altogether to saving the Union without war, insurgent agents were 
in the city seeking to destroy it without war— seeking to dusolve the Union, 
and divide efforts, by negotiation. Both parties deprecated war; but one 
ef them would make war rather than to let the nation survive, and the 
other would accept war rather than let it perish. And the war came. One- 
eighth of the whole population were colored slaves, not distributed generally 
over the Union, but localized in the southern part of it. These slaves con- 
stituted a peculiar and powerful interest. All knew that this interest was, 
somehow, the cause of the war. To strengthen, perpetuate, and extend 
this interest was the object for which the insurgents would rend the Union, 
even by war, while the government claimed no right to do more than to 
restrict the territorial enlargement of it. Neither pfl^y expected for the war 
the magnitude or the duration which it has already attained. J^either antici- 
pated that the cause of the conflict might cease with, or even before, the 
conflict itself should cease. Each looked for an easier triumph, and a result 
less fundamental and astounding. Both read the same bible, and pray to the same 
God, and each invokes his aid against the other. It may seem strange that 
any man should dare to ask a just God's assistance in wringing their bread 
from the sweat of other men's faces, but let us judge not, that we be not 
judged. The prayers of both could not be answered — that of neither has been 
answered fully. The Almighty has his own purposes. ''Woe unto the world 
because of offenses, for it must needs be that offenses come, but woe to 
that man by whom the offense cometh." If we shall suppose that American 
slavery is one of those offenses which, in the providence of God, must needs 
come, but which, having continued through his appointed time, he now wills 
to remove, and that he gave to both north and south this terrible war, as the 
woe due to those by whom the offense came, shall we discern therein any 
departure from those divine attributes which the believers in a living God 
always ascribe to himf Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this 
mighty scourge of war may speedilv pass away. Yet, if God wills that it 
continue until all the wealth piled by the bondman's two hundred and fifty 
years of unrequited toil shall oe sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn 
with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said 
three thousand years ago, so still it must be said: "The judgments of the Lord 
are true and righteous altogether." 

With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as 
God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are 
iu, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the 
battle, and for his widow, and his orphan — ^to do all which may achieve and 
cherisn a just and lasting peace among ourselves, and with all nations. 



1866, Mar. 10 287 Apr. 9» 1886 

Mir. 10, A day of festiyal held in MiBsonriy Tennessee, and Louisiana in 
honor of the Emancipation Act. 

Mar. 11, Special session of the United States Senate adjonms. 
Mar. 16, Battle of Aversboro, North Carolina. 
Mar. 18, Confederate Congress adjourns sine die. 
Mar. 19, Battle of Bentonville, North Carolina. 

Mar. 22, The armies of Generals Sherman, Terry, and Sehofield join at Goldfl- 
boro, North Carolina. 

Mar. 26, B. C. Kennedy hanged in New York, at Fort Lafayette, charged for 
being connected with the attempt to bum the city. 
Mar. 27, Sheridan joins Grant at Petersburg, Virginia. 
Mar. 31, Actual strength of the Union army, 980,086 men. 
Mar. 31-AprU 1, Battle of Five Forks, Virginia. 
Apr. 2, Confederates evacuate and partly bum Bichmond, Virginia. 
Petersburg carried by assault. 
Apr. 2, Capture of Selma, Alabama. 

Apr. 3, Bichmond, Virginia, entered and occupied by General Grant. 
Apr. 3, Bejoicing throughout the loyal States at the evacuation of Bichmond, 
Virginia, by the Confederate forces. 

Apr. 6^ Ewell's division, consisting of an army of 8,000 Confederates, sur- 
rounded and captured at Sailor's Creek, Virginia. 

Apr. 7, Correspondence in London between Minister Adams, on the part of the 
United States, and Earl Bussell in regard to the "Alabama'' claims. 
Apr. 8, First review of Iteion troops in Bichmond, Virginia. 
Apr. 8-12, Capture of Mobile, Alabama. 
Apr. 9, (General Lee surrenders to (General Grant at the Appomattox Court-House, Va. 

TEBM8 OF LEE'S SUBBENDEB AT APPOMATTOX. 
"Appomattox Court-House, Virginia, April 9, 1865. 

"General: In accordance with the substance of my letter to you of the 8th, 
instant, I proposed to receive the surrender of the army of Northern Virginia on 
the following terms, to wit: Bolls of all the officers and men to be made in 
duplicate, one copy to be given to an officer to be designated by me, the other 
to be retained by such officer or officers as you may designate. The officers 
to give their individual paroles not to take up arms against the government 
of the United States until properly exchanged; and each company or regimental 
commander to sign a like parole for the men of their commands. The arms, 
artillery, and public property to be parked and stacked, and turned over to 
the officers, appointed by me to receive them. This will not embrace the 
side-arms of the officers nor their private horses or baggage. This done, each 
officer and men will be allowed to return to his home, not to be disturbed by 
the United States authority so long as they observe their paroles and the 
laws in force where they may reside. U. S. Grant, Lieutenant-GtoneraL " 

"General B. E. Lee. 

"Headquarters, Army of Northem Virginia, April 9th, 1865. 
"General: I received your letter of this date containing the terms of the 
surrender of the army of Northem Virginia, as proposed by vou. As they 
are substantially the same as those expressed in vour letter of the 8th instant, 
they are accepted. I will proceed to designate the proper officers to carry the 
stipulations into effect. B. E. Lee, GeneraL ' 

" Lieutenant-General U. S. Grant." 

Apr. 9, On Lee's surrender, Secretary Stanton orders a salute of 200 guns at 

West Point, United States arsenal posts and at army department headquarters. 

Apr. 9, Parole signed by General Lite and his staff-officers upon surrendering 

the forces of Northem Virginia at Appomattox Court-House, Virginia, viz.: 

B. E. Lee, GeneraL 

W. H. Taylor, Lieutenant-Colonel and Assistant Adjutant-€toneraL 

Chas. S. Venable, Lieutenant-Colonel and Assistant Adjutant-General. 

Chas. Marshall. Lieutenant-Colonel and Assistant Adjutant-GeneraL 

H. E. Praton, liieutenant-Colonel and Inspector-GeneraL 



1866, Apr. 9 288 Apr. 19, 1866 

Giles Brooke, Major and Acting Aflaistant Sorgeon-CteneraL 

H. 8. Young, Assistant Adjatant-OeneraL 

Apr. 10, Signers to the aCTeement of the snrrender of the army of Northern Yir- 

finia, Appomattox Court-House, Virginia, 
ohn Gibbon, Major-General, Volunteers. 
Chas. Griffin Brevet, Major-General, United States Volnnteen. 
M. Merrit, Major-General, United States Volunteers. 
J. Longstreet, Lieutenant-General. 
J. B. Gordon, Major-General. 

W. N. Pendleton, Brigadier-General and Chief of Artillery. 
Lee not being present at the. final surrender, the orders are executed by com- 
missioners designated for the purpose. 

LEE'S FAREWELL TO mS ABMY. 

''Headquarters, Army of Northern Virginia, April 10, 1865. 
"After four years of arduous service, marked by unsurpassed courage and 
fortitude, the Army of Northern Virginia has been compelled to yield to 
overwhelming numbers and resources. I need not tell the survivors of so many 
hard-fought battles, who have remained steadfast to the last, that I have 
consented to this result from no distrust of them, but, feeling that valor and 
devotion could accomplish nothing that could compensate for the loss that 
would have attended the continuation of the conflict, I have determined to 
avoid the useless sacrifice of those whose past services have endeared them to 
their countrymen. By the terms of the agreement, officers and men can return 
to their homes and remain there until excnanged. Tou will take with you the 
satisfaction that proceeds from the consciousness of duty faithfully performed, 
and I earnestly pray that a merciful God will extend to you His blessings and 
protection. With an increasing admiration of your constancy and devotion 
to your country, and a fateful remembrance of your kind and generous con- 
sideration of myself, I bid you an affectionate farewell. 

"B. E. Lee, GeneraL" 

Apr. 10, The American Consul at Havana, Cuba, threatened by Confederate 
sympathizers and protected by the authorities. 
Apr. 11, Surrender of Montgomery, Alabama, to (General Wilson. 
Apr. 11, Proclamation issued granting to foreign shipping vessels in American 
ports the same rights as American vessels in foreign ports. 
Apr. 12, The Confederates evacuate Mobile, Alabama. 

Apr. 13, Orders issued by the Secretary of War to stop further drafting and 
purchase of war materials. 

Apr. 13, Baleigh, North Carolina, occupied by (General Sherman. 
Apr. 14, The Stars and Stripes raised over Fort Sumter, Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, Harbor. 

Apr. 14, Assassination of President Lincoln in Ford's Theater, Washington, D. C, 
by J. Wilkes Booth, an actor. 

Apr. 14, An assassin attempts the lives of Secretary Seward and his son in 
Washington, both being wounded. 
Apr. 16, Death of President Lincoln at 7:30 A. M. 

Apr. 16, Mass meeting called by (general Saxton and addressed by William 
Lloyd Garrison at Charleston. 

Apr. 16, Chief Justice Chase administers the oath of Presid^t of the United 
States to Andrew Johnson. »^* 

Apr. 16y James Speed, Attomey-GeneraL 
Apr. 16, WiUiam Dennison, Postmaster-CteneraL 
Apr. 16^ Hugh McCulloch, Secretary of the Treasury. 

Apr. 16, Ohio Superior Court decides the Soldiers' Voting law constitutional. 
Apr. 18, Peace memorandum signed by General Sherman and Johnston at Durham 
Station, North Carolina, is rejected at Washington, D. C. 

Apr. 19, Funeral services of President Lincoln at the executive mansion at 
noon, appropriate memorial services being held throughout the country. The 
President's remains lie in State at the Capitol, and are thence conveyed to 
Springfield, Illinois, via Baltimore, Harrisburg. Philadelphia, New York, Albany, 
Buffalo, Cleveland, Columbus, Indianapolis, Chicago. 



1866, Apr. 20 289 June %l^ 1886 

Apr. 20, Union forces occupied Macon, Georgia. 
Apr. 24, General Grant arrives at Baleigh, North Carolina. 
Apr. 28, Sergeant Boston Corbett discovers J. Wilkes Booth in a bam near 
Bowling Green, yirp:inia. Booth's accomplice, David E. Harold, captured in 
Fredericksburg, Virginia. 

Apr. 26, General Johnston surrenders to General Sherman at Bennett's house 
near Durham Station, North Carolina. 

Apr. 29, President Johnson removes all restrictions on domestic commerce in 
territory east of the Mississippi Biver, subject to specific exceptions. 
May 1, Executive order issued for trial by a military commission of the 
alleged assassins of President Lincoln. 
BCay 1, Actual strength of the Union Army, 1,000,516 men. 

May 2, Proclamation of the President offering reward of $100,000 for the 
capture of Jefferson Davis. 

May 4, Surrender of Confederate General Bichard Taylor at Citronelle, near 
Mobile, Alabama. 

May 10, Authority of the United States in Virginia by executive order establish- 
ing Federal jurisdiction and recognizing Pierpont as Governor of Virginia. 
May 10, Fourth Michigan Cav^ry under Colonel Prichard captures Jefferson 
Davis, his wife and mother, Postmaster-General Beagan, Colonel Harrison, and 
Johnston at IrwinsviUe, Georgia. Davis was confined at Fortress Monroe. 
May 13, Federal forces under Colonel Barret near Palo Pinto, Texas, defeated 
by Confederates under General Slaughter. 
May 15, James Harlan, Secretary of the Interior. 

May 20, Surrender of the Confederate ram "Stonewall" to Spanish authorities 
in Cuba. 

May 22, President Johnson proclaims Southern ports open. 

May 22-23, Grand review at Washington, D. C, ox the Union armies of the 
Potomac, Tennessee, and Georgia. 

May 26^ Trans-Mississippi army surrendered by General £. Elirby Smith at 
Brazos, Texas, to General Comly. 
May 26, End of the Civil War. 

Kay 29, General amnesty to rebels proclaimed by President Johnson (with ex- 
ceptions), the necessity of taking oath of allowance made necessary. 
Iffay 29, President Johnson proclaims William W. Holden, Provisional Governor 
of the State of North Carolina. 

BCay 31, Convention to maintain lighthouses at Cape Spartel ^signed by the 
United States, Austria, Belgium, Spain, France, Great Britain, Italy, Netherlands, 
Portugal, and Sweden) between the United States and Morocco, concluded at 
Tangier. 

June 1, Day of humiliation and mourning set apart on account of the assassina- 
tion of the great emancipator Lincoln. 

June 2, Becognition of the Confederates as belligerents rescinded by the 
British Government. 

June 6, The last seaport held by the Southern Confederacy, Galveston, Texas, 
surrenders. 

June 6, The French government rescinds its recognition of the Confederate States 
as belligerents. 

June 13, President Johnson appoints Judge William L. Sharkey as Provisional 
Governor of Mississippi. 

June 13, Proclamation removing restrictions on trade east of the Mississippi, 
and declaring insurrection in Tennessee suppressed, issued by President Johnson. 
June 17, President Johnson appoints (General A. J. Hamilton, Provisional Gov- 
ernor of Texas. 

June 17, James Johnson, Provisional Governor of Georgia, appointed by President 
Johnson. 

June 21, Lewis E. Parsons proclaimed Provisional Governor of Alabama by 
President Johnson. 
June 28^ President Johnson's proclamation rescinding the blockade of southern 

Sorts, 
tine 24t President Johnson proclaims restriction of trade west of the Mississippi 
removed. 



1865, June 30 290 Dee. 23, 1866 

June 30, President Johnson proclaims Benjamin F. Perry Provisional Governor 

of South Carolina. 

July 7, Leme Payne, O. A. Atzerodt, David E. Harold, and Mary E. Snratt 

convicted as being implicated in the assassination of President Lincoln and 

executed. 

July 13, President Johnson proclaims William Marvin Provisional Governor of 

Florida. 

July 21, A. J. Hamilton, Governor of the State of Texas. 

Angustk A Confederate privateer, the "Shenandoah," under Captain Waddell, 

destroys about thirty Federal vessels. 

Aug. 29, The President proclaims all restrictions on Southern ports removed, 

to be effective September 1. 

September 15, Ordinance of secession annulled by the State of South Carolina. 

Sept. 25, Ordinance of secession annulled by the State of Alabama. 

October 7, Ordinance of secession annulled by the State of North Carolina. 

Oct. 11, By executive orders Alexander H. Stephens, of (Georgia, John H. Beagan, 

of Texas, John A. Camnbell^ of Alabama, George A. Trenholm, of South Carolina, 

and Charles Clark, of Mississippi, are paroled. 

Oct 12, End of martial law in Kentucky proclaimed by the President. 

Oct. 16^ Benjamin G. Humphreys, Governor of the State of Mississippi. 

Oct 16-24, The Irish Bepublic proclaimed at a great Fenian meeting in Pbill^ 

delphia, Pennsylvania. 

Oct 28, Ordinance of secession repealed by the State of Florida. 

Oct 30, Ordinance of secession repealed by the State of Georgia. 

Kovember 2^ National Thanksgiving Day Proclamation for Peace. 

Hot. 9, The "Shenandoah," under Captain Waddell, reaches Liverpool, England, 

where, hearing of peace, his vessel is surrendered to the British Government. 

The crew is paroled and the vessel taken over by the American Consul at 

Liverpool. 

Nov. 10, Conviction and hanging of Captain Wirz, for cruelty to Federal 

Srisoners in Andersonville. 
rev., Ex-President James Buchanan publishes vindication of his administration. 
December 1, By proclamation of President Johnson, Habeas Corpus restored in 
the Northern States. 

Dec 4, First session of the thirty-ninth United States Congress convenes. 
Dec 4, President Johnson submits his annual message to the Congreee. 
Dec 14, Committee on reconstruction appointed bv the House of Representatives,' 
consisting of Messrs. Stevens, Washburn, Marsh, Grider, Conkling, Boutwell, 
Bingham, Rogers, and Blow. 

Dec 18, The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution abolishing slavejy de- 
clared by Secretary Seward, ratified by twenty-seven States of the Union. 
Dec 18, President Johnson sends a message to Congress with report on the 
insurgent States, submitted by General Grant. 

Dec 21 Reconstruction committee appointed by the United States Senate 
consisting of Messrs. Fessenden, Grimes, Harris, Howard, Johnson, and Williams. 
Dec 23, President Johnson relieves Governor Holden of North Carolina and ap- 
points Jonathan Worth, Governor-elect. 

Frederick Smyth, Governor of the State of New Hampshire. 

Paul Dillingham, Governor of the State of Vermont. 

Luke P. Poland, United States Senator of the State of Vermont 

John P. Stockton, United States Senator from the State of New Jersey. 

Thomas Swann, Governor of the State of Maryland. 

John A. J. Cresswell, United States Senator from the State of Maryland. 

Reverdy Johnson, United States Senator from the State of Maryltmd. 

Francis A. Pierpont, Governor of the State of Virginia. 

William H. Holden, Provisional Governor of North Carolina. 

Jonathan Worth, Governor of the State of North Carolina. 

James L. Orr, Governor of the State of South Carolina. 

William Y. Atkinson, Governor of the State of Georgia. 

Charles J. Jenkins, Governor of the State of Georgia. 



1866^ Doc. 23 291